James B. Weaver

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James B. Weaver
James Weaver - Brady-Handy.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Iowa's 6th district
In office
March 4, 1879 – March 3, 1881
March 4, 1885 – March 3, 1889
Preceded by Ezekiel S. Sampson
John C. Cook
Succeeded by Marsena E. Cutts
John F. Lacey
Personal details
Born James Baird Weaver
(1833-06-12)June 12, 1833
Dayton, Ohio
Died February 6, 1912(1912-02-06) (aged 78)
Des Moines, Iowa
Political party Republican
Greenback
Populist
Spouse(s) Clarrisa Vinson Weaver
Profession Politician, Lawyer
Religion Methodist
Signature

James Baird Weaver (June 12, 1833 – February 6, 1912) was a United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century. An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the People's Party (commonly known as the "Populists") in the 1892 election.

Early years[edit]

James Baird Weaver was born June 12, 1833, in Dayton, Ohio, the fifth of thirteen children born to Abram Weaver and Susan Imlay Weaver.[1] Weaver's father was a farmer, also born in Ohio, the descendant of Revolutionary War veterans.[2] He married Weaver's mother, a New Jersey native, in 1824.[2] Shortly after Weaver's birth, in 1835, the family moved to a farm nine miles north of Cassopolis, Michigan.[1] In 1842, the family moved again to the Iowa Territory to await the opening of former Sac and Fox land to white settlement the following year.[3] On May 1, 1843, they claimed a homestead along the Chequest Creek in Davis County.[3] Abram Weaver built a house and farmed his new land until 1848, when the family moved to Bloomfield, the county seat.[4]

Abram Weaver, a Democrat involved in local politics, was elected clerk of the district court in 1848; he often vied for election to other offices, usually unsuccessfully.[5] Weaver's brother-in-law, Hosea Horn, a Whig, was appointed postmaster the following year, and through him James Weaver secured his first job, delivering mail to neighboring Jefferson County.[6] In 1851, Weaver quit the mail route to read law with Samuel G. McAchran, a local lawyer.[6] Two years later, Weaver interrupted his legal career to accompany another brother-in-law, Dr. Calvin Phelps, on a cattle drive overland from Bloomfield to Sacramento, California.[7] Initially intending to stay and prospect for gold, Weaver instead booked passage on a ship for Panama.[8] Crossing the isthmus, he boarded another ship to New York and thence home.[8]

On his return, Weaver worked briefly as a store clerk before resuming the study of law, enrolling at the Cincinnati Law School in 1855, where he studied under Bellamy Storer.[9] While in Cincinnati, Weaver began to question his support for the institution of slavery, a change biographers attribute to Storer's influence.[10] After graduating in 1856, Weaver returned to Bloomfield and was admitted to the Iowa bar.[11] By 1857, he broke with the Democratic party of his father to join the anti-slavery coalition that became the Republican Party.[12]

Weaver traveled around southern Iowa in 1858, giving speeches on behalf of his new party's candidates.[13] That summer, he married Clarrisa Vinson, a schoolteacher from nearby Keosauqua, Iowa whom he had courted since he returned from Cincinnati.[13] They would be married until Weaver's death in 1912 and would have eight children.[14] After the marriage, Weaver started a law firm with Hosea Horn and continued his involvement in Republican politics.[14] He spoke on behalf of Samuel J. Kirkwood for governor in 1859 in a campaign in that focused heavily on the slavery debate; although the Republicans lost Weaver's Davis County, Kirkwood narrowly won the election.[15] The next year, Weaver served as a delegate to the state convention and, although not a national delegate, traveled with the Iowa delegation to the 1860 Republican National Convention, where Abraham Lincoln was nominated.[16] Lincoln carried Iowa and won the election, but Southern states responded to the Republican victory by seceding from the Union. By April 1861, the American Civil War had begun.[17]

Civil War[edit]

Lieutenant James B. Weaver

After the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, Lincoln called for 75,000 men to join the Union Army.[18] Weaver was among those who responded to the call. He enlisted in what became Company G of the 2nd Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment, and was elected the company's first lieutenant.[19] The 2nd Iowa, commanded by Colonel Samuel Ryan Curtis, a former Congressman, was ordered to Missouri in June 1861 to secure railroad lines in that border state.[20] Weaver's unit spent that summer in northern Missouri and did not see action.[21] In the meantime, Clara give birth to the couple's second child and first son, named James Bellamy Weaver after his father and Bellamy Storer.[22]

