Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project
|Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project|
|Status||Received Conditional environmental clearance|
|Construction cost||1.12 trillion (US$17 billion)|
|Owner(s)||Nuclear Power Corporation of India|
|Reactors planned||6 x 1650 MW|
|Reactor type(s)||European Pressurized Reactor/Evolutionary Power Reactor|
|Maximum capacity||9900 MW|
|As of 19 March 2011|
Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project (Marathi: जैतापूर अणुऊर्जा प्रकल्प) is a proposed 9900 MW power project of Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) at Madban village of Ratnagiri district in Maharashtra. If built, it would be the largest nuclear power generating station in the world by net electrical power rating.
On 6 December 2010 agreement was signed for the construction of first set of two third-generation European Pressurized Reactors and the supply of nuclear fuel for 25 years in the presence of French president Nicolas Sarkozy and Indian prime minister Manmohan Singh.
French nuclear engineering firm Areva S.A. and Indian state-owned nuclear operator Nuclear Power Corporation of India signed this multi billion valued agreement of about $9.3 billion. This is a general framework agreement along with agreement on 'Protection of Confidentiality of Technical Data and Information Relating to Nuclear Power Corporation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy' was also signed.
The proposed Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project is located at the west coast. It has an average elevation of 90 feet (27 m). This project will spread over 968 hectares (3.74 sq mi; 9.68 km2) of land. Jaitapur is on the Arabian Sea coast in Ratnagiri district in the southwestern part of Maharashtra, India. The district is a part of Konkan in Western Ghats.It is also known as one of the best ports from the Neolithic era. In 2008, India applied to the UNESCO MAB for the Western Ghats to be listed as a protected World Heritage Site. The Sahyadri Mountain range forms the eastern boundary of the Konkan, and the Arabian Sea marks the western boundary. Jaitapur was one of the important ports in ancient and early medieval times.
It is proposed to construct 6 European Pressurized Reactors designed and developed by Areva of France, each of 1650 megawatts, thus totalling 9900 megawatts. These are the third generation pressurised water reactors (PWR).
Estimated cost of this project is around 1000 billion (US$15 billion). This type of reactor is not currently operational anywhere in the world. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission had expressed concerns about the safety of the computer system in this reactor, but Finland has ordered one such reactor nonetheless. The Finnish Olkiluoto 3 plant is currently under construction, but has experienced severe delays and cost overruns in construction. China has signed the agreement with Areva for three such reactors. Also, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the Indian and French governments and an agreement between Areva, a French state run company, and the Nuclear Power Corporation of India during French president Nicolas Sarkozy's visit to India during December 2010.
The cost of building the plant is about Rs200 million/MWe capacity compared with Rs50 million/MWe for a coal power station,. Nuclear power plants generally feature significantly higher investment cost while day-to-day operating cost is lower compared to combustion plants. The cost of electricity from this power plant will be below 4 (6.1¢ US) per Kilowatt hour.
A consortium of French financial institutions will finance this project as a loan. Both French and Indian government will give sovereign guarantee for this loan. The extent of guarantee will depend on what portion of the cost the French credit will cover. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) will govern the interest rates and other terms of agreement. Interest rates and other terms are under discussion.
It is one of several nuclear power projects being undertaken in a thin strip of coast of Raigad, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts. The total power generating capacity proposed on a narrow strip of coastal land 50 kilometres (31 mi) to 90 kilometres (56 mi) km wide and 200 kilometres (120 mi) long is around 33,000 MW. The prospect of nuclear power generation in India received a boost after the Indo US Civilian Nuclear Agreement became operational in October 2008. India has also signed similar agreements with France and Russia.
According to Areva lack of clarity on The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill 2010 passed in Indian Parliament in August 2010 is a hurdle in finalising deal. This Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill 2010 has a clause that deals with the legal binding of the culpable groups in case of a nuclear accident. It allows only the operator (NPCIL) to sue the manufacturers and suppliers. Victims will not be able to sue anyone. In reality, no one will be considered legally liable because the recourse taken by the operator will yield only 15 billion (US$230 million). United States of America has a law on liability-related issues for all non-military nuclear facilities constructed in the United States before 2026 named Price–Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act. This American Act establishes a no fault insurance-type system in which the first $10 billion is industry-funded as described in the Act (any claims above the $10 billion would be covered by the federal government).
Debate on nuclear power project at Jaitapur is ongoing on various levels. Environmental effects of nuclear power and geological issues have been raised by anti nuclear activists of India against this power project. Even though The Government of Maharashtra state completed land acquisition in January 2010, only 33 out of the 2,335 villagers have accepted compensation cheques as of November 2010.
A public hearing on the environmental impact assessment (EIA) Report, prepared by NEERI was conducted by Maharashtra Pollution Control Board, on behalf of Ministry of Environment and Forests on 16 April 2010, at the plant site. The public hearing became controversial as the EIA report was not delivered for study to 3 of the 4 Gram panchayat (local village bodies) a month in advance.
A Public Interest Litigation (PIL) has also been filed against the government's civil nuclear program at the apex Supreme Court. The PIL specifically asks for the "staying of all proposed nuclear power plants till satisfactory safety measures and cost-benefit analyses are completed by independent agencies".
Since Jaitapur being seismically sensitive area, the danger of an earthquake has been foremost on the minds of people. According to the Earthquake hazard zoning of India, Jaitapur comes under Zone III. This zone is called the moderate Risk Zone and covers areas liable to MSK VIII. The presence of two major creeks on the proposed site has been ignored while clearing the site. Post the Chernobyl disaster and the Three Mile Island accident, environmentalists, citizens of the area and the people world over are questioning about safety, as when in 2007 the largest nuclear generating station in the world Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant in Japan at the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant was closed for five months following an earthquake.
