James Baldwin

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This article is about the American writer. For other persons with the same name, see James Baldwin (disambiguation).
James Baldwin
James baldwin.jpg
Baldwin in 1971
Born James Arthur Baldwin
(1924-08-02)August 2, 1924
Harlem, New York, U.S.
Died December 1, 1987(1987-12-01) (aged 63)
Saint-Paul de Vence, France
Occupation Writer, novelist, poet, playwright, activist
Nationality American
Alma mater DeWitt Clinton High School,
The New School
Period 1947–1985

James Arthur Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet, and social critic. Baldwin's essays, as collected in Notes of a Native Son (1955), explore palpable yet unspoken intricacies of racial, sexual, and class distinctions in Western societies, most notably in mid-20th-century America, and their inevitable if unnameable tensions.[1] Some Baldwin essays are book-length, for instance The Fire Next Time (1963), No Name in the Street (1972), and The Devil Finds Work (1976).

Baldwin's novels and plays fictionalize fundamental personal questions and dilemmas amid complex social and psychological pressures thwarting the equitable integration of not only blacks, but also of gay and bisexual men, while depicting some internalized obstacles to such individuals' quests for acceptance. Such dynamics are prominent in Baldwin's second novel, written well before gay equality was widely espoused in America: Giovanni's Room (1956).[2] Baldwin's first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain, is said to be his best-known work.

Early life[edit]

When Baldwin was an infant, his mother, Emma Berdis Jones, divorced his father amid his drug abuse and moved to the Harlem section of Manhattan in New York City. There, she married a preacher, David Baldwin. The family was very poor.

James spent much time caring for his several younger brothers and sisters. At age ten, he was beaten by a gang of police officers. His adoptive father, whom James in essays called simply his father, appears to have treated James—versus James's siblings—with singular harshness.

His stepfather died of tuberculosis in summer of 1943 soon before James turned 19. The day of the funeral was James's 19th birthday, the day his father's last child was born, and the day of the Harlem Riot of 1943, which was the portrait opening his essay "Notes of a Native Son".[3] The quest to answer or explain familial and social repudiation—and attain a sense of self, both coherent and benevolent—became a motif in Baldwin's writing.

Schooling[edit]

James attended DeWitt Clinton High School, in the Bronx's Bedford Park section.[4] There, along with Richard Avedon, he worked on the school magazine—Baldwin as its literary editor—but disliked school.[5] After high school, Baldwin studied at The New School, where he found an intellectual community that he could identify with.

Religion[edit]

The difficulties of his life, as well as his abusive preacher stepfather, led Baldwin to become a part of the church. At age 14 he attended meetings of the Pentecostal Church and, during a euphoric prayer meeting, he converted. Soon, as a junior minister at the Fireside Pentecostal Assembly, he drew larger crowds than his stepfather did. At 17, however, Baldwin came to view Christianity as falsely premised and later regarded his time in the pulpit as a remedy to his personal crises.

Baldwin once visited Elijah Muhammad, founder of the Nation of Islam, who inquired about Baldwin's religious beliefs. He answered, "I left the church 20 years ago and haven't joined anything since." Elijah asked, "And what are you now?" Baldwin explained, "I? Now? Nothing. I'm a writer. I like doing things alone."[6] Still, his church experience significantly shaped his worldview and writing.[7] Baldwin reflected that "being in the pulpit was like being in the theatre; I was behind the scenes and knew how the illusion was worked."[8]

Baldwin admonished Christianity for, as he explained, reinforcing the system of American slavery by palliating the pangs of oppression and delaying salvation until a promised afterlife.[9] Baldwin praised religion, however, for inspiring some American blacks to defy oppression.[9] Baldwin once wrote, "If the concept of God has any use, it is to make us larger, freer, and more loving. If God can't do that, it's time we got rid of him".[10] Yet Baldwin never publicly identified himself as atheist.[10] At his funeral, a mostly a cappella recording of the adult Baldwin singing "Take My Hand, Precious Lord" was played.[11]