Weaver's first chance at action came in February 1862, when the 2nd Iowa joined Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant's army outside the Confederate Fort Donelson in Tennessee.[23] Weaver's company was in the thick of the action, which he described as a "holocaust to the demon of battles," and he took a minor wound in the arm.[23] The rebels surrendered the next day, the most important Union victory of the war to date.[24] The 2nd Iowa next joined other units in the area at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee to mass for a major assault deeper into the South.[25] Confederate forces met them there, in the Battle of Shiloh. 2nd Iowa was in the center of the Union lines, in the area later known as the "hornets' nest" and were forced to retreat amid fierce fighting.[25] The next day, the Union forces turned the tide and forced the rebels off the field in what Weaver called a "perfect rout."[26] The carnage at Shiloh—20,000 killed and wounded—was on a scale never before seen in American warfare, and both sides now learned that the war would be ended neither quickly nor easily.[27]

After Shiloh, Weaver and the 2nd Iowa slowly advanced to Corinth, Mississippi, where he was promoted to major.[28] Rebel forces attacked the Union armies there in the Second Battle of Corinth, where Weaver's courage in that Union victory convinced his superiors to promote him to colonel after the regiment's commanding officer was killed.[29] After Corinth, Weaver's unit took up garrison duty in northern Mississippi.[30] In the summer of 1863, they were redeployed to the Tennessee–Alabama border, again on occupation duty around Pulaski, Tennessee.[31] They rejoined the action at the Battle of Resaca and continued with Major General William Tecumseh Sherman's march through Georgia to the sea in 1864.[31] Weaver's enlistment ended in May 1864, and he returned to his family in Iowa.[31] After the war ended, Weaver received a promotion to brevet brigadier general, backdated to March 13, 1865.[32]

Republican politics[edit]

Weaver's home, built in 1867 in Bloomfield

Soon after returning from the war, Weaver became editor of a pro-Republican Bloomington newspaper, the Weekly Union Guard.[33] At the 1865 Iowa Republican State Convention, he placed second in the nomination for lieutenant governor.[34] The following year, Weaver was elected district attorney for the second judicial district, covering six counties in southern Iowa.[35] In 1867, President Andrew Johnson appointed him assessor of internal revenue in the first Congressional district, which extended across southeastern Iowa.[32] Weaver held that lucrative position until 1872, when Congress abolished it.[35] He also became involved in the Methodist Episcopal Church, serving as a delegate to a church convention in Baltimore in 1876.[36] Membership in the Methodist church coincided with Weaver's interest in the growing movement for prohibition of the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages.[36] His income and prestige grew along with his family, which added five more children by 1877.[36] Weaver's success allowed him to build a large new home for his family, which still stands.[36]

Weaver's work for the party led many to support his nomination to represent Iowa's 6th congressional district in the federal House of Representatives in 1874.[37] Many party insiders, however, were wary of Weaver's association with the Prohibition movement, preferring to remain uncommitted on the divisive issue.[37] At the convention, Weaver led on the first ballot, but ultimately lost the nomination by one vote to Ezekiel S. Sampson, a local judge.[38] Weaver's allies attributed his loss to "the meanest kind of wire pulling," but Weaver moved on and aimed instead at the gubernatorial nomination in 1875.[39] He launched a vigorous effort at the nomination, courting delegates around the state, explicitly endorsing Prohibition and greater state control of railroad rates.[40] Weaver attracted many delegates' support, but alienated those who were friendly to the railroads and wished to avoid the liquor issue.[40] Opposition was scattered among several lesser-known candidates, mostly members of Senator William B. Allison's conservative wing of the party.[41] They united at the convention when a delegate unexpectedly nominated former governor Kirkwood.[41] The nomination carried easily and, after Allison's associates persuaded him to accept it, Kirkwood was nominated.[41] In a further defeat, the delegates refused to endorse prohibition in the party platform.[42] Weaver had small consolation in a nomination to the state Senate, but he lost to his Democratic opponent in the election that fall.[43]

