Jaki Byard

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Jaki Byard
Birth name John Arthur Byard
Born (1922-06-15)June 15, 1922
Worcester, Massachusetts, US
Died February 11, 1999(1999-02-11) (aged 76)
New York City, New York, US
Genres Jazz
Occupations Musician, composer, arranger
Instruments Piano, tenor saxophone, alto saxophone, various others
Years active 1930s–1999
Labels Candid, Futura, MPS, Muse, Prestige, Soul Note
Associated acts Eric Dolphy, Booker Ervin, Roland Kirk, Charles Mingus

John Arthur "Jaki" Byard (June 15, 1922 – February 11, 1999) was an American jazz pianist, composer and arranger who also played tenor and alto saxophones, among several other instruments. He was known for his eclectic style, incorporating everything from ragtime and stride to free jazz.

Byard played with Maynard Ferguson in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and was a member of bands led by Charles Mingus for several years, including on several studio and concert recordings. The first of his recordings as a leader was in 1960, but, despite being praised by critics, his albums and performances did not gain him much wider attention. In his 60-year career, Byard recorded at least 35 albums as leader, and more than 50 as a sideman. Byard's influence on the music comes from his combining of musical styles during performance, and his parallel career in teaching.

From 1969 Byard was heavily involved in jazz education: he began teaching at the New England Conservatory and went on to work at several other music institutions, as well as having private students. He continued performing and recording, mainly in solo and small group settings, but he also led two big bands – one made up of some of his students, and the other of professional musicians. His death, from a single gunshot while in his home, remains an unsolved mystery.

Early life[edit]

Byard was born in Worcester, Massachusetts. At that time, his parents – John Sr and Geraldine Garr – were living at 47 Clayton Street.[1] Both of his parents played musical instruments; his mother played the piano, as did his uncles and grandmother, the last playing in cinemas during the silent film era.[2] He began piano lessons at the age of six,[3] but they ended when his family was affected by the Great Depression.[4] He was also given a trumpet that belonged to his father, and attempted to copy the popular players of the time, Roy Eldridge and Walter Fuller.[4] As a boy he often walked to Lake Quinsigamond to listen to bands performing there.[5] He heard Benny Goodman, Lucky Millinder, Fats Waller, and Chick Webb, and listened to other bands of the era on the radio.[5] "Those were the things that inspired me – I guess it stuck with me", he commented decades later.[5]

Byard began playing professionally on piano at the age of 16, in bands led by Doc Kentross and Freddy Bates.[4] His early lessons had involved mostly playing by rote, so his development of knowledge of theory and further piano technique occurred from the late 1930s until 1941,[4] including studying harmony at Commerce High School.[6] In that year he was drafted into the army, where he continued with piano lessons and was influenced by pianist Ernie Washington, with whom he was barracked, although Byard also took up trombone at this time.[7] He also studied Stravinsky and Chopin, and continued studying classical composers into the 1960s.[8] Part of his military service was in Florida, where he was a mentor to the young saxophonist Cannonball Adderley and his brother, Nat.[9][10] After leaving the army in 1946,[10] Byard's musical education continued, through discussions with others, and using library materials combined with music school syllabuses.[11]

Career as musician[edit]

Byard played with bands from the Boston area, including for two years with violinist Ray Perry, who encouraged Byard to add tenor saxophone to his array of instruments.[11] He then joined Earl Bostic's band as pianist in 1947 and they toured for around a year.[11] Byard then formed a bebop band with Joe Gordon and Sam Rivers in Boston, before touring for a year with a stage show band.[11] Back once more in Boston, he had a regular job for three years with Charlie Mariano in a club in nearby Lynn.[12] They recorded together in 1953. Byard was a member of Herb Pomeroy's band as a tenor saxophonist from 1952 to 1955, and recorded with him in 1957.[13] Byard also played solo piano in Boston in the ealy to mid-1950s and freelanced in that area later in the same decade.[13] He joined Maynard Ferguson in 1959, and stayed until 1962.[13][14] As one of Ferguson's players and arrangers, Byard found that his own preference for experimentation in time signatures, harmony and freer improvisation was restricted by the preferences of other band members.[12]

