|Nickname(s): City of Temples|
|Founded by||Jajati Keshari|
|Named for||Biraja Khetra|
|• Collector and District Magistrate of Jajpur||Shri Anil Kumar Samal|
|• Superintendent of Police||Dr.Dipak Kumar|
|• Total||2,887.69 km2 (1,114.94 sq mi)|
|Elevation||8 m (26 ft)|
|• Density||620/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Jajpur (also known as Jajapur, "ଯାଜପୁର") is a city and a municipality in Jajpur district in the Indian state of Odisha. It is popularly known as Biraja Khetra, which translates as "the place sacred to Goddess Biraja", and is located on the banks of the Baitarani River. It was the capital of Odisha during the Kesari dynasty, later supplanted by Cuttack. Now, it is the headquarters of Jajpur district. Jajpur District was formed by ‘Jajati Keshari’, the Somavanshi King in early 10th Century. The District takes its name from its head quarter town, Jajpur. The history of the Jajpur District from time immemorial is synonymous with the Biraja and Biraja Khetra. The Jajpur District came into being on 1 April 1993. Prior to that it was part of Cuttack District which divided into four Districts. The District is bounded by Keonjhar and Bhadrak Districts on its North, Cuttack on its South, Dhenkanal District on its west and Kendrapada District on its east. Tourism in Jajpur District is developed around the archaeological museum of Ratnagiri, which is one of the important site museums of Archaeological Survey of India.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Festivals
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Languages
- 6 Art and Culture
- 7 Architecture and Sculpture
- 8 Agriculture
- 9 Cuisine
- 10 Places of interest
- 11 Travel & Tourism
- 12 Economy
- 13 Politics
- 14 References
- 15 External References
The historical significance of Jajpur district is evident from the nomenclature of the district, which is believed to be named after the Somvanshi King `Jajati Keshari`, in early 10th century. The history of Jajpur from time immemorial is synonymous with the Viraja or Viraja Khetra. History of Jajpur states that as a seat of ancient culture and a holy shrine for Hindus, this district was once studded with scores of ancient stone temples as in the temple town of Bhubaneshwar. A new political situation developed in the district with the rise of the Bhaumakaras in 736 AD. The two powerful dynasties, Bhaumas and Somvanshi reigned over the whole land mass of modern Odisha for almost four centuries and saw the formative period of life and culture of the people. This period was indeed a remarkable epoch. Somvanshi King Jajati Keshari made Jajpur his capital. History of Jajpur District says that Jajpur was not only the capital of two important dynasties but also has contributed a lot to the synthesis of different regions which flourished in Odisha over the years. The Jajpur District came into being on 1 April 1993. Prior to that it was part of Cuttack District which divided into four Districts.
Geography and climate
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Jajpur is located at  and has an average elevation of 8 metres (26 ft). The climate of Jajpur District is normal as per Indian standards. All the seasons arrive in the District at their usual time. The District’s average height from the sea level is 331 m and its average rain fall is 1014.5 mm. The average maximum and minimum temperatures are 40 degree C and 10 degree C respectively. Overall, the climate of the District is neither hotter nor cooler. The summer season is from March to June when the climate is hot and humid. Thunderstorms are common at the height of the summer. The monsoon months are from July to October when the city receives most of its rainfall from the South West Monsoon. The annual rainfall is around 1014.5 mm. The winter season from November to February is characterised by mild temperatures and occasional showers.
Due to the proximity to coast, the city is prone to cyclones from the Bay of Bengal. Summer thunderstorms also cause a lot of damage.
|Climate data for Jajpur|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.2
|Average low °C (°F)||15.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||41.3
|Source: Jajpur Weather|
Jajpur celebrates all festivals from all religions with much fanfare and devotion.
- Dusshera, the festival of goddess Durga, is very popular in Jajpur. There are thousands of idols are worshipped in many streets and localities. In this city localities trying to outsmart each other by constructing more attractive idols. Indeed, the whole city comes to a standstill on Astami, Navami and in Dashami burning of effigy of the demon Ravana (the eighth, ninth and tenth days of Dussehra) as people travel all over the city appreciating all the idols put forth by the neighbourhoods.
- Kali puja, Just after Durga puja gets over, Jajpurias gear up with all their vigour to celebrate Kali puja. On the auspicious day of Diwali amidst the bursting of firecrackers on the banks of Baitarani people not only celebrate the victory of good over evil but also pay tribute to the goddess Kali.
- Kartikeshwar puja: The organized puja committees in charge of carrying out the worship of the deity of Jajpur get ready for Kartikeswar Puja. Kartikeshwar is the eldest son of Lord Shiva. Nowhere else except Sabarimala is the Kartikeswar puja carried out with so much elan.
- Kite flying is also celebrated with much enthusiasm and energy in the city. Kite-flying culminates with the Makar Sankranti, with kite-flying competitions being held all over the city. All the other regular Indian festivals like Ganesh Chaturthi, Vasant Panchami, Holi, Id, Good Friday, Rath Yatra, Diwali, Christmas and the numerous Hindu festivals are also celebrated here.
