Jalaluddin Hasan

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Not to be confused with Jalaluddin Hassan.

Jalālu-d-Dīn Ḥassan III (1187–1221), son of Nūru-d-Dīn Muḥammad II, was the 25th Nizāri Ismā‘ilī Imām. He ruled from 1210-21.[1]

His life[edit]

He was born to the 24th Imam and a Sunni mother.[2]

The Imam claimed to have converted to Sunni Islam, which was accepted by Abbasid Caliph al-Nasir and other Muslim princes and he became known as naw musalman (new Muslim).[3] His Sunni zeal and aversion to his former faith made him go so far as to curse his ancestors and burn the books of Hasan ibn Sabah.[4][5] He invited many Sunni scholars and jurists from across Khurasan, Qazvin[6] and Iraq to visit Alamut Castle, and even invited them to inspect the library and remove any books they found to be objectionable.[7] :405 He also instructed these scholars to teach his followers,[8] whom he commanded to observe the Sunni Sharia.[9] However, his conversion has been interpreted by some as an act of taqiyya.[10]

During his lifetime, he maintained friendly relations with the `Abbasid Caliph al-Nasir. An alliance with the caliph of Baghdad meant greater resources for the self-defence of not only the Nizārī Ismā'īlī state, but also the broader Muslim world.[11]:29 He also personally led his army to assist Uzbek, ruler of the Eldiguzids, against a rebel.[12]

He died in 1221, possibly the result of poisoning.[13] He was married to four Sunni women[14] from the daughters of the princes of Gilan, after he sought the princes' permission, who then asked the Abbasid Caliph, who approved. They, along with some of Ḥassan III's kinsfolk, including his sister, were executed by his son's vizier under allegations of poisoning Ḥassan III.[15][16]

His Sunni conformity was gradually reversed[17] and his community increasingly regarded itself openly as Ismaili Shiite[18] during the Imamate of his only surviving son[19] and successor, ʻAlāʼ ad-Dīn Muhammad III,[20] who succeeded him at the age of 9 years old.[21] However, his son upon succession was initially too young, so Ḥassan III's vizier controlled the state.[22]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • John Malcolm, Jalālu-d-Dīn Ḥassan III in "History of Persia", 1st vol., p. 405, London, 1815.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta, ed. (1970). A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanat, A.D. 1206-1526. Orient Longmans. p. 52. 
  2. ^ Delia Cortese; Simonetta Calderini (2006). Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam (illustrated, reprint ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 61. ISBN 9780748617333. 
  3. ^ Cyril Glassé (2003). The New Encyclopedia of Islam (illustrated, revised ed.). Rowman Altamira. p. 226. ISBN 9780759101906. 
  4. ^ Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta, ed. (1970). A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanat, A.D. 1206-1526. Orient Longmans. p. 52. 
  5. ^ Ghulam Abbas Dalal (1 Jan 1995). Ethics in Persian Poetry: With Special Reference to Timurid Period. Abhinav Publications. p. 114. ISBN 9788170173144. 
  6. ^ Ehsan Yar-Shater (2007). Yar-Shater, Ehsan, ed. Encyclopaedia Iranica (illustrated ed.). Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 403. ISBN 9781934283080. 
  7. ^ Daftary, Farhad (1990). The Ismāʻīlīs: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521370196. 
  8. ^ Jestice, Phyllis G., ed. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 349. ISBN 9781576073551. 
  9. ^ Jestice, Phyllis G., ed. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 349. ISBN 9781576073551. 
  10. ^ Jeff Suzuki (27 Aug 2009). Mathematics in Historical Context (illustrated ed.). MAA. p. 106. ISBN 9780883855706. 
  11. ^ Ivanov, Vladimir A. (1960). Alamut and Lamasar; Two Mediaeval Ismaili Strongholds in Iran, an Archaeological Study. Teheran: Ismaili Society. OCLC 257192. 
  12. ^ Jestice, Phyllis G., ed. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 421. ISBN 9781576073551. 
  13. ^ The Muslim Review, Volumes 3-4. University of Minnesota. 1928. p. 17. 
  14. ^ James Wasserman (1 Apr 2001). The Templars and the Assassins: The Militia of Heaven. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. p. 123. ISBN 9781594778735. 
  15. ^ Delia Cortese; Simonetta Calderini (2006). Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam (illustrated, reprint ed.). Edinburgh University Press. pp. 61–2. ISBN 9780748617333. 
  16. ^ James Wasserman (1 Apr 2001). The Templars and the Assassins: The Militia of Heaven. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. p. 123. ISBN 9781594778735. 
  17. ^ Farhad Daftary (2012). Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis (illustrated ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. liv. ISBN 9780810861640. 
  18. ^ Jestice, Phyllis G., ed. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 349. ISBN 9781576073551. 
  19. ^ Jestice, Phyllis G., ed. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 421. ISBN 9781576073551. 
  20. ^ Daryoush Mohammad Poor (18 Sep 2014). Authority Without Territory: The Aga Khan Development Network and the Ismaili Imamate. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 234. ISBN 9781137428806. 
  21. ^ Jestice, Phyllis G., ed. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 349. ISBN 9781576073551. 
  22. ^ W B Bartlett (1 May 2013). "Nemesis". Assassins: The Story of Medieval Islam's Secret Sect. The History Press. ISBN 9780752496146. Hasan's vizier took control of the government at Alamut till Muhammad should be old enough to take over from him. 

External links[edit]

Succession - Imām Nizārī Ismā'īlīs & the commander of Alamut Castle[edit]

Jalaluddin Hasan
of the Ahl al-Bayt
Clan of the Banu Quraish
Born: 1187 C.E Died: 1221 C.E.
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Nūru-d-Dīn Muḥammad II
(‘A'lā Muḥammad)
6th Ruler of Nizārī Ismā'īlī state
and Commander of Alamut Castle

1210–1221
Succeeded by
‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad III
Shia Islam titles
Preceded by
Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad II
(‘A'lā Muḥammad)
Imām Jalālu-d-Dīn Ḥassan III
25th Imām of Nizārī Ismā'īlīs

1210–1221
Succeeded by
‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad III