James Allen Hardie
|James Allen Hardie|
James A. Hardie
May 5, 1823|
New York City
|Died||December 14, 1876
|Mount Olivet Cemetery||Mount Olivet Cemetery (Washington, D.C.)|
|Allegiance||United States of America
|Service/branch||United States Army
|Years of service||1843-76|
|Rank||Brevet Major General|
|Battles/wars||American Civil War|
Hardie was born in New York City. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1843, 11th in a class of 39 cadets, and began serving with the U.S. 3rd Artillery Regiment. During the Mexican-American War, as a second lieutenant, he was detached from his regiment to serve with the 1st Regiment of New York Volunteers, for service in California and during the war with Mexico as a major. As such he became the military commandant of San Francisco. Returning to his regiment he participated in the campaigns against the Indians in Oregon and Washington Territory, and was an aide to Brig. Gen. John E. Wool. Hardie was in camp with General George Wright on Latah (Hangman's) Creek, near present-day Spokane, in 1858 when they lured Qualchan to camp and summarily hung him. Qualchan's father, Chief Owhi, who was in their custody, was later shot while trying to escape. Promoted to captain, he was serving as Adjutant General of the Department of Oregon when the American Civil War began.
Promoted to lieutenant colonel on September 28, 1861, Hardie joined the staff of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan. During the Peninsula, Maryland, and Fredericksburg campaigns of the Civil War he was acting adjutant general of the Army of the Potomac, and on November 29, 1862, was appointed brigadier general of volunteers, but it was not confirmed by the United States Senate and the promotion was revoked on January 22, 1863. In 1863 he was appointed assistant adjutant general with the rank of major on the staff of the regular army, and on May 24, 1864, was made inspector general with the rank of colonel. On March 13, 1865, he was appointed a brevet major general in the regular army.
Hardie played an important administrative role in two key incidents during the war. During the Battle of Fredericksburg, he delivered the attack orders to Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin on December 13, 1862. Franklin did not conduct his attack to Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside's expectations, and Hardie has been criticized for not ensuring that the two generals understood each other correctly. On June 28, 1863, Hardie was the officer who delivered the surprise order to Maj. Gen. George G. Meade at Frederick, Maryland, appointing him commander of the Army of the Potomac, three days prior to the Battle of Gettysburg.
After the Civil War, Hardie served as one of the inspector generals of the Army. His military career lasted for 37 years until his death on active duty. He died in Washington, D.C., and is buried there in Mount Olivet Cemetery.
- Eicher, p. 279.
- O'Reilly, pp. 136-38; Sears, p. 123.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- O'Reilly, Francis Augustín. The Fredericksburg Campaign: Winter War on the Rappahannock. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8071-3154-7.
- Sears, Stephen W. Gettysburg. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. ISBN 0-395-86761-4.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.; Thurston, H. T.; Moore, F., eds. (1905). "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Hardie, James Allen.|