Switch to the Greenback Party[edit]

Weaver as a candidate for Congress, 1878

After his defeats in 1875, Weaver grew disenchanted with the Republican party, not only because it had spurned him, but also because of the policy choices of the dominant Allison faction.[44] In May 1876, he traveled to Indianapolis to attend the national convention of the newly formed Greenback Party.[44] The new party had arisen, mostly in the West, as a response to the economic depression that followed the Panic of 1873.[45] During the Civil War, Congress had authorized "greenbacks," a new form of fiat money that was redeemable not in gold but in government bonds.[46] The greenbacks had helped to finance the war when the government's gold supply did not keep pace with the expanding costs of maintaining the armies. When the crisis had passed, many in both parties, especially in the East, wanted to return the nation's currency to a gold standard as soon as possible.[47] The Specie Payment Resumption Act, passed in 1875, ordered that greenbacks be gradually withdrawn and replaced with gold-backed currency beginning in 1879. At the same time, economic depression had made it more expensive for debtors to pay debts they had contracted when currency was less valuable.[48] Beyond the monetary question, Greenbackers also favored an eight-hour work day, safety regulations in factories, and an end to child labor.[49] As one author put it, they "anticipated by almost fifty years the progressive legislation of the first quarter of the twentieth century."[49]

In the 1876 presidential campaign, the Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes and the Democrats chose Samuel J. Tilden. Both candidates opposed the issuance of more greenbacks (candidates who favored the gold-backed currency were called "hard money" supporters, while the inflationists' policy was known as "soft money.")[50] Weaver was impressed with the Greenbackers and their candidate, Peter Cooper, but while he advocated some soft-money policies, he declined the Greenback nomination for Congress and remained a Republican, campaigning for Hayes in the election that year.[51] In 1877, Weaver attended the Republican state convention and saw the state party adopt a soft money platform that also favored prohibition.[52] The gubernatorial nominee, however, was John H. Gear, an opponent of prohibition who had worked to defeat Weaver in his quest for the governorship two years earlier.[52] After initially supporting Gear, Weaver joined the Greenback party in August.[45] He gave speeches on behalf of his new party, debating former allies across the state and establishing himself as a prominent advocate for the Greenback cause.[53]

Congress[edit]

Weaver, depicted by Thomas Nast as an ungainly donkey, is finally recognized by Speaker Samuel J. Randall

In May 1878, Weaver accepted the Greenback nomination for the House of Representatives in the 6th district.[54] Although Weaver's political career up to then had been as a staunch Republican, Democrats in the 6th district considered that endorsing him was likely the only way to defeat Ezekiel S. Sampson, the incumbent Republican.[55] Since the start of the Civil War, Democrats had been in the minority across Iowa; electoral fusion with Greenbackers represented their best chance to get their candidates into office.[55] Hard money Democrats objected to the idea, but some were reassured when Henry H. Trimble, a prominent Bloomfield Democrat, assured them that if elected Weaver would align with House Democrats on all issues beside the money question.[56] Democrats declined to endorse any candidate at the 6th district convention, but soft money leaders in the party circulated their own slate of candidates that included Democrats and Greenbackers.[57] The Greenback-Democrat ticket prevailed, and Weaver was elected with 16,366 votes to Sampson's 14,307.[58]

Weaver entered the 46th Congress in March 1879, one of thirteen Greenbackers elected in 1878.[59] Although the House was closely divided, neither major party included the Greenbackers in their caucus, leaving them few committee assignments and little input on legislation.[60] Weaver gave his first speech in April 1879, criticizing the use of the army to police Southern polling stations, while also decrying the violence against black Southerners that made such protection necessary; he then described the Greenback platform, which he said would put an end to the sectional and economic strife.[61] The next month, he spoke in favor of a bill calling for the unlimited coinage of silver, but it was easily defeated.[62] Weaver's oratorical skill drew praise, but he had no luck in advancing Greenback policy ideas.[63]

In 1880, Weaver prepared a resolution stating that the government, not banks, should issue currency and determine its volume, and that the federal debt should be repaid in whatever currency the government chose, not just gold as the law then required.[64] The proposed resolution would never be allowed to emerge from committees dominated by Democrats and Republicans, so Weaver planned to introduce it directly to the whole House for debate, as members were permitted to do every Monday.[64] Rather than debate a proposition that would expose the monetary divide in the Democratic Party, Speaker Samuel J. Randall refused to recognize Weaver when he rose to propose the resolution.[64] Weaver returned to the floor each succeeding Monday, with the same result, and the press took notice of Randall's obstruction.[64] Eventually, Republican James A. Garfield of Ohio interceded with Randall to recognize Weaver, which he reluctantly did on April 5, 1880.[65] The Republicans, mostly united behind hard money, largely voted against the measure, while many Democrats joined the Greenbackers voting in favor; despite the soft money Democrats' support, the resolution was defeated 84–117 with many members abstaining.[66] Although he lost the vote, Weaver had promoted the monetary issue in the national consciousness.[66]

Presidential election of 1880[edit]

An 1880 cartoon in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper ridicules the Greenback party as a collection of disparate radicals.

By 1879, the Greenback coalition had divided, with the faction most prominent in the South and West, led by Marcus M. "Brick" Pomeroy, splitting from the main party.[67] Pomeroy's faction, called the "Union Greenback Labor Party," was more radical and emphasized its independence, suggesting that Eastern Greenbackers were likely to "sell out the party at any time to the Democrats."[67] Weaver remained with the rump Greenback party, often called the "National Greenback Party," and the national reputation he had earned in Congress made him one of the party's leading presidential hopefuls.[68]

The Union Greenbackers held their convention first, nominating Stephen D. Dellaye of New York for President and Barzillai J. Chambers of Texas for Vice President, but also sent a delegation to the Nation Greenback convention in Chicago that June, with an eye toward reuniting the party.[69] The two factions agreed to reunify, and also to admit a delegation from the Socialist Labor Party.[70] Thus united, the convention turned to nominations. Weaver led on the first ballot, and on the second he secured a majority.[71] Chambers won the convention's vote for Vice President.[71]

In a departure from the political traditions of the day, Weaver himself campaigned, making speeches across the South in July and August.[72] As the Greenbackers had the only ticket that included a Southerner, Weaver and Chambers hoped to make inroads in the South.[73] As the campaign progressed, however, Weaver's message of racial inclusion drew violent protests in the South, as the Greenbackers faced the same obstacles the Republicans did in the face of increasing black disenfranchisement.[74] In the autumn, Weaver campaigned in the North, but the Greenbackers' lack of support was compounded by Weaver's refusal to run a fusion ticket in states where Democratic and Greenbacker strength might have combined to outvote the Republicans.[75]

Weaver received 305,997 votes and no electoral votes, compared to 4,446,158 for the winner, Republican James A. Garfield, and 4,444,260 for Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock.[76] The party was strongest in the West and South, but in no state did Weaver receive more than 12% of the vote, and his nationwide total was just 3%.[77] That figure represented an improvement over the Greenback vote of 1876, but to Weaver, who expected twice as many votes as he received, it was a disappointment.[78]

Office-seeker and party promoter[edit]

After the election, Weaver returned to the lame-duck session of Congress and proposed an unsuccessful constitutional amendment that would have provided for the direct election of Senators.[79][a] After his term expired in March, he resumed his speaking tour, promoting the Greenback Party across the nation.[80] He and Edward H. Gillette, another Iowa Greenback Congressman, bought the Iowa Tribune in 1882 to help spread the Greenback message.[81] That same year, Weaver ran for his old 6th district seat in the House against the incumbent Republican, Marsena E. Cutts.[82] This time the Democrats and Greenbackers ran separate candidates, and Weaver finished a distant second.[82] Cutts died before taking office, and the Republicans offered to let Weaver run unopposed in the special election if he rejoined their party; he declined, and John C. Cook, a Democrat, won the seat.[82]

In 1883, Weaver was the Greenback nominee for governor of Iowa.[81] Again, the Democrats ran a separate candidate and the incumbent Republican, Buren R. Sherman, was reelected with a plurality.[81] Weaver was a delegate to the 1884 Greenback National Convention in Indianapolis and supported the eventual nominee, Benjamin Butler of Massachusetts.[83] Back in Iowa, Weaver again ran for the House, this time with the Democrats' support. Greenback fortunes declined nationally, as Butler received just over half as many votes for president as Weaver had four years earlier.[84] Weaver's House race bucked the trend: he defeated Republican Frank T. Campbell by just 67 votes.[84]