- Rajja parba Template:Kite war is also celebrated with great energy. This is one of the big festival in Jajpur and rajja continues for three days.
As of 2011[update] India census, Jajpur had a population of 1,826,275. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Jajpur has an average literacy rate of 82%, greater than the national average of 65%: male literacy is 87%, and female literacy is 76%. In Jajpur, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Jajpur is the first municipality in Odisha
Oriya is the primary language used in the city and Hindi is also widely spoken and understood.English is used in commercial and writing purposes. Most of the banners are written in Oriya, English Oriya one of the oldest languages in the district and also the predominant language spoken by the people. However 10 percent of the inhabitants speaks Urdu and atleast 9 to 10 percent communicate with some variations having adivasi languages.
Art and Culture
Biraja Temple Once Jajpur District was a great centre of art and culture in ancient Odisha. This district is declared as a heritage district ‘Biraja Khetra’ is one of the ancient cities of Odisha rich in archaeological remains .It is reputed to be one of the important Tantra Khetras in the state. The ancient monuments like Biraja Temple, Lord Baraha Temple, Daswasamedhaghat, Jagannath Temple, Trilochaneswar Temple, Ratnagiri, and Udayagiri and so many other places of historical importance add tourist attraction. Jaipur is also known as Navigaya. People all over the state and neighboring state come here to offer SRADDHA on the Bank of River Baitarini.
A land of rich and diverse artistic achievement, Jajpur’s art and culture are theproduct of a long historical process in which the spiritual, philosophical and the humane dimensions have merged to yield the finest effects of culture and civilized life. The cultural heritage of Jajpur is reflected in its vibrant Art forms
The district has village tradition of painting, architectures, sculpture, and handicrafts. The Jajpur school of painting has three streams such as Jhoti, Chita and Muruja. Coming to fasts and festivals, in the month of Margasira women folk worship the Goddess Laxmi. It is the harvest season when grain is thrashed and stored. During this auspicious occasion the mud walls and floors are decorated with murals in white rice paste. These are called Jhoti or Chita and are drown not merely with the intention of decorating the house, but to establish a relationship between the mystical and the material, and thus being highly symbolical and meaningful. Folk painting in the tradition survives till today in all its pristine freshness. Throughout the year the village woman perform several rituals for the fulfillment of their desires.
Muruja is drawn on the floor with powders of different hues. white powder is obtained from the grinding of stone. Green powder is obtained from dry leaves, black from burnt coconut shells, yellow is obtained from petals of marigold flowers or turmeric and red from red clay or bricks. Muruja is generally drown during rituals in the form of Mandala. In the holy month of ‘Kartika’ women observe,penance and draw muruja designs near the Tulasi Chaura.
Pala, Daskathia & Yatra
Pala, Daskathia Yatra and Ghoda Nacha represent important aspects of Odisha folk culture. They form an integral part of the lives of the rural folk. Jajpur has kept these traditions alive.
Art and Literature
From time immeorial Jajpur has remained the epi centre of cultural awakening.Besides that the district has immense contribution to odia literature.The prominent literary figures of the state like Bidagdha Kabi Abimanyu Samanta Singhar,Kabi Manjula Krushna Prasad Basu, Braja Sundar Das (Freedom Fighter and one of the makers of Modern Odisha ), Birupakshya Kar, dramatist Kamapal Mishra(Writer of First Odia Movie Sita Bibaha)are son of the soil. Other prominent writer include Upendra Tripathy(children’s literature),essayist Baikuntha Nath Rath, and fiction writer Govind Das,
Architecture and Sculpture
This district is full of archaeological treasures dating from the pre historical time up to the end of the Muslim Rule. The excavation at Ratnagiri, Udayagiri,Trilochaneswar Mandir, Saptamatruka, Baraha Temple etc. testifyy the presence of a highly developed pre–historical civilization in Odisha.
Architecture in Jajpur found its supreme expression in temples. Some of which are among the finest of the state. Like Baraha Temple , Biraja Temple, Jagannath Temple, Trilochaneswar Temple, Siddheswar Temple etc.
Jajpur District is having the third best conditions for sustainable development in agriculture followed by Bargarh and Jagatsinghpur Districts. Rice is traditionally grown in two well defined seasons, namely kharif and dalua. Of these two, kharif (rainy) is the most important rice season. The kharif rice is the main crop, covering over 85 percent of the total rice area, and depends entirely on the southwest monsoon. It is sown in June and harvested in October–December, depending upon the duration of the cultivation and topography of the field. The dalua (summer) crop coincides with the dry season and depends entirely on irrigation. The source of irrigation water is tank. The dalua season stretches from December–January to April–May. Farmers grow only high–yielding varieties during this season.