Greenwich Village[edit]

When Baldwin was 15, his high-school running buddy, Emile Capouya, skipped school one day and, in Greenwich Village, met Beauford Delaney, a painter.[12] Emile gave James the address, and suggested a visit.[12] James, who worked at a sweatshop nearby on Canal Street and dreaded going home after school, visited Beauford at 181 Greene Street. He became a mentor to Baldwin, and Beauford's influence brought him to his first realization that a black person could be an artist.[12][12]

While working odd jobs, he wrote short stories, essays, and book reviews, some of them collected in the volume Notes of a Native Son (1955). He befriended the actor Marlon Brando in 1944 and the two were roommates for a time.[13] They would remain friends for over 20 years.

Baldwin's expatriation[edit]

James Baldwin, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1955

During his teenage years in Harlem and Greenwich Village, Baldwin started to realize that he was bisexual.[14] In 1948, Baldwin walked into a restaurant where he knew he could not be served. When the waitress explained that black people were not served the establishment, James Baldwin threw a glass of water at her, shattering the mirror behind the bar.[15] As a result of being disillusioned by American prejudice against blacks and gays, Baldwin left the United States at age 24 and settled in Paris, France. His flight was not just a desire to distance himself from American prejudice, but to see himself and his writing beyond an African American context. Baldwin did not want to be read as not "merely a Negro; or, even, merely a Negro writer".[16] Also, he left the United States desiring to come to terms with his sexual ambivalence and flee the hopelessness that many young African American men like himself succumbed to in New York.[17]

In Paris, Baldwin was soon involved in the cultural radicalism of the Left Bank. His work started to be published in literary anthologies, notably Zero,[18] which was edited by his friend Themistocles Hoetis and which had already published essays by Richard Wright.

He would live in France for most of his later life. He would also spend some time in Switzerland and Turkey.[19][20] During his life and after it, Baldwin would be seen not only as an influential African American writer but also as an influential exile writer, particularly because of his numerous experiences outside of the United States and the impact of these experiences on Baldwin's life and his writing.

James Baldwin and Saint-Paul de Vence[edit]

James Baldwin in his house in Saint-Paul de Vence

James Baldwin settled in Saint-Paul de Vence (South of France) in 1970, in an old Provence house beneath the ramparts of the famous village. His house was always open to his friends and they would never fail to pop in and say hello when visiting the French Riviera. American painter Beauford Delaney made James Baldwin's house in Saint-Paul de Vence his second home, often setting up his easel in the garden. Beauford Delaney painted several colourful portraits of James Baldwin. Actors Harry Belafonte and Sidney Poitiers were also regular house guests.

A lot of Baldwin's musician friends dropped in during the Nice and Juan-les-Pins jazz festivals: Nina Simone, Josephine Baker (whose sister lived in Nice), Miles Davis and Ray Charles for whom James Baldwin composed several pieces of music.[21] In his biography, musician Miles Davis wrote:

I'd read his books and I liked and respected what he had to say. When I got to know him better, Jimmy and I opened up to each other. We became great friends. Every time I was in the South of France, in Antibes, I would spend a day or two at his villa in Saint-Paul de Vence. We'd get comfy in that beautiful, big house and he would tell us all sorts of stories... He was a great man.[22]

James Baldwin spoke impeccable French and developed friendships with French actor Yves Montand and French writer Marguerite Yourcenar, who translated his play The Amen Corner.

His years in Saint-Paul de Vence were also years of work. Sitting in front of his sturdy typewriter, his days were devoted to writing and to answering the huge amount of mail he received from all over the world. He wrote several of his last works in his house in Saint Paul de Vence, including Just above my head in 1979 and Evidence of Things Not Seen in 1985. It was also in his Saint-Paul de Vence house that James Baldwin wrote his famous Open Letter to My Sister, Angela Y. Davis in November 1970.