Return to Congress[edit]

Unlike in his previous Congressional term, when Weaver entered the 49th United States Congress, he was only Greenback member.[85] The new president, Democrat Grover Cleveland, was friendly to Weaver, asking his advice on Iowa patronage.[86] As it had been for years, Weaver's chief concern was with the nation's money and finance.[87]

In 1885, he proposed the creation of a Department of Labor, which he suggested would find a solution to disputes between labor and management.[88][b] Labor tensions increased the following year as the Knights of Labor went on strike against Jay Gould's rail empire and a strike against the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company ended in the bloody Haymarket riot.[88] Weaver believed the nation's hard money politics were responsible for labor unrest, calling it "purely a question of money, and nothing else" and declaring that "[i]f this Congress will not protect labor, it must protect itself."[88] He saw the triumph of one plank of the Greenback platform when Congress established the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the railroads.[89] Weaver thought the bill should have given the government more power, including the ability to set rates directly, but he voted for the final bill.[89]

Weaver supported white settlers' right to homesteads in the Unassigned Lands.

Weaver also took up the issue of white settlement in Indian Territory.[90] For several years, white settlers had been claiming homesteads in the Unassigned Lands in what is now Oklahoma.[91] After the Civil War, the Five Civilized Tribes had been forced to cede their unused western lands to the federal government. The settlers, known as Boomers, believed that federal ownership made the lands open to settlement under the Homestead Acts.[92] The federal government disagreed, as did the Cherokee Nation, which leased its neighboring Cherokee Outlet to Kansas cattle ranchers, and many Easterners, who believed the Boomers to be the tools of railroad interests.[91][92] Weaver saw the issue as one between the landless poor and wealthy cattlemen, and took the side of the former.[93] He introduced a bill in December 1885 that would organize Indian Territory and the neighboring Neutral Strip into a new Oklahoma Territory.[94] The bill died in committee, but Weaver reintroduced it in February 1886 and gave a speech calling for the Indian reservations to be broken up into homesteads for individual Natives, with the remaining land to be open to white settlement.[95]

The Committee on Territories again rejected Weaver's bill, but approved a compromise measure that opened the Unassigned Lands, Cherokee Outlet, and Neutral Strip to settlement.[96] Congress debated the bill over several months, while the tribes announced their resistance to their lands becoming a territory; according to an 1884 Supreme Court decision, Elk v. Wilkins, Native Americans were not citizens, and thus would have no voting rights in the new territory.[97] When Weaver returned to Iowa to campaign for releection, the bill was still in limbo.[98] Running again on a Democratic-Greenback fusion ticket, Weaver was reelected with a 618-vote majority.[99]

In the lame-duck session of 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Act, which allowed the president to terminate tribal governments, breaking up Indian reservations into homesteads for individual natives.[98] Although the Five Civilized Tribes were exempt from the Act, the spirit of the law encouraged Weaver and the Boomers to continue their own efforts to open western Indian Territory to white settlement.[98] Weaver reintroduced his Oklahoma bill in the new Congress the following year, but again it stalled in committee.[100] He returned to Iowa for another reelection campaign that September, but the Greenback party had fallen apart, replaced by a new left-wing third party, the Union Labor Party.[101] In Iowa's 6th district, the new party agreed to fuse with Democrats to nominate Weaver, but this time the Republicans were stronger.[101] Their candidate, John F. Lacey, was elected by 828 votes.[102] The Union Laborites and their presidential candidate, Alson Streeter, fared poorly nationally as well, and the new party soon dissolved.[103] Weaver returned to Congress for the lame-duck session and once more pushed to organize the Oklahoma Territory.[104] This time, he prevailed, as the House voted 147–102 to open the Unassigned Lands to homesteaders.[105] The Senate followed suit and President Cleveland, who was also about to leave office, signed the bill into law.[106]

Populist Party[edit]

