Jallianwala Bagh

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Jallianwala Bagh
Native names
Hindi: जलियांवाला बाग
Punjabi: ਜਲ੍ਹਿਆਂਵਾਲਾ ਬਾਗ
Jallianwala Bagh.jpg
Jallianwala Bagh memorial, Amritsar
Location Amritsar, Punjab, India
Coordinates 31°37′14″N 74°52′50″E / 31.620521°N 74.880565°E / 31.620521; 74.880565Coordinates: 31°37′14″N 74°52′50″E / 31.620521°N 74.880565°E / 31.620521; 74.880565
Punjab
Jallianwala Bagh
Location in Punjab, India

Jallianwala Bagh (Punjabi: ਜਲ੍ਹਿਆਂਵਾਲਾ ਬਾਗ਼, Hindi: जलियांवाला बाग) is a public garden in Amritsar in the Punjab state of India, and houses a memorial of national importance, established in 1951 by the Government of India, to commemorate the massacre by British occupying forces of peaceful celebrators including unarmed women and children, on the occasion of the Punjabi New Year on April 13, 1919 in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Colonial British Raj sources identified 379 fatalities and estimated about 1100 wounded.[1] Civil Surgeon Dr. Smith indicated that there were 1,526 casualties.[2] The true figures of fatalities are unknown, but are likely to be many times higher than the official figure of 379.

The 6.5-acre (26,000 m2) garden site of the massacre is located in the vicinity of Golden Temple complex, the holiest shrine of Sikhism.

The memorial is managed by the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Trust, which was established as per the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Act passed by the Government of India in 1951.

Sign at Jallianwala Bagh
Jallianwala Bagh in Day light

Jallianwala Bagh massacre[edit]

On 11 April, Brigadier General R.E.H. Dyer[3][4] arrived from Jalandhar Cantonment, and virtually occupied the town as civil administration under Miles Irving, the Deputy Commissioner, had come to standstill.

The narrow lane used for entering the park premises.
From here 1650 rounds of bullets were fired by troops on 20,000 innocent people.
Bullet marks on the walls of the park premises

Etymology[edit]

The place derives its name from that of the owners of this piece of land in Sikh times. It was then the property of the family of Sardar Himmat Singh (Sikhism) (d.1829), a noble in the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780-1839), who originally came from the village of Jalla, now in Fatehgarh Sahib district of the Punjab. The family were collectively known as Jallhevale or simply Jallhe or Jalle, although their principal seat later became Alavarpur in Jalandhar district. The site, once a garden or garden house, was in 1919 an uneven and unoccupied space, an irregular quadrangle, indifferently walled, approximately 225 x 180 meters which was used more as a dumping ground than anything else.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Home Political Deposit, September, 1920, No 23, National Archives of India, New Delhi; Report of Commissioners, Vol I, New Delhi
  2. ^ Report of Commissioners, Vol I, New Delhi, p 105
  3. ^ Jallianwala Bagh commemoration volume and Amritsar and our duty to India. Publication Bureau, Punjabi University. 1994. ISBN 978-81-7380-388-8. 
  4. ^ Datta, Vishwa Nath (1969). Jallianwala Bagh. [Kurukshetra University Books and Stationery Shop for] Lyall Book Depot. 

External links[edit]