Byard moved to New York in the early 1960s.[15] His first recording as a leader, the solo piano Blues for Smoke, was recorded there on December 16, 1960[16] (but not released in the United States until 1988)[17] Also in 1960, Byard first played with the bassist Charles Mingus.[18] He recorded extensively with Mingus in the period 1962–64 (including on the important albums on Impulse! RecordsMingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus and The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady[14]), and toured Europe with him in 1964. Byard also made recordings as a sideman between 1960 and 1966 with Eric Dolphy, Booker Ervin, Roland Kirk,[14] and Rivers. His performance on Dolphy's Outward Bound put Byard at the forefront of modern jazz.[19]

As a leader, Byard recorded a string of albums for the Prestige label during the 1960s. Some of these albums included Richard Davis on bass and Alan Dawson on drums, a trio combination described by critic Gary Giddins as "the most commanding rhythm section of the '60s, excepting the Hancock-Carter-Williams trio in Miles Davis's band", although it existed only for recordings.[20] One such album was Jaki Byard with Strings!, a sextet recording that featured Byard's composing and arranging: on "Cat's Cradle Conference Rag", each of five musicians "play five standards based on similar harmonies simultaneously".[21] A further example of Byard's sometimes unusual approach to composition is the title track from Out Front!, which he created by thinking of fellow pianist Herbie Nichols' touch at the keyboard.[22] Popularity with jazz critics did not translate into wider success: a Washington Post review of his final Prestige album, Solo Piano from 1969, remarked that it was by "a man who has been largely ignored outside the inner circles".[23] Giddins also commented in the 1970s on the lack of attention that Byard had received, and stated that the pianist's recordings from 1960 to 1972 "are dazzling in scope, and for his ability to make the most of limited situations".[21]

Byard also continued to play and record with other leaders. While in Europe in 1965, he joined Art Blakey's band for a series of concerts there.[24] In 1967 Byard played in a small group with drummer Elvin Jones.[25] Between 1966 and 1969 Byard recorded three albums with the saxophonist Eric Kloss,[26] then, in 1970, returned to Mingus' band, including for performances in Europe.[10][27] Byard occasionally substituted on piano in Duke Ellington's orchestra in 1974 when the leader was unwell.[10][28] In 1974–75 Byard had a residency at Bradley’s in New York.[10] He also fronted a big band, the Apollo Stompers, which was formed in the late 1970s.[3][14] There were two versions of the band: one made up of musicians in New York, and the other using students from the New England Conservatory,[3] where Byard had taught from 1969.[29]

In 1980 Byard was the subject of a short documentary film, Anything for Jazz, which featured him playing, teaching and with his family.[30] By the 1980s his main instrument remained the piano, and he still played both alto and tenor saxophones, but he had stopped playing the other instruments that he used to use professionally – bass, drums, guitar, trombone, and trumpet, although he still taught all of them.[3] In the same period, he was often heard in New York playing solo, in duos, or in trios.[31] In 1988 he played with a band founded by Mingus' widow to perform the bassist's compositions – the Mingus Big Band.[10] Byard played and recorded with a former student of his, Ricky Ford, from 1989 to 1991,[10] and continued to play and teach during the 1990s.

Career as teacher[edit]

Byard was a charter faculty member at the New England Conservatory, helping to establish its jazz studies program, initially named 'Afro-American Music'; he stayed for more than 15 years.[32] He also taught at the Hartt School of Music from 1975,[10] the Manhattan School of Music from 1989 to 1999,[33] the New School for Jazz and Contemporary Music,[14] and lectured for three years at Harvard University.[28]

As teacher and player, Byard was renowned for his knowledge of the history of jazz piano.[13] This meant that some aspiring young musicians sought him out as a teacher. One of these was pianist Jason Moran, who described their first meeting, at a performance by the Apollo Stompers:

Jaki had all these toys and whistles and bells and things that he was playing from the piano, and also screaming and yelling from the piano in joy. I remember thinking, 'This guy's out of his mind.' After the set, I went up to him, introduced myself, and said that I would be studying with him. He said something to the effect of, 'get ready'.[22]

Moran studied with Byard for four years, and credits the older man with developing his skills, building his awareness of jazz history, and creating his willingness to experiment with different styles.[22] Another student, Fred Hersch, reported that Byard was both organized and chaotic as a teacher: giving his students worksheets and having them study early stride piano, but also behaving eccentrically and missing lessons.[34]

Death[edit]

Byard died in his home in Hollis, Queens, New York City, of a gunshot wound on February 11, 1999.[35] He was shot once in the head.[35] The police reported that Byard's family, with whom he shared the house, last saw him at 6 pm, that he was killed around 10 pm, that there "were no signs of robbery, forced entry or a struggle", and that no weapon was found.[35] The death was soon declared to be a homicide,[36] but the circumstances surrounding it have not been determined, and the case remains unsolved.