Weaver in 1892

The new president, Republican Benjamin Harrison, set April 22, 1889, as the date when the rush for the Unassigned Lands would begin.[107] Weaver arrived at a railroad station[c] in the territory in March, where would-be homesteaders welcomed him with great acclaim.[107] Although settlers were not allowed to stake claims before noon on April 22, many scouted out the land ahead of time, even marking off informal claims; Weaver was among them.[107] After the rush, settlers who had waited challenged the claims of the "Sooners" who had entered early.[108] Weaver's identification with the group harmed his popularity in the territory.[108] His claim was ultimately denied, and he returned to Iowa in 1890.[108]

Weaver and his wife moved their household from Bloomfield to Des Moines in 1890 as the former Congressman took up more active management of the Iowa Tribune.[109] The Greenback and Union Labor parties were defunct, but he still proselytized for their ideas.[109] In August 1890, Weaver addressed a convention in Des Moines where former Greenbackers and Laborites gathered, although he declined their nomination for Congress.[110] The economic conditions that had created the Greenback party had not gone away; indeed, many farmers and laborers believed their situation had gotten worse since the Long Depression began in 1873.[111] Many farmers had joined the Farmers' Alliance, which sought to promote soft money ideas on a non-partisan basis; rather than create a third party, they endorsed major party candidates who supported their ideas and hired speakers to educate the public.[112] Alliance-backed candidates did well in the 1890 elections, especially in the South, where Democrats endorsed by the Alliance won 44 seats.[112]

Alliance members gathered in that December in Ocala, Florida and formulated a platform, later called the Ocala Demands, that called for looser money, government control of the railroads, a graduated income tax, and the direct election of senators.[113] Weaver endorsed the message in the Tribune and corresponded with the group's leader, Leonidas L. Polk.[113] Weaver attended the group's convention in Cincinnati in May 1891, where he and Polk argued against forming a third party.[113] Another delegate, Ignatius L. Donnelly, argued forcefully for a break from the two major parties, and his argument carried the day, although Weaver and Polk kept many of Donnelly's more radical proposals out of the convention's statement of principles.[113]

Presidential election of 1892[edit]

1892 People's Party campaign poster

Weaver accepted the decision to form a new party (called the People's Party or Populist Party) and published a book, A Call to Action, the following year detailing the party's principals and castigating the "few haughty millionaires who are gathering up the riches of the new world".[114] He attended their convention in Omaha, Nebraska, in July 1892.[115]

Results showing the percentage of votes cast for Weaver in each county in the election of 1892.

In 1892 he was the presidential nominee of the Peoples Party at its convention in Omaha and chose a strategy of forming alliances with African Americans in the South. His policy was not well received by Whites in the South and led to violence and intimidation against black voters.

Weaver received such strong support in the West that he become the only third-party nominee between 1860 and 1912 to carry a single state. In one of the better showings by a third-party candidate in U.S. history, Weaver received over a million popular votes, and won four states (Colorado, Kansas, Idaho, and Nevada) and 22 electoral votes. Weaver also performed well in the South as he won counties in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Texas. Populists did best in Alabama, where electoral fraud probably carried the day for Democrats.

Weaver's running mate was James G. Field, a former Confederate general from Virginia whom he selected in an effort to move beyond the era's prevailing bloody shirt politics.

Work with the 1896 election[edit]

In the 1896 election, he threw his support behind Democrat William Jennings Bryan, who supported many of the Populist causes and who subsequently captured the Democratic Party nomination. Weaver had believed that he had struck a deal with Bryan that Tom Watson, who had helped found the Populist Party with Weaver, would be Bryan's running mate. Instead Bryan chose Arthur Sewall, a conservative opponent of trade unions from Maine. As a consequence, many in the Populist Party turned against Bryan and refused to support him in the general election. Bryan was defeated by Republican nominee William McKinley.

The People's Party went into decline after 1896 and soon disappeared; however, many of its core ideas, such as the direct election of United States Senators, a graduated income tax, and the relaxation of the gold standard, were implemented in later decades, the first two by means of the necessary constitutional amendments.

Later years, death, and legacy[edit]

Weaver served as mayor of Colfax, Iowa from 1901 to 1903. He died in Des Moines, Iowa.


