Jalalabad

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Jalalabad
جلال آباد
A panoramic view of a section of Jalalabad
Jalalabad Bridge Jalalabad Cricket Stadium
Pashtunistan Square Mosque in Jalalabad
Governor's House in Jalalabad Building on a main road
From top left to right: A panoramic view of a section of Jalalabad; Jalalabad Bridge; Jalalabad Cricket Stadium; Pashtunistan Square; Mosque in Jalalabad; Governor's House in Jalalabad; Building on a main road.
Jalalabad is located in Afghanistan
Jalalabad
Jalalabad
Location in Afghanistan
Coordinates: 34°26′03″N 70°26′52″E / 34.43417°N 70.44778°E / 34.43417; 70.44778Coordinates: 34°26′03″N 70°26′52″E / 34.43417°N 70.44778°E / 34.43417; 70.44778
Country Afghanistan
Province Nangarhar Province
Founded 1570
Elevation 575 m (1,886 ft)
Population (2007)
 • Total 205,423
  [1]
Time zone UTC+4:30

Jalalabad (Pashto/Persian: جلال آباد Jalālābād), formerly called Adina Pur (Pushto:آدينه پور) as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. Located at the junction of the Kabul River and Kunar River near the Laghman valley, Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province. It is linked by approximately 95 miles (153 km) of highway with Kabul to the west. Jalalabad is the second-largest city in eastern Afghanistan as well as the centre of its social and business activity because of its border to Pakistan which is the main source of products to all Afghanistan. Major industries include papermaking, as well as agricultural products including oranges, rice and sugarcane. Jalalabad is one of the leading trading centres with neighbouring Pakistan.[2]

History[edit]

Faxian visited and worshiped the sacred Buddhist sites such as of The Shadow of the Buddha in Nagarhara (modern Jalalabad).[3] In 630 AD Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Jalalabad and a number of other locations nearby. The city was a major center of Gandhara's Greco-Buddhist culture in the past until it was conquered by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century. However, not everyone converted to Islam at that period as some still refused to accept it. In Hudud-al-Alam, written in 982 CE, there is reference to a village near Jalalabad where the local king used to have many Hindu, Muslim and Afghan wives.[4]

The region became part of the Afghan Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century, during the Indian invasions by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznawee from Ghazni. Later, it was controlled by the successor Ghurids until the Mongols invaded the area. It then became part of the Timurids.[citation needed]

The modern city gained prominence during the reign of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur had chosen the site for this city which was built by his grandson Jalal-uddin Mohammad Akbar in 1570.[citation needed]

The original name of Jalalabad was Adinapur.[5] It was renamed as Jalalabad in the last decade of the sixteenth century, in honour of the son of Pir Roshan, Jalala, who was fighting the Mughals in the Waziristan area. It remained part of the Mughal Empire until around 1738 when Persian king Nader Shah and his Afsharid forces from Khorasan came to take over control. Nader Shah was accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, who would re-conquer the area in 1747 after becoming the new ruler of the Afghans. He used the city while going back and forth during his nine military campaigns into India.[citation needed]

The city was invaded by Ranjit Singh and his Sikh army in the early 19th century, but they were quickly chased out a few days later by Afghan forces of the Durrani Empire. The British forces invaded Jalalabad in 1838, during the First Anglo-Afghan War. In the 1842 Battle of Jellalabad, Akbar Khan besieged the British troops on their way to Jalalabad. In 1878, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again invaded and set up camps in Jalalabad but withdrew two years later.[citation needed]

Jalalabad is considered one of the most important cities of the Pashtun culture. Seraj-ul-Emarat, the residence of Amir Habibullah and King Amanullah was destroyed in 1929 when Habibullah Kalakani rose to power; the other sanctuaries however, retain vestiges of the past. The mausoleum of both rulers is enclosed by a garden facing Seraj-ul-Emart.

From 1978 to early 1990s, the city served as a strategic location for the pro-Soviet Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. It fell to the Mujahideen in 1992 when they were on their way to capture Kabul. It was conquered by the Taliban and became part of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in the mid-1990s. During Operation Enduring Freedom after the September 11 attacks in the United States, the city was invaded and fell to US-backed Afghan forces.

Since late 2001, the military of Afghanistan and the United States armed forces have established a number of bases, with the one at Jalalabad Airport being the largest. The Afghan National Police is in control of security while the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) also has a heavy presence in and around the city. In early 2011, the U.S. Embassy in Kabul announced that it plans to establish a consulate in Jalalabad.[6] As is the case with other Afghan cities, occasional suicide attacks by militants have taken place in recent years.

The Battle of Jellalabad in 1842 was an Afghan siege of the isolated British outpost at Jellalabad (now Jalalabad) about 80 miles (130 km) east of Kabul. The siege was lifted after five months when a British counterattack routed the Afghans, driving them back to Kabul. The outpost was no more than a wide place in the road with a fort, held by about 2,000 troops under General Sir Robert Sale. After the massacre of the British force during their retreat from Kabul in January 1842, Jellallabad was surrounded by Afghan forces which launched a series of attacks on the force. The British managed to beat off the assaults, and even captured 300 sheep from the besieging force when rations ran short. Eventually, after five months under siege, Sale mounted an attack against the Afghan forces, captured their main camp, baggage, stores, guns, and horses and the Afghans fled to Kabul. The defence of Jellalabad made heroes of the 13th Foot. It is reported that as the regiment marched back through India to return to Britain every garrison fired a ten-gun salute in its honour. Queen Victoria directed that the regiment be made Light Infantry, carry the additional title of "Prince Albert's Own" and wear a badge depicting the walls of the town with the word “Jellalabad" visible.

Demographics[edit]

The population of the city is mostly Pashtun people, at 90%. Pashais are 7%. The remaining 3% are Tajiks, Punjabi Gujjars, Jats & (Sikhs/Hindus).[1]

Pashto is the main language of the city and is also used throughout the province. Many people in the city are also fluent in Dari. Although English is very little in use, it is now being taught in most schools.

Nearly everyone in Jalalabad are Muslim, followers of Sunni Islam. The city is home to one of Afghanistan's few Hindu temples, the Darga Hindu Temple on Chowk Omomi Street, founded by Darga Mathara Das in c. 1084 AD.[7]

Climate[edit]

Jalalabad has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with very hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is very low, and mostly falls in spring.

Climate data for Jalalabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
(77)
28.8
(83.8)
34.5
(94.1)
40.5
(104.9)
45.4
(113.7)
47.5
(117.5)
46.7
(116.1)
48.4
(119.1)
44.2
(111.6)
38.2
(100.8)
32.4
(90.3)
25.4
(77.7)
48.4
(119.1)
Average high °C (°F) 15.9
(60.6)
17.9
(64.2)
22.5
(72.5)
28.3
(82.9)
34.7
(94.5)
40.4
(104.7)
39.3
(102.7)
38.0
(100.4)
35.2
(95.4)
30.5
(86.9)
23.3
(73.9)
17.5
(63.5)
28.63
(83.52)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
10.9
(51.6)
16.3
(61.3)
21.9
(71.4)
27.7
(81.9)
32.7
(90.9)
32.8
(91)
31.9
(89.4)
28.1
(82.6)
22.2
(72)
14.9
(58.8)
9.5
(49.1)
21.45
(70.61)
Average low °C (°F) 2.9
(37.2)
5.6
(42.1)
10.5
(50.9)
15.3
(59.5)
19.8
(67.6)
24.7
(76.5)
26.7
(80.1)
26.2
(79.2)
21.4
(70.5)
14.4
(57.9)
6.9
(44.4)
3.5
(38.3)
14.83
(58.68)
Record low °C (°F) −4.1
(24.6)
−3.5
(25.7)
1.0
(33.8)
6.1
(43)
10.6
(51.1)
13.5
(56.3)
19.0
(66.2)
17.5
(63.5)
11.0
(51.8)
2.7
(36.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
−5.5
(22.1)
−5.5
(22.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 18.1
(0.713)
24.3
(0.957)
39.2
(1.543)
36.4
(1.433)
16.0
(0.63)
1.4
(0.055)
6.9
(0.272)
7.7
(0.303)
8.3
(0.327)
3.2
(0.126)
8.3
(0.327)
12.1
(0.476)
181.9
(7.162)
Avg. rainy days 4 5 8 8 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 39
 % humidity 61 60 62 59 47 40 52 58 56 55 58 63 55.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 180.9 182.7 207.1 227.8 304.8 339.6 325.9 299.7 293.6 277.6 231.0 185.6 3,056.3
Source: NOAA (1964-1983) [8]

Transportation[edit]

An Afghan Air Force Mi-17 helicopter comes in for a landing at Jalalabad Airport in October 2011.

The Jalalabad Airport was built for dual-use, civilian and military. It is designed to serve the population of Nangarhar Province and neighboring province for domestic flights. The airport is currently used by NATO-led forces, including the Afghan Air Force, and houses large number of ISAF forces. The airport is also used as one of the launching and monitoring spots of drone attacks in Pakistan.

There are proposals for the establishment of Afghanistan's rail network linking Jalalabad with Pakistan Railways, allowing for increased trade of goods, people and commerce between the two countries.[9]

Jalalabad is connected by main roads with the Afghan capital of Kabul, the city of Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and several nearby Afghan cities and towns. All the trade between the Afghanistan and Pakistan pass through this city. The highway between Jalalabad and Kabul has been re-surfaced in recent years, reducing the transit time between these two important cities. Because of the many traffic accidents, the highway between Jalalabad and Kabul is considered to be one of the most dangerous in the world.[10] An improvement in the road networks between Jalalabad and Peshawar has also been proposed, with the intention of widening the existing road and improving security to attract more tourism and allow for safer passage of goods between to the two countries. Nangarhar Province is also called big Nangarhar (لوي ننګرهار)because once upon a time Kunar and Laghman Provinces were the part of Mentioned Province then according to some tribal conflicts they were separated. During the period of one decade young generation of mentioned province has increased their capacity in education therefore the mentioned province is known as the educated province among Afghanistan. Nangarhar province has very educated people who are serving whole pashtoons in different ways such as poetry and writing of pashto beneficial books, in course of reflecting the attention of people to the beauty of Jalalabad. It is also Known as Hamisha Bahar همیشه بهار(Always Spring).