Byard was survived by two daughters, a son, four grandchildren, and six greatgrandchildren.[14] His wife of four decades had died five years earlier.[28][36]

Playing style and influence[edit]

Giddins described the nature of Byard's piano playing: "His tone [...] is unfailingly bright. His middle-register improvisations are evenly articulated with a strong touch and rhythmic elan [... he] likes ringing tremolos and portentous fifths [... and] barely articulated keyboard washes that float beyond the harmonic bounds but are ultimately anchored by the blues".[37] Byard played in a variety of styles, often mixed together in one performance: John S. Wilson commented that Byard "progresses from a basic melodic statement to nimble Art Tatum fingering to Fats Waller stride, to prickly Thelonious Monk phrases, to Cecil Taylor dissonances".[38] This could have deliberately comic, surrealistic effects.[39]

Byard pointed out that the use of humor did not mean that his music was not serious: "I might do it with humor, but it's still serious because I mean what I'm doing".[40] He stated that his choice to play in a variety of styles was not imitatory or superficial: "I can't play one way all night; I wouldn't want to and I wouldn't want the public to hear me that way".[41] One obituary writer noted that, "Nobody thinks it odd if a pianist underpins melody with stride patterns or a boogie bass. When Byard did that 30 years ago, distinctions were drawn more tightly".[42] Music writer Dan Lander also stated that Byard's playing was ahead of its time, and added that it has influenced 21st-century pianists:

Byard's grasp and integration of historical forms, his ability to embrace tradition and risk taking, was visionary, impacting on a new generation of jazz musicians who understood the history of jazz as a material to build on and work with, at the service of creating something new, rather than as an unmovable weight, fixing them to the past.[43]

A 1968 review of a Byard concert reported that his alto saxophone playing was "in a manner rooted in the bop era", and that he occasionally accompanied himself, "saxophone with his left hand, piano with his right".[44] His playing on tenor saxophone was influenced by Lester Young;[15] Byard himself cited Ben Webster as an influence on his tenor ballad playing.[41]

Discography[edit]

As leader/co-leader[edit]

Byard plays only piano, unless otherwise noted.