The probability of a tsunami, and the damage thereof, has not been taken into account while clearing the site Nevertheless probability of a tsunami on the Arabian Sea coast is very low due to the lack of seismic activity in the ocean. Moreover jaitapur is located on plateau probability of tsunami reaching jaitapur is quite less.
It is not clear where the nuclear waste emanating from the site will be dumped. The plant is estimated to generate 300 tonnes of waste each year. EPR waste will have about four times as much radioactive Bromine, Iodine, Caesium, etc., compared to ordinary pressurised water reactor.
Since the plant will use the sea water for cooling and then release warm water in the Arabian Sea, fishermen in villages around are predicting destruction of fisheries in the nearby sea. Media articles also highlight the possible human and fisheries cost of this project.
Social impact assessment review of the project are being conducted by the Jamsetji Tata centre for disaster management of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS). According to this report, the Government of India is not fully transparent with its own citizens. The government is hiding facts about huge negative impact on the social and environmental development of the Konkan region in general and the government also manipulating notification of the area from high severity earthquake zone to moderate seismic severity zone.
Proponents are advocating the Jaitapur Project as safe, environmentally benign and economically viable source of electrical energy to meet the increasing electricity needs of India. They believe that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions and increases energy security by decreasing India's dependence on foreign oil. The promoter of Jaitapur project is Nuclear Power Corporation of India. It is a public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy (India).
As of 2010 India is on the sixth in rank of an elite club of nations, after USA, France, Japan, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea, to have twenty or more nuclear power reactors in operation. The company is currently operating 20 nuclear power plants at six locations in India and is implementing construction of 7 reactors at four locations. In 2009/10 company has generated 18831 million units of electricity. According to former chairman of Atomic Energy Commission Anil Kakodkar, the Jaitapur site is the best as it fulfilled the technical and scientific norms needed for a nuclear power plant. It is proposed that the waste generated at the this nuclear power plant be recycled. Only five per cent of it would be encapsulated and stored at technologically advanced places. It will not be buried anywhere. The waste will be stored for the next 30 to 40 years, till scientists develop some technology to treat it. The environmental impact assessment and other associated studies of the Jaitapur project have been carried out in detail over the last few years by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur in collaboration with several other reputed organisations specializing in specific environment studies.
These studies include Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Pre-operational Baseline Radiological Survey of the Area around JNPP Site, Central Water and Power Research Station Pune, Thermal Dispersion Studies for Condenser Cooling Water (CCW) Discharges, Konkan Krishi Vidyapith, College of Forestry, Dapoli, Baseline Biodiversity Study of the area around JNPP Site.
Nuclear Power Corporation of India has adopted a corporate social responsibility policy, by which 1.5 to 2 per cent of the net profit from Jaitapur plant would be spent in that area only. Development projects will be decided by local people and NPC will provide the funds to ensure development of these areas.
Many protests have been carried out by local people against the proposed nuclear power plant. On 29 December 2009, 12 January 2010, and 22 January 2010, when the government authorities visited Madban for distribution of cheques in lieu of compulsory land acquisition, the villagers refused to accept the cheques. Government officials were shown black flags, denied any co-operation in carrying out their activities. 72 people were arrested on 22 January 2010 when people protested against the compulsory land acquisition.
Debate about the nuclear power project at Jaitapur is ongoing on various levels. Environmental effects of nuclear power and geological issues have been raised by anti nuclear activists. Many protests have been carried out by local people against the proposed nuclear power plant. On 4 December 2010, protests became violent when over 1500 people were detained from among thousands of protesters, who included environmentalists and local villagers.
Members and leaders of the Konkan Bachao Samiti (KBS) and the Janahit Seva Samiti (organisations that are spearheading opposition to the project) were also detained. In Mumbai, members of various trade unions and social organisations came together to protest against the project. The protesters have raised serious doubts about the neutrality of the Environment Impact Assessment Report, prepared by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) which forms the basis of environmental clearance for the project, since parallel studies by the Bombay Natural History Society have shown that the project will cause substantial environmental damage.
|28 November 2010||India, France N-regulatory bodies meet on EPR safety issues|
|28 November 2010||Conditional environmental clearance|
|6 December 2010||Agreement signed with Areva for the construction of first set of two reactor.|
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- Further reading
- Struwe, D. Jacobs, H. Imke, U. Consequence evaluation of in-vessel fuel coolant interactions in the European Pressurized Water Reactor ISSN 0947-8620
- Manfred, Fischer. The severe accident mitigation concept and the design measures for core melt retention of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) Original Research Article, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Volume 230, Issues 1–3, May 2004, Pages 169–180
- Lvins, Amory B. and Price, John H. (1975). Non-Nuclear Futures: The Case for an Ethical Energy Strategy (Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1975. xxxii + 223pp. ISBN 0-88410-602-0, ISBN 0-88410-603-9).
- with Mycle Schneider, Antony Froggatt, and Doug Koplow. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2009 Commissioned by German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, August 2009.
- Voices from Chernobyl: The Oral History of a Nuclear Disaster (Dalkey Archive Press 2005; ISBN 1-56478-401-0)
- Cravens, Gwyneth (2007). Power to Save the World: the Truth about Nuclear Energy. New York: Knopf. pp. 464. ISBN 0-307-26656-7.
- Herbst, Alan M. and George W. Hopley (2007). Nuclear Energy Now: Why the Time has come for the World's Most Misunderstood Energy Source, Wiley.
- Elliott, David (2007). Nuclear or Not? Does Nuclear Power Have a Place in a Sustainable Energy Future?, Palgrave.
- Data sheet and people protests Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project
- Resisting Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project
- Nuclear Power Corporation of India (official site)
- Resources on Jaitapur nuclear power project