Places of interest[edit]

Sherzai Cricket Stadium (under construction)
Mausoleum of King Amanullah Khan

Jalalabad is considered one of the most beautiful cities of Afghanistan. It has plenty of greenery and water. About 15 Kilometers from Jalalabad, a new city called Ghazi Amanullah Khan City is under development. Named after King Amanullah Khan, it is said to be the first, the biggest and the most modern city in the history of Afghanistan.[11]

Jalalabad is considered the capital of Afghan cricket, with many of the national players coming from the surrounding areas. Construction has begun near the city on one of Afghanistan's cricket stadiums. It is hoped that this ground will serve the domestic competition and attract international teams.

Jalalabad Airport (IATA: JAA, ICAO: OAJL) is located 3 miles (4.8 km) southeast of Jalalabad city in Afghanistan. This airport is currently being used only for military purposes and sometimes the United Nations' aircraft use this airport. It is occupied and maintained by the United States Armed Forces. They operate out of Forward Operating Base Fenty, which is adjacent to Jalalabad Airport. The Afghan Air Force (AAF) and members of the International Security Assistance Force also use the airport.

New Jalalabad Airport

Hamidullah Qaderi, Minister of Transport and Civil Aviation of Afghanistan, announced in April 2009 the construction of a new civilian airport in the Gambiri area northwest of Jalalabad. The new airport will be constructed with financial assistance from the United States.

The province is represented in domestic cricket competitions by the Nangarhar province cricket team. National team member Hamid Hasan was born in the province and he currently represents Afghanistan in international cricket. The Ghazi Amanullah Khan International Cricket Stadium is the first international standard cricket stadium in Afghanistan. It is located in the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Township, about 15 kilometres outside the city of Jalalabad in Nangarhar Province.[1] Construction on the stadium began in March 2010 when the foundation stone was laid by Minister of Finance and president of the Afghanistan Cricket Board, Omar Zakhilwal.[2] The project, which was developed on 30 acres of land donated by the developer constructing the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Township,[3] cost up the first phase of construction $1.8 million. The first phase, which took one year to complete, included the completion of the stadium itself.[2] The remainder of the phases will see the construction of a pavilion, accommodation for players and administrative buildings.[2] The stadium, which has a capacity of 14,000, was completed before the national team and under-19 team left for Canada and the Under-19 Cricket World Cup Qualifier in Ireland respectively. The two sides inaugurated the stadium in a Twenty20 match.[2] It is hoped that the stadium will be able to attract international teams to play Afghanistan, who currently have One Day International status until at least 2013.

  • Mosques
  • Hospitals

Jalalabad district has three big hospitals: Fatumatu Zahra, Medical Hospital of Nangarhar, and the General Hospital of Public Health. The General Hospital of Public Health is one of the largest in the country.[8] As of July 24, 2004, polio (NSL3) has been identified and reported in the Jalalabad district area. This specific case has been linked to others reported in the past due to the highly transient and mobile population.[9]

Nangarhar University (Pashto: د ننګرهار پوهنتون) is a government-funded higher learning institution in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. It is the second largest university in Afghanistan.[2] It has approximately 25 faculty and 3,500 students.[3] Nangarhar University was established in 1962 as a medical college.[4] It was later merged with other local colleges to become a full-fledged university. It now houses faculties in agriculture, engineering, education, medicine, theology, pedagogy, political science and veterinary medicine.

Nangarhar consists of many faculties including engineering, political science, economics, teachers' training, veterinary, and computer science. Nangarhar Medical Faculty (NMF) is the second largest medical school in Afghanistan. They also take part in an e-learning program organized by Afghans Next Generation e-Learning.

The nearest village within walking distance of Jalalabad is Ghouchak.

Sister cities[edit]

San Diego, California, USA

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.mrrd.gov.af/nabdp/Provincial%20Profiles/Nangarhar%20PDP%20Provincial%20profile.pdf
  2. ^ "Jalālābād". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  3. ^ Kuwayama, Shoshin. "The Hephthalites in Tokharistan and Northwest India". In Liu, Xinru. India and Central Asia. Permanent Black. p. 240. ISBN 817624347-4 Check |isbn= value (help). 
  4. ^ Vogelsang, Willem (2002). The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-631-19841-3. 
  5. ^ Gazetteer of the Peshawar District 1897-98 Page 55
  6. ^ Naadem, Bashir Ahmad (February 24, 2011). "US to open consulates in more provinces". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  7. ^ Singh, Pritpal (1 May 2013). "Mission Afghanistan" (in English). 
  8. ^ "Jalal Abad Climate Normals 1964-1983". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Work on Jalalabad railways station launched". Pajhwok Afghan News. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-04. 
  10. ^ "On Afghan Road, Scenes of Beauty and Death"
  11. ^ "Ghazi Amanullah Khan City". najeebzarab.af. 2009. Retrieved 2011-08-15. 

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century
Published in the 21st century
  • Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2009. 

External links[edit]