Among the culinary delights unique to the City, none compare the famed Peda. Other popular fast foods include Chaat, Gupchup (Panipuri), Bara (Vada), Piaji, Aluchop (Bonda), Singada (Samosa), Pakudi (Pakora), Chakuli (Plain Dosa), Idli, etc. Here Idlis and Baras are served with a spicy curry unlike Sambar and Chutney in South India.
Places of interest
Etymologically the place derives its name from Yajna or Yagna. It is the place where Brahma did Ashwamedha Yajna. Later King Yajati Keshari did 10 Ashwamedha near Baitarani River bank. The apabramsa or local dialect has changed the name Yajanapura to Jajanapura and then to Jajapura or Jajipur in due course of time. A historic site for pilgrimages, it has shrines dedicated to Biraja Temple, Yajna Varaha Temple and Saptamatruka Temple among others, and at one time was intended to be the home of Lord Jagannath. It is also believed to have once been the capital of the Kalinga Kingdom empire. Jajpur also has an ancient pillar of Ashokan times called the Shubha Stambha.
Travel & Tourism
Biraja Temple or Viraja Kshetra , is one of the ancient Hindu temples located in the Jajpur district of Odisha, India. This present temple was built in 13th century. It is situated in the Jajpur township which is nearly 125 KM north from Bhubaneswar
Chandikhole is a town in Jajapur district, Odisha, India. The place has been named after Goddess Chandi worshipped by late monk Baba Bhairabananda Bramhachari who established the deity of Maa Chandi in one of the adjoining hills of Barunei full of dense forest and ferrocious animals in 1932
Duburi is at a distance of 38 km from Chandikhol towards Daitari mines on Express Highway. It is going to be one of the most eminent cities of Odisha in the very near future as a number of steel plants have been established here. These are Neelachal Ispat Nigam Ltd., Jindal Stainless, Mesco Steels., VISA Steel and a few others. Also TATA group is going to build a huge plant here
Archaeological museum at Ratnagiri is one of the important site museums of Archaeological Survey of India, built on the northern crest of the Ratnagiri village, of District Jajpur in Odisha.
Chhatia is famous for Lord Jagannath Temple. It is situated at a distance of 25 km from Cuttack. It is believed as the second Shreekhetra of Odisha according to the facts described in Malika. The accommodation facility can be availed at Chandikhol and Cuttack by hiring Hotels and Lodges.
Mahabinayak is situated at a distance of 6 km from Chandikhol to the west.Here tourists can enjoy the natural surroundings and the temples of Lord Binayak.The accommodation facility can be availed at Chandikhol and Cuttack by hiring Hotels and Lodges..
Atharanala is one of the oldest visiting places for tourist in Jajpur District. The Place is about 200 metres away from Biraja Temple. The accommodation facility can be availed at Jajpur Road by hiring hotels...
Dasaswamedha Ghat is situated on the bank of river Baitarani. This famous holy spot was built during the rule of Jajati Kesari.Baruni Snana is a significant occasion when many pilgrims visit the place for holy bath, which is celebrated during the month of February and March. It is believed that you are blessed if you take bath at Dasaswamedha Ghat in any holy day of Hindu calender...
Famous Gokarneswar temple is located 1 km away from Jaraka. The temple has mythological importance since the days of Mahabharat. One of the famous temples of Jajpur District, Jaganath temple is located on the Bank of river Baitarani. Many pilgrim spots are closely situated to this temple.Langudi hill is one of the Budhist monuments of Jajpur. The hill is located on the bank of river Kelua. The temple of seven goddessess which is known as Saptamatruka is on the Dasaswamedha Ghat. The seven Goddesses worshipped here are Chamunda, Barahi, Indrani, Vaisnavi, Brahmi, Kaimari, Maheswari Udayagiri is a famous Buddhist place of the district, which is visited by the visitors and Buddhists throughout the year.
Economy of the District is agrarian in nature. Agriculture and mining play dominant role in the economy of the District . In recent years, Jajpur District has taken major strides in industrial development. The most industrially developed area of the district, Kalinga Nagar, is situated in Danagadi Block, where currently 4 small steel plants are operating and 9 more are on their way to start production. Big plants like Mesco, Neelachal Ispat, Maithan, Tata Steels, Brahmani Rever Pellets Limited and Jindal Stainless Limited have set up their operations here. Daitari mines are famous for the mining extracts, which the state exports to the outside world, thereby gaining substantial revenue.
Current MLA from Jajpur Assembly Constituency is Pranab Prakash Das of BJD, who won the seat in State elections of 2009. Previous MLAs from this seat were Parameswar Sethi who won this seat in 2004 and Suryamani Jena who won this seat in 2000 representing BJD and also in 1995 representing JD, Jagannath Mallik who won this seat representing JD in 1990 and also in 1985 and in 1977 representing JNP, and Niranjan Jena of INC(I) in 1980.
- "History of Jajapur". NIC. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
- "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Jajpur".
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- "State Elections 2004 - Partywise Comparison for 25-Jajapur Constituency of Odisha". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-09-24.