Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji

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Jalaluddin Khilji
Sultan
Maginary portrait of Sultan Firuz Khalji, Khwaja Hasan, and a dervish..jpg
Imaginary portrait of Sultan Firuz Khalji, Khwaja Hasan, and a dervish.
Reign 1290–1296
Coronation 1290
Birthplace Qalat, Zabul Province, Afghanistan
Place of death Delhi, India
Buried Delhi, India
Successor Alauddin Khilji
Royal house Khilji dynasty

Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji (Urdu: جلال الدین فیروز خلجی‎) (died 20 July 1296) was the first sultan of the Khilji dynasty, who reigned from 1290 to 1296. Born and raised in Afghanistan, Jalaluddin went to built his capital at Kilughari, a few miles from the city of Delhi, and completed the unfinished palace and gardens of Sultan Qaiqabad.[1] He ruled much of Northern India for six years, from 1290 to 1296.[2]

Early life and accession[edit]

Jalaluddin Khalji was born as Malik Firuz,[1] in Qalat, Zabul Province, Afghanistan.[3][4] He was of Turkic ethnic background but was treated in India as an ethnic Afghan.[5][6]

He was appointed by Sultan Qaiqabad to the fief of Baran and the command of the army. Soon, Sultan Qaiqabad suffered from a paralytic stroke and Firuz marched towards Delhi. The nobles placed Kayumars, the three-year-old son of Qaiqabad on the throne. But the sons of Firuz dashed into the city and carried away the infant Sultan, defeating a force sent in pursuit of them. Most of the Turkic nobles now submitted to Firuz. Qaiqabad was put to death and his corpse was thrown into the Yamuna. On 13 July 1290 Jalal-ud-Din Firuz was enthroned in the palace of Kalughari.He was made a slave from there.[7]

Reign[edit]

A coin of Jalaluddin

After the accession to the throne, Jalaluddin allowed Malik Chhajju, the nephew of Balban to retain his freedom of Kara-Manikpur. The post of wazir was conferred on Khvaja Khatir, who had held it under Balban and Qaiqabad. Fakhr-ud-Din, the kotwal of Delhi was also allowed to continue. Jalaluddin's eldest son received the title of Khan Khanan, his second son received the title of Arkali Khan and his third son received the title of Qadr Khan. He appointed his younger brother the ariz-i-mumalik (army minister) and conferred upon him the title of Yaghrush Khan. His two nephews, Alauddin and Almas Beg received significant responsibilities in the royal household and his relation Malik Ahmad Chap was appointed deputy master of ceremonies.[1]

In 1292, a horde of more than 100,000 Mongols invaded the Indian subcontinent. Successes in battle and smart negotiation caused a partial retreat on the part of the Mongols. They rose again five years later when his nephew and son-in-law Alauddin Khilji was on the throne.

Alauddin was also responsible for a successful raid in to Deccan as Governor of Kara under his uncle, Jalaluddin. Jalaluddin was killed by his cruel nephew Ali Gurshap when he arrived to dinner with him at kara.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.12-7
  2. ^ Sultan Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji The Muntakhabu-’rūkh by Al-Badāoni (16th century historian), Packard Humanities Institute.
  3. ^ "Khalji Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-08-23. "this dynasty, like the previous Slave dynasty, was of Turkic origin, though the Khiljī tribe had long been settled in what is now Afghanistan..." 
  4. ^ Thorpe, Showick Thorpe Edgar (2009). The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009, 1/e. Pearson Education India. p. 1900. ISBN 81-317-2133-7. Retrieved 2010-08-23. "The Khilji dynasty was named after a village in Afghanistan. Some historians believe that they were Afghans, but Bharani and Wolse Haig explain in their accounts that the rulers from this dynasty who came to India, though they had temporarily settled in Afghanistan, were originally Turkic." 
  5. ^ Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of medieval India: from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D.. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 337. ISBN 81-269-0123-3. Retrieved 2010-08-23. "The Khiljis were a Central Asian Turkic dynasty but having been long domiciled in Afghanistan, and adopted some Afghan habits and customs. They were treated as Afghans in Delhi Court." 
  6. ^ Cavendish, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Marshall Cavendish. p. 320. ISBN 0-7614-7571-0. Retrieved 2010-08-23. "The sultans of the Slave Dynasty were Turkic Central Asians, but the members of the new dynasty, although they were also Turkic, had settled in Afghanistan and brought a new set of customs and culture to Delhi." 
  7. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, pp.116-7

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Kayumars
Sultan of Delhi
1290–1296
Succeeded by
Alauddin Khilji
New dynasty Khilji dynasty
1290–1296