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Before the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1913, Senators were chosen by their states' legislatures.
  2. ^ In 1903, Congress did create a Department of Commerce and Labor; in 1913 a separate Department of Labor was created.
  3. ^ Oklahoma Station, where the settlers gathered, was the site of the future capital, Oklahoma City.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Haynes 1919, p. 2.
  2. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 8.
  3. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 7.
  4. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 12.
  5. ^ Mitchell 2008, pp. 8–9.
  6. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 13.
  7. ^ Haynes 1919, pp. 10–13.
  8. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, pp. 18–20.
  9. ^ Haynes 1919, p. 14.
  10. ^ Mitchell 2008, pp. 24–25; Lause 2001, p. 10.
  11. ^ Haynes 1919, p. 16.
  12. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 26.
  13. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 27.
  14. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 28.
  15. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 30.
  16. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 31.
  17. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 33.
  18. ^ McPherson 1988, p. 274.
  19. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 35.
  20. ^ Haynes 1919, p. 27.
  21. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 36.
  22. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 24.
  23. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 39.
  24. ^ McPherson 1988, p. 402.
  25. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 40.
  26. ^ Haynes 1919, p. 41.
  27. ^ McPherson 1988, pp. 413–414.
  28. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 42.
  29. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 43.
  30. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 44.
  31. ^ a b c Mitchell 2008, pp. 46–47.
  32. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 50.
  33. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 49.
  34. ^ Lause 2001, p. 15.
  35. ^ a b Haynes 1919, p. 68.
  36. ^ a b c d Mitchell 2008, p. 51.
  37. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 55.
  38. ^ Haynes 1919, pp. 70–71.
  39. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 57.
  40. ^ a b Haynes 1919, p. 74.
  41. ^ a b c Mitchell 2008, pp. 58–59.
  42. ^ Haynes 1919, pp. 80–81.
  43. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 61.
  44. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 68.
  45. ^ a b Colbert 1978, p. 26.
  46. ^ Unger 1964, pp. 14–15.
  47. ^ Unger 1964, pp. 16–17.
  48. ^ Unger 1964, pp. 228–233.
  49. ^ a b Clancy 1958, pp. 163-164.
  50. ^ Mitchell 2008, pp. 65–66.
  51. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 69.
  52. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 70.
  53. ^ Haynes 1919, pp. 95–98.
  54. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 74.
  55. ^ a b Colbert 1978, p. 27.
  56. ^ Colbert 1978, pp. 31–33.
  57. ^ Colbert 1978, pp. 35–38.
  58. ^ Colbert 1978, p. 39.
  59. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 83.
  60. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 84.
  61. ^ Haynes 1919, pp. 108–113.
  62. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 87.
  63. ^ Mitchell 2008, pp. 88–89.
  64. ^ a b c d Mitchell 2008, p. 90.
  65. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 92.
  66. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 93.
  67. ^ a b Doolen 1972, pp. 439–440.
  68. ^ Mitchell 2008, pp. 98–99.
  69. ^ Lause 2001, pp. 50–51.
  70. ^ Lause 2001, pp. 61–71.
  71. ^ a b Lause 2001, pp. 79–81.
  72. ^ Mitchell 2008, pp. 102–103.
  73. ^ Lause 2001, pp. 85–104.
  74. ^ Lause 2001, pp. 105–124.
  75. ^ Lause 2001, pp. 124–146.
  76. ^ Ackerman 2003, p. 221.
  77. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 111.
  78. ^ Lause 2001, pp. 206–208.
  79. ^ Mitchell 2008, pp. 115–116.
  80. ^ Mitchell 2008, pp. 117–120.
  81. ^ a b c Mitchell 2008, p. 122.
  82. ^ a b c Mitchell 2008, p. 121.
  83. ^ Haynes 1919, pp. 215–216.
  84. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 124.
  85. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 127.
  86. ^ Haynes 1919, p. 289.
  87. ^ Haynes 1919, p. 221.
  88. ^ a b c Mitchell 2008, pp. 129–130.
  89. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 131.
  90. ^ Colbert 2008, p. 177.
  91. ^ a b Colbert 2008, pp. 178–179.
  92. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 128.
  93. ^ Colbert 2008, p. 179.
  94. ^ Colbert 2008, p. 181.
  95. ^ Colbert 2008, p. 182.
  96. ^ Colbert 2008, p. 183.
  97. ^ Colbert 2008, p. 184.
  98. ^ a b c Colbert 2008, p. 185.
  99. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 132.
  100. ^ Colbert 2008, p. 186.
  101. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 133.
  102. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 134.
  103. ^ Newcombe 1946, p. 88.
  104. ^ Colbert 2008, p. 188.
  105. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 137.
  106. ^ Colbert 2008, p. 190.
  107. ^ a b c Colbert 2008, p. 191.
  108. ^ a b c Colbert 2008, p. 192.
  109. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, p. 139.
  110. ^ Haynes 1919, pp. 300–301.
  111. ^ Goodwyn 1978, p. viii.
  112. ^ a b Mitchell 2008, pp. 140–141.
  113. ^ a b c d Mitchell 2008, pp. 142–143.
  114. ^ Weaver 1892, p. 6.
  115. ^ Mitchell 2008, p. 152.

