Jam Nizamuddin II
|Jam Nizamuddin II
جام نظام الدين ثاني
|Sultan Of Sindh|
|Full name||Jam Nizamuddin bin Sadr udin, nick name Jam Nianda|
|Born||25th of Rabi' al-awwal, 844 (A. D. 1439)|
|Died||1509 C.E (aged 60-70)|
|Place of death||Thatta, Sindh|
|Predecessor||Jam Sanjar( Sadr al-Din)|
|Successor||Jam Feruzudin bin Jam Nizamudin|
|Father||Jam Sadr udin bin Jam unar (babina)|
Jám Nizámuddín II (also Jam Nizam al-Din) (Sindhi: ڄام نظام الدين عرف ڄام نندو),(Urdu جام نظام الدين ثاني ) reigned between 1461 - 1508. He was the most famous ruler of the Samma Dynasty, which ruled the Sindh and parts of the Punjab and the Balochistan (region) from 1351 - 1551 C.E. He was known by nickname of Jám Nindó. His capital was Thatta in modern south Pakistan. The Samma dynasty reached the height of its power, during the reign of Jam Nizamuddin II, who is still recalled as a hero, and his rule is considered as golden-age of the Sindh.
Jam's grave is located at Makli near Thatta. The tomb is an impressive piece of stone structure with fine ornamental carving similar to the 15th century Gujrat style. It has been restored but unfortunately, it suffers from cracks and wall distortions caused by rough weathering and erosion of the slope on which it stands. After his death, his weak son Jám Ferózudin lost the Sultanate in 1525 C.E. to an invading army of Shah Beg Arghun, who had been thrown out of Kandahar by Babur.
Jám Nizámuddín Shah was elected to the throne of the Kingdom by joint councils of wise and pious men of Thatta, as well as of the military on the 25th of Rabi' al-awwal, 866 (A. D. 1461), after the death of his father Jam Sanjar. Shortly, after his accession, he went with large force to Bukkur, where he spent about a year, fighting Baloch tribes. He strengthened the fort of Bukkur and left the place in charge of his house-born slave Dilshád, after returning to the capital.
For a period of forty-eight years, he reigned Thatta with absolute power. He was considered a wise and a just ruler, under whom madrasahs and mosques flourished, while the people enjoyed a long period of peace and prosperity. Travelers could pass throughout the Sindh, without harm to their person or property. The people followed strict Muslim rules. Congregations assembled in the Mosques: no one was willing to say his prayers alone. The rise of Thatta, as an important commercial and cultural center was directly related to his patronage and policies. The period contributed significantly to the evolution of a prevailing architectural style that can be classified as early Sindhi-Islamic.
In the last part of Jám Nindó’s reign, after 1490 CE, a Mughul army under Shah Beg Arghun came from Kandahar and attacked many villages of Chundooha and Sideejuh, invading the towns of Ágrí, Ohándukah, Sibi Sindichah and Kót Máchián. Jám Nindó sent a large army under his Vazier and adopted son Darya Khan, which, arriving at the village known by the name of Duruh-i-Kureeb, also known as Joolow Geer or Halúkhar near Sibi, defeated the Mughuls in a pitched battle. According to other sources, this battle took place at Jalwakhir near Bibi Nani in the Bolan pass. Sháh Beg Arghun’s brother Abú Muhammad Mirzá was killed in battle, and the Mughuls fled back to Kandahár, never to return during the reign of Jám Nizámuddín. Soon thereafter, Jám Nizámuddín died after a long reign of 48 years.
It is said that as a young man he was eager to learn, spending much of his time in college and cloisters. He had a good, affectionate temper, was obliging and an industrious person. He was very religious and regular in his prayers and practiced abstinence. In his days mosques were said to be always full at the time of prayers.
According to a story he visited his stables regularly every week and would pass his hand over the forehead of his horses saying "O lucky beings, I do not wish to ride you in order to fight with others, unless to go against Kafirs. On all the four sides of us we have Mussalman rulers. May God never give us any cause other than in accordance with the religious law, to go elsewhere, or others to come here, lest innocent blood of Mussalmans be shed and I be ashamed in the august presence of God."
Jám Nizámuddín and Sultan Hoosain Langah of Multan were befriended even though the latter had sheltered Samma nobles expelled by Jám Nizámuddín.
Jám Nizámuddín was fond of the company of learned men, with whom he liked discussing literary subjects. There is a story that a learned man of Shíráz, Jaláluddín Muhammad Roomi had come from Persia to Sindh and had sent his two pupils Mír Shamsuddín and Mír Muín to Thattá to arrange for his sojourn there. Jám Nizámuddín, learning the intention of the Persian scholar, ordered a place to be prepared for his reception and sent the two pupils with a large sum for expenses of the journey, ordering them to bring the learned man. But before their arrival their master had died. Mír Shamsuddín and Mír Muín therefore returned to Thatta in vain and took up their abode at the place.
tomb of Jám Nizamuddin
Cousens wrote in The Antiquities of Sind:
|“||His tomb is in the necropolis on Makli Hill. It is square in plan but the dome was never constructed, work stopped when the walls reached the springing line. On the exterior of the building there are twelve bands of decoration running around the building from top to bottom comprising diamonds, lotuses, Quranic inscriptions and geometric patterns. There are two unusual features: the mihrab in the interior and the corresponding balcony on the exterior. This type of balcony recalls those in Gujarat therefore it is possible that craftsmen from Gujarat were responsible for this tomb. This is a close view of a section of the wall, showing the richly carved balcony and the bands of decorative carving along the wall.||”|
Jam Nizamuddin II
|Sultan Of Sindh
- "Dawn: The necropolis of Sindh by Omar Mukhtar Khan". Retrieved 2009-03-12.[dead link]
- The Tomb of Jam Nizam al-Din, documentation and condition survey. Heritage foundation, Karachi, Pakistan.2011.
- "Grave Tales". The Hindu. 2004-04-11. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- The environments that led to the rise and fall of the Kalhoras
- Haig,Maj Gen M.R., The Indus Delta Country K.Paul, Trench, Trubner &Co. 1894.
- Henry Cousens, The Antiquities of Sind, Archaeological Survey of India 46, Imperial Series (Calcutta, 1929, rptd. Karachi, 1975).
- Islamic culture - Page 429, by Islamic Culture Board
- A History of India Under the Two First Sovereigns of the House of Taimur, by William Erskine
- The History and culture of the Indian people - Page 224, by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti
- The Ṭabaqāt-i-Akbarī of K̲h̲wājah Nizāmuddīn Ahmad: a history of India, by Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Muqīm, Brajendranath De, Baini Prashad
- Bibliotheca Indica - Page 778, by Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India)
- Searchlights on Baloches and Balochistan, by Mir Khuda Bakhsh Marri
- The Delhi Sultanate, by Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Asoke Kumar Majumdar, A. D. Pusalker
- Babar, by Radhey Shyam
- Indo-Arab relations: an English rendering of Arab oʾ Hind ke taʾllugat, by Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, Sayyid Sulaimān Nadvī, M. Salahuddin
- The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period, by Henry Miers Elliot, John Dowson
- Muslim Kingship in India, by Nagendra Kumar Singh
- The Indus Delta country: a memoir, chiefly on its ancient geography and history, by Malcolm Robert Haig
- The Samma kingdom of Sindh: historical studies, by G̲h̲ulāmu Muḥammadu Lākho, University of Sind. Institute of Sindology
- Imperial Gazetteer of India, by William Wilson Hunter, James Sutherland Cotton, Richard Burn, William Stevenson Meyer, Great Britain. India Office, John George Bartholomew