Jambi

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For other uses, see Jambi (disambiguation).
Jambi Province
Provinsi Jambi
Province
Mount Kerinci, the highest peak in the Sumatra Island
Mount Kerinci, the highest peak in the Sumatra Island
Flag of Jambi Province
Flag
Official seal of Jambi Province
Seal
Motto: Sepucuk Jambi Sembilan Lurah (Malay proverb)
(One united Jambi, formed from nine regional entities)
Location of Jambi in Indonesia
Location of Jambi in Indonesia
Coordinates: 1°35′S 103°37′E / 1.583°S 103.617°E / -1.583; 103.617Coordinates: 1°35′S 103°37′E / 1.583°S 103.617°E / -1.583; 103.617
Country Indonesia
Capital Jambi
Government
 • Governor Hasan Basri Agus & Fachrori Umar
Area
 • Total 50,058.16 km2 (19,327.56 sq mi)
Population (2014 Estimate)
 • Total 3,412,459
 • Density 68/km2 (180/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Malay (38%), Javanese (28%), Kerinci (10%), Minangkabau (5%), Banjarese (3%), Sundanese (3%), Buginese (2.5%), other (10%)[1]
 • Religion Muslim (96.5%), Christian (3%), Buddhist (1%), Hindu (0.117%)
 • Languages Jambi Malay, Indonesian
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Website www.jambiprov.go.id

Jambi Province (Indonesian: Provinsi Jambi) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the east coast of central Sumatra and its capital is Jambi city.

The province has a land area of 50,058.16 km2, and it has a population of 3,092,265 according to the 2010 Census;[2] by January 2014 this had risen to 3,412,459.

History[edit]

Mosque in Jambi, during the colonial period. ca 1900-1939.

Jambi was the site of the Srivijayan kingdom that engaged in trade throughout the Strait of Malacca and beyond. Jambi succeeded Palembang, its southern economic and military rival, as the capital of the kingdom. The movement of the capital to Jambi was partly induced by the 1025 raid by pirates from the Chola region of southern India, which destroyed much of Palembang.

In the early decades of the Dutch presence in the region (see Dutch East India Company in Indonesia), when the Dutch were one of several traders competing with the British, Chinese, Arabs, and Malays, the Jambi Sultanate profited from trade in pepper with the Dutch. This relationship declined by about 1770, and the sultanate had little contact with the Dutch for about sixty years.[citation needed]

In 1833, minor conflicts with the Dutch (the Indonesian colonial possessions of which were now nationalised as the Dutch East Indies) who were well established in Palembang, meant the Dutch increasingly felt the need to control the actions of Jambi. They coerced Sultan Facharudin to agree to greater Dutch presence in the region and control over trade, although the sultanate remained nominally independent. In 1858 the Dutch, apparently concerned over the risk of competition for control from other foreign powers, invaded Jambi with a force from their capital Batavia. They met little resistance, and Sultan Taha fled upriver, to the inland regions of Jambi. The Dutch installed a puppet ruler, Nazarudin, in the lower region, which included the capital city. For the next forty years Taha maintained the upriver kingdom, and slowly reextended his influence over the lower regions through political agreements and marriage connections. In 1904, however, the Dutch were stronger and, as a part of a larger campaign to consolidate control over the entire archipelago, soldiers finally managed to capture and kill Taha, and in 1906, the entire area was brought under direct colonial management.

Following the death of Jambi sultan, Taha Saifuddin, on April 27, 1904 and the success of the Dutch controlled areas of the Sultanate of Jambi, Jambi then set as the Residency and entry into the territory Nederlandsch Indie. Jambi's first Resident OL Helfrich was appointed by the Governor General of the Dutch Decree No. 20 dated May 4, 1906 and his inauguration held on July 2, 1906.

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1971 1,006,084 —    
1980 1,445,994 +43.7%
1990 2,020,568 +39.7%
1995 2,369,959 +17.3%
2000 2,407,166 +1.6%
2010 3,092,265 +28.5%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2014

Administrative divisions[edit]

Jambi province is divided into nine regencies (kabupaten) and two cities (kota), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest (January 2014) estimates.

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2010
Population
Estimate 2014
Capital
Jambi (city) 103.54 531,857 586,930 Jambi
Sungai Penuh (city) 391.50 82,293 90,814 Sungai Penuh
Kerinci Regency 3,355.27 229,495 253,258 Sungai Penuh
Merangin Regency 7,679.00 333,206 367,708 Bangko
Sarolangun Regency 6,184.00 246,245 271,743 Sarolangun
Batanghari Regency 5,804.00 241,334 266,323 Muara Bulian
Muaro Jambi Regency 5,326.00 342,952 378,464 Sengeti
East Tanjung Jabung Regency
(Tanjung Jabung Timur)
5,445.00 205,272 226,527 Muara Sabak
West Tanjung Jabung Regency
(Tanjung Jabung Barat)
4,649.85 278,741 307,604 Kuala Tungkai
Tebo Regency 6,461.00 297,735 328,564 Muara Tebo
Bungo Regency 4,659.00 303,135 334,524 Muara Bungo
Total province 50,058.16 3,092,265 3,412,459 Jambi

Languages[edit]

In addition to an urban Malay koine spoken in Jambi city, Kerinci, Lempur Malay, and Rantau Panjang Malay are also spoken in Jambi province.[3]

World Heritage Site[edit]

A candi in Muaro Jambi site.

May 2011: The Jambi provincial administration is striving to have the ancient Muaro Jambi temple site at Muaro Jambi village in Maro Sebo sub district, Muaro Jambi district, recognized as a world heritage site.

The site was a Buddhist education center that flourished during the 7th and 8th centuries and is made from bricks similar to those used in Buddhist temples in India.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Locher-Scholten, Elsbeth. 1993. Rivals and rituals in Jambi, South Sumatra. Modern Asian Studies 27(3):573-591.

External links[edit]