Sources[edit]

Books

  • Ackerman, Kenneth D. (2003). Dark Horse: The Surprise Election and Political Murder of President James A. Garfield. New York, New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1151-5. 
  • Clancy, Herbert J. (1958). The Presidential Election of 1880. Chicago, Illinois: Loyola University Press. ISBN 978-1-258-19190-0. 
  • Goodwyn, Lawrence (1978). The Populist Moment: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America. New York, New York: Galaxy Books. ISBN 0-1950-2417-6. 
  • Haynes, Frederick Emory (1919). James Baird Weaver. Iowa City, Iowa: The State Historical Society of Iowa. OCLC 3733204. 
  • Lause, Mark A. (2001). The Civil War's Last Campaign: James B. Weaver, the Greenback-Labor Party & the Politics of Race and Section. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-1917-7. 
  • McPherson, James M. (1988). Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. New York, New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-35942-9. 
  • Mitchell, Robert B. (2008). Skirmisher: The Life, Times, and Political Career of James B. Weaver. Roseville, Minnesota: Edinborough Press. ISBN 978-1-889020-26-6. 
  • Unger, Irwin (1964). The Greenback Era: A Social and Political History of American Finance, 1865–1879. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04517-8. 
  • Weaver, James Baird (1892). A Call to Action: An Interpretation of the Great Uprising, Its Source and Causes. Des Moines, Iowa: Iowa Printing Co. OCLC 647058228. 

Articles

  • Colbert, Thomas Burnell (Spring 1978). "Political Fusion in Iowa: The Election of James B. Weaver to Congress in 1878". Arizona and the West 20 (1): 25–40. JSTOR 40168674. 
  • Colbert, Thomas Burnell (Autumn 2008). "The Lion of the Land: James B. Weaver, Kansas, and the Oklahoma lands. 1884-1890". Kansas History 31 (3): 176–193. 
  • Doolen, Richard M. (Winter 1972). ""Brick" Pomeroy and the Greenback Clubs". Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 65 (4): 434–450. JSTOR 40191206. 
  • Newcombe, Alfred W. (March 1946). "Alson J. Streeter: An Agrarian Liberal". Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 39 (1): 68–95. JSTOR 40188188. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Colbert, Thomas Burnell (1988). "Disgruntled 'Chronic Office Seeker' or Man of Political Integrity: James Baird Weaver and the Republican Party in Iowa, 1857-1877". Annals of Iowa 49: 187–207. 
  • Sage, Leland L. (1953). "Weaver in Allison's Way". Annals of Iowa 31: 485–507. 

External links[edit]

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Ezekiel S. Sampson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Iowa's 6th congressional district

March 4, 1879 – March 3, 1881 (obsolete district)
Succeeded by
Marsena E. Cutts
Preceded by
John C. Cook
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Iowa's 6th congressional district

March 4, 1885 – March 3, 1889 (obsolete district)
Succeeded by
John F. Lacey
Party political offices
Preceded by
Peter Cooper
Greenback Party presidential candidate
1880 (lost)
Succeeded by
Benjamin Franklin Butler
Preceded by
(none)
People's Party presidential candidate
1892 (lost)
Succeeded by
William Jennings Bryan
Political offices
Preceded by
Phineas H. Cragan
Mayor of Colfax, Iowa
1901 – 1903
Succeeded by
John H. Hahn