Year recorded Title Label Notes
1960 Blues for Smoke Candid Solo piano
1961 Here's Jaki New Jazz Trio, with Ron Carter (bass), Roy Haynes (drums); Byard also plays alto sax
1962 Hi-Fly New Jazz Trio, with Ron Carter (bass), Pete La Roca (drums)
1964 Out Front! Prestige Trio, with Bob Cranshaw and Ron Carter (bass; separately), Walter Perkins and Roy Haynes (drums; separately); quintet with Richard Williams (trumpet), Booker Ervin (tenor sax) added on some tracks; Byard also plays alto sax
1965 Jaki Byard Quartet Live!, Vol. 1 Prestige Quartet, with Joe Farrell (tenor sax, soprano sax, flute), George Tucker (bass), Alan Dawson (drums, vibraphone); in concert
1965 Jaki Byard Quartet Live!, Vol. 2 Prestige Personnel as Jaki Byard Quartet Live!, Vol. 1; in concert
1965 The Last from Lennie's Prestige Personnel as Jaki Byard Quartet Live!, Vol. 1; in concert
1966 Freedom Together! Prestige Trio, with Richard Davis (bass, cello), Alan Dawson (drums, vibraphone); Junior Parker (vocals) on some tracks; Byard also plays electric piano, celeste, vibraphone, tenor sax, drums
1965–67 On the Spot! Prestige Quartet, with Jimmy Owens (trumpet, flugelhorn), Paul Chambers (bass), Billy Higgins (drums); trio with George Tucker (bass), Alan Dawson (drums) on one track; Byard also plays alto sax
1967 Sunshine of My Soul Prestige Trio, with David Izenzon (bass), Elvin Jones (drums); Byard also plays guitar
1968 Jaki Byard with Strings! Prestige Sextet, with George Benson (guitar), Ray Nance (violin, vocals), Ron Carter (cello), Richard Davis (bass), Alan Dawson (drums, vibraphone); Byard also plays organ
1968 The Jaki Byard Experience Prestige Quartet, with Roland Kirk (tenor sax, manzello, clarinet, whistle), Richard Davis (bass), Alan Dawson (drums)
1969 Solo Piano Prestige Solo piano
1971 Live at the Jazz'Inn Futura Trio, with Gus Nemeth (bass), Jean My Truong and Gerald Byard (drums; separately)
1971 Parisian Solos Futura Solo piano
1972 The Entertainer Storyville Solo piano
1972 Duet! MPS Duo, with Earl Hines (piano)
1972 There'll Be Some Changes Made Muse Solo piano; also released as Empirical
1976 Flight of the Fly Le Chant du Monde Solo piano
1978 Family Man Muse Trio, with Major Holley (bass, tuba), J. R. Mitchell (drums); Warren Smith (drums, vibraphone) replaces Smith on some tracks; Byard also plays tenor sax, alto sax
1978 Sunshine of My Soul: Live at the Keystone Korner HighNote Solo piano; in concert; released 2007
1978-79 A Matter of Black and White HighNote Solo piano; in concert; released 2011
1979 The Late Show: An Evening with Jaki Byard HighNote Solo piano; in concert; released 2014
1981 Improvisations Soul Note Duo, with Ran Blake (piano)
1981 To Them - To Us Soul Note Solo piano
1982 The Magic of 2 Resonance Duo, with Tommy Flanagan (piano); some solo piano; released 2013
1984 Live at the Royal Festival Hall Leo Duo, with Howard Riley (piano); some solo piano
1984 Phantasies Soul Note With the Apollo Stompers
1988 Phantasies II Soul Note With the Apollo Stompers
1988 Foolin' Myself Soul Note Trio, with Ralph Hamperian (bass), Richard Allen (drums)
1991 Jaki Byard at Maybeck Concord Solo piano; in concert
1996 The Changes of Life Meldac Trio, with Ralph Hamperian (bass), Richard Allen (drums)
1997 This Happening Justin Time Duo, with Michael Marcus (various reed instruments)
1997 Night Leaves Brownstone Duo, with David Eyges (electric cello)
1998 July in Paris Jazzfriends / Fairplay Trio, with Ralph Hamperian (bass), Richard Allen (drums); quartet with Ricky Ford (tenor sax) added on some tracks; in concert
1998 My Mother's Eyes Jazzfriends / Fairplay With the Apollo Stompers

As sideman[edit]

An asterisk (*) indicates that the year is that of release.

