Jamal al-Haidari

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Jamal al-Haidari (Arabic: جمال الحيدري‎, died 1963) was an Iraqi communist politician. He joined the Iraqi Communist Party in 1946, and became the leader of a rebel communist faction during the 1950s. After rejoining the Communist Party in 1956 he became a prominent leader but was entangled in the internal disputes of the party. In 1963 he was executed by the new Baathist regime.

Joining the Communist Party[edit]

In 1946 al-Haidari, along with his brother Salah al-Haidari, was amongst the militants of the Kurdish communist group Shursh that joined the Iraqi Communist Party rather than merging into the Kurdish Democratic Party.[1]

Rayat ash-Shaghilah period[edit]

In 1952, whilst in prison, al-Haidari rebelled against the adoption of a new party programme of the Communist Party. Al-Haidari, along with other critics of the new party leadership, were expelled from the party. In February 1953, after the Communist Party organ al-Qaidah had published a ferocious attack on the expelled dissidents, al-Haidari's group decided to form a new organization, named after its organ Rayat ash-Shaghilah ('Toilers Banner'). Al-Haidari became the main spokesperson of the Rayat ash-Shaghilah group. Al-Haidari dedicated his energy into combating the Communist Party and its leader, Basim, in particular. Amongst other things, al-Haidari tried to unsuccessfully to convince the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to recognize his group over the Iraqi Communist Party.[2]

Communist Party Politburo[edit]

In 1956, after shifts in the leadership in the Iraqi Communist Party, al-Haidari's group reunified with the party. Following the merger, Al-Haidari became a politburo member of the Communist Party.[3] Al-Haidari became a close associate of the new general secretary Salam Adil, and together Adil and al-Haidari constituted one of the two politburo fractions (the other, nicknamed the 'Clique of Foor' was led by Baha ud-Din Nuri). Towards the late 1950s, the situation in the politburo deteriorated. The 'Clique of Foor' accused Adil and al-Haidari of spoiling the relations with Abd al-Karim Qasim.[4]

Forced into exile[edit]

In 1960, al-Haidari was forced into exile. At the time the Communist Party was seeking legal recognition, but the state authorities had instead decided to register a bogus 'Iraqi Communist Party' headed by Daud as-Sayegh. As-Sayegh had demanded that Adil, al-Haidari and Amir Abdullah be expelled from the Iraqi Communist Party as a condition for a merger with his party (which would have given the Communist Party legal status). In the end a settlement was reached (with as-Sayegh unofficially bargaining on behalf of the then government), al-Haidari and Abdullah were relieved of their party duties due to 'health reasons' and exit visas were provided (through as-Sayegh's government contacts) for them to travel to Moscow.[5] In Moscow they joined Adil, who had already been sent there for medical treatment. Still, the merger between the Communist Party and as-Sayegh's party failed to go through for other reasons.[5]

Back in Iraq, Baathist coup[edit]

In September 1962 Adil and al-Haidari returned to Iraq. Adil again took charge of the party, and formed a new Secretariat with al-Haidari as the head of the Peasants Bureau of the party.[6]

With the February 8, 1963, Baathist coup d'état, a crackdown was launched against the Communist Party. Al-Haidari was able to escape arrest and went underground. Along with Abd ul-Jabbar Wahbi and Salih al-Abli, al-Haidari established a new 'Central Party Leadership'. On July 20, 1963, al-Haidari was captured and executed.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ismael, Tareq Y. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Iraq. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. p. 31
  2. ^ Ismael, Tareq Y. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Iraq. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. pp. 44-45
  3. ^ Ismael, Tareq Y. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Iraq. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. pp. 60, 62-63
  4. ^ Ismael, Tareq Y. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Iraq. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. pp. 92-93
  5. ^ a b Ismael, Tareq Y. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Iraq. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. p. 101
  6. ^ Ismael, Tareq Y. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Iraq. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. pp. 104-105
  7. ^ Ismael, Tareq Y. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Iraq. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. pp. 107-108