Year recorded Leader Title Label
1965 Blakey, ArtArt Blakey Live in '65 Jazz Icons [DVD]
1973 Cohn, AlAl Cohn (and Zoot Sims) Body and Soul Muse
1961 Connor, ChrisChris Connor Two's Company Roulette
1960 Dolphy, EricEric Dolphy Far Cry New Jazz
1960 Dolphy, EricEric Dolphy Outward Bound Prestige
1960 Ellis, DonDon Ellis How Time Passes Candid
1961 Ellis, DonDon Ellis New Ideas New Jazz
1963 Ervin, BookerBooker Ervin The Freedom Book Prestige
1964 Ervin, BookerBooker Ervin The Space Book Prestige
1963–64 Ervin, BookerBooker Ervin Groovin' High Prestige
1965 Ervin, BookerBooker Ervin The Trance Prestige
1965 Ervin, BookerBooker Ervin Setting the Pace Prestige
1966 Ervin, BookerBooker Ervin Heavy!!! Prestige
1960 Ferguson, MaynardMaynard Ferguson Newport Suite Roulette
1978 Ford, RickyRicky Ford Manhattan Plaza Muse
1989 Ford, RickyRicky Ford Manhattan Blues Candid
1990 Ford, RickyRicky Ford Ebony Rhapsody Candid
1991 Ford, RickyRicky Ford American-African Blues Candid
1962 Gordon, HoniHoni Gordon Honi Gordon Sings Prestige
1971 Jones, QuincyQuincy Jones Smackwater Jack A&M
1964* Jones, RufusRufus Jones Five on Eight Cameo
1965 Kirk, RolandRoland Kirk Rip Rig & Panic Limelight
1966 Kirk, RolandRoland Kirk Here Comes the Whistleman Atlantic
1966 Kloss, EricEric Kloss Grits & Gravy Prestige
1968 Kloss, EricEric Kloss Sky Shadows Prestige
1969 Kloss, EricEric Kloss In the Land of the Giants Prestige
1997 Marcus, MichaelMichael Marcus Involution Justin Time
1994 Margitza, RickRick Margitza Work It SteepleChase
1953 Mariano, CharlieCharlie Mariano Charlie Mariano with His Jazz Group Imperial
1953 Mariano, CharlieCharlie Mariano Modern Saxophone Stylings of Charlie Mariano Imperial
1962 McIntyre, Makanda KenMakanda Ken McIntyre Year of the Iron Sheep United Artists
1975 McIntyre, Makanda KenMakanda Ken McIntyre Home Inner City
1962 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus The Complete Town Hall Concert Blue Note
1963 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus The Black Saint and the Sinner Lady Impulse!
1963 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Impulse!
1964 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus Town Hall Concert Jazz Workshop
1964 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus The Great Concert of Charles Mingus America
1964 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus Mingus at Monterey Jazz Workshop
1964 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus Astral Weeks Moon
1964 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus Charles Mingus Sextet with Eric Dolphy Cornell 1964 Blue Note
1964 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus Revenge! Revenge
1970 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus Charles Mingus in Paris: The Complete America Session Sunnyside
1988 Mingus Dynasty, Mingus Dynasty Live at the Theatre Boulogne-Billancourt Paris, Vol. 1 Soul Note
1988 Mingus Dynasty, Mingus Dynasty Live at the Theatre Boulogne-Billancourt Paris, Vol. 2 Soul Note
1969 Nance, RayRay Nance Body and Soul Solid State
1957 Pomeroy, HerbHerb Pomeroy Life Is a Many Splendored Gig Roulette
1965 Richmond, DannieDannie Richmond "In" Jazz for the Culture Set Impulse!
1964 Rivers, SamSam Rivers Fuchsia Swing Song Blue Note
1985 Sandke, JordanJordan Sandke Rhythm Is Our Business Stash
1978 Shepp, ArchieArchie Shepp Lady Bird Denon
1981 (Various), (Various) Amarcord Nino Rota Hannibal
1974 Woods, PhilPhil Woods Musique du Bois Muse

Sources:[45][46]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Williamson, Chet "Young Jaki". Jazz History Database. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  2. ^ Stokes 1993, p. 99.
  3. ^ a b c d Stokes 1993, p. 98.
  4. ^ a b c d Williams 1991, p. 150.
  5. ^ a b c Stokes, W. Royal (May 27, 1979) "This Music Is Unmistakably American: Jaki Byard's Big-Band Stand". Washington Post. p. L1.
  6. ^ Bliss, Robert R. (October 19, 1979) "Jaki Byard's Homecoming". Jazz History Database copy of The Evening Gazette. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
  7. ^ Williams 1991, pp. 150–1.
  8. ^ Lyons, Len (1978) "Jaki Byard: His Style Is the History of Jazz Piano". Contemporary Keyboard 4. p. 12.
  9. ^ Sheridan, Chris (2000) "Dis Here: a Bio-discography of Julian 'Cannonball' Adderley". Greenwood. p. xxvii.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Jaffe, Andrew & Kernfeld, Barry "Byard, Jaki". The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz (2nd ed.). Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 12, 2013. (Subscription required.)
  11. ^ a b c d Williams 1991, p. 151.
  12. ^ a b Williams 1991, p. 152.
  13. ^ a b c d Feather, Leonard & Gitler, Ira (2007) The Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532000-8.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Watrous, Peter (February 15, 1999) "Jaki Byard, a Jazz Musician and Teacher, Is Dead at 76". The New York Times.
  15. ^ a b Kirchner, Bill (June 17, 1978) "Jaki Byard". Washington Post. p. B2.
  16. ^ Bogdanov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2002) All Music Guide to Jazz. Backbeat. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-87930-717-2.
  17. ^ Yanow, Scott "Blues for Smoke". All Music Guide. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  18. ^ Santoro, Gene (2000) Myself when I Am Real: The Life and Music of Charles Mingus. Oxford University Press. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-19-514711-7.
  19. ^ McLennan, Scott (February 18, 1999) "Jazz Great Jaki Byard Remembered". Telegram & Gazette. p. C3.
  20. ^ Giddins 1985, p. 6.
  21. ^ a b Giddins 1985, p. 7.
  22. ^ a b c Panken, Ted "The Dozens: Jason Moran Selects 12 Classic Jaki Byard Tracks". JazzTimes. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
  23. ^ West, Hollie I. (June 21, 1970) "Jazz: Signs of a Renaissance?". Washington Post. p. H3.
  24. ^ Ramsey, Doug (December 4, 2009) "Recent Viewing: Art Blakey". Rifftides.
  25. ^ Wilson, John S. (February 20, 1968) "Elvin Jones Sets off Whirlwind of Limbs in Giant Drum Solos". The New York Times. p. 50.
  26. ^ Giddins 1985, p. 123.
  27. ^ Atkins, Ronald (November 14, 1970) "Charles Mingus at Ronnie Scott's". The Guardian. p. 8.
  28. ^ a b c Giddins, Gary (March 9, 1999) "Jaki Byard, 1922­–1999". Village Voice.
  29. ^ "Jaki Byard Testimonials". New England Conservatory. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  30. ^ Pareles, Jon (August 26, 1985) "Screen: Festival Offers 3 Films on Jazz Pianists". The New York Times.
  31. ^ Wilson, John S. (January 16, 1983) "Jazz Duo: Byard, Kloss". The New York Times.
  32. ^ "Jaki Byard". New England Conservatory. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
  33. ^ "Paid Notice: Deaths Byard, Jaki". (February 15, 1999) The New York Times.
  34. ^ Iverson, Ethan (July 12, 2012) "Interview with Fred Hersch". Ethan Iverson's Do The Math website.
  35. ^ a b c Jacobs, Andrew (February 14, 1999) "Jazz Artist Jaki Byard Died of Bullet Wound". The New York Times.
  36. ^ a b Yglesias, Linda (February 28, 1999) "Bullet Silences Jaki's Jazz Cops Think Piano Man Knew His Killer". New York Daily News.
  37. ^ Giddins, Gary (March 27, 1978) "Jaki Byard Spreads the New Tolerance". Village Voice. p. 56.
  38. ^ Wilson, John S. (June 1, 1986) "Jazz: Jaki Byard, Pianist". The New York Times.
  39. ^ Watrous, Peter (June 26, 1989) "Jazz Festival; Jaki Byard's Comic Style". The New York Times.
  40. ^ Brown, Richard (March 8, 1979) "Jaki Byard: Romping, Stomping, and Waiting for the Break". Down Beat. p. 16.
  41. ^ a b Williams 1991, p. 153.
  42. ^ Atkins, Ronald (February 19, 1999) "Play It Cool and Play It Straight". The Guardian.
  43. ^ Lander, Dan (2010) "Jaki Byard". In Kernohen, Daniel (Ed.). Music Is Rapid Transportation ...from the Beatles to Xenakis. p. 124. Charivari. ISBN 978-1-895166-04-0.
  44. ^ Wilson, John S. (October 28, 1968) "Jaki Byard Offers Jazz in Wide Range". The New York Times. p. 53.
  45. ^ "Jaki Byard: Credits" AllMusic. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  46. ^ Cook, Richard and Morton, Brian (2008) The Penguin Guide to Jazz Recordings. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-141-03401-0.
Bibliography
  • Giddins, Gary (1985 [1978]). Rhythm-a-ning: Jazz Tradition and Innovation in the 1980s. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504214-6.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Stokes, W. Royal (1993). Jazz Scene: An Informal History from New Orleans to 1990. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508270-8.