Literary career[edit]

Baldwin with Shakespeare by Allan Warren

In 1953, Baldwin's first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain, a semi-autobiographical bildungsroman, was published. Baldwin's first collection of essays, Notes of a Native Son appeared two years later. Baldwin continued to experiment with literary forms throughout his career, publishing poetry and plays as well as the fiction and essays for which he was known.

Baldwin's second novel, Giovanni's Room, stirred controversy when it was first published in 1956 due to its explicit homoerotic content.[23] Baldwin was again resisting labels with the publication of this work:[24] despite the reading public's expectations that he would publish works dealing with the African American experience, Giovanni's Room is predominantly about white characters.[24] Baldwin's next two novels, Another Country and Tell Me How Long the Train's Been Gone, are sprawling, experimental works[25] dealing with black and white characters and with heterosexual, gay, and bisexual characters.[26] These novels struggle to contain the turbulence of the 1960s: they are saturated with a sense of violent unrest and outrage.

Baldwin's lengthy essay Down at the Cross (frequently called The Fire Next Time after the title of the book in which it was published)[27] similarly showed the seething discontent of the 1960s in novel form. The essay was originally published in two oversized issues of The New Yorker and landed Baldwin on the cover of Time magazine in 1963 while Baldwin was touring the South speaking about the restive Civil Rights movement. Around the time of The Fire Next Time's publication, Baldwin became a known spokesperson for civil rights and a celebrity noted for championing the cause of black Americans. He frequently appeared on television and delivered speeches on college campuses.[28] The essay talked about the uneasy relationship between Christianity and the burgeoning Black Muslim movement. After publication, several black nationalists criticized Baldwin for his conciliatory attitude. They questioned whether his message of love and understanding would do much to change race relations in America.[28] The book was eagerly consumed by whites looking for answers to the question: What do blacks really want? His essays never stopped articulating the anger and frustration felt by real-life black Americans with more clarity and style than any other writer of his generation.[29] Baldwin's next book-length essay, No Name in the Street, also discussed his own experience in the context of the later 1960s, specifically the assassinations of three of his personal friends: Medgar Evers, Malcolm X, and Martin Luther King, Jr.

Baldwin's writings of the 1970s and 1980s have been largely overlooked by critics, though even these texts are beginning to receive attention.[30] Several of his essays and interviews of the 1980s discuss homosexuality and homophobia with fervor and forthrightness.[31] Eldridge Cleaver's harsh criticism of Baldwin in Soul on Ice and elsewhere[32] and Baldwin's return to southern France contributed to the sense that he was not in touch with his readership. Always true to his own convictions rather than to the tastes of others, Baldwin continued to write what he wanted to write. As he had been the leading literary voice of the civil rights movement, he became an inspirational figure for the emerging gay rights movement.[31] His two novels written in the 1970s, If Beale Street Could Talk and Just Above My Head, placed a strong emphasis on the importance of black families, and he concluded his career by publishing a volume of poetry, Jimmy's Blues as well as another book-length essay, The Evidence of Things Not Seen, which was an extended meditation inspired by the Atlanta Child Murders of the early 1980s.

Social and political activism[edit]

Baldwin returned to the United States in the summer of 1957 while the Civil Rights Act of that year was being debated in Congress. He had been powerfully moved by the image of a young girl braving a mob in an attempt to desegregate schools in Charlotte, N.C., and Partisan Review editor Philip Rahv had suggested he report on what was happening in the American south. Baldwin was nervous about the trip but he made it, interviewing people in Charlotte, Atlanta (where he met Martin Luther King), and Montgomery, Alabama. The result was two essays, one published in Harper's magazine ("The Hard Kind of Courage"), the other in Partisan Review ("Nobody Knows My Name"). Subsequent Baldwin articles on the movement appeared in Mademoiselle, Harper's, the New York Times Magazine, and the New Yorker, where in 1962 he published the essay he called "Down at the Cross" and the New Yorker called "Letter from a Region of My Mind". Along with a shorter essay from The Progressive, the essay became The Fire Next Time.[33]

While he wrote about the movement, Baldwin aligned himself with the ideals of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1963 he conducted a lecture tour of the South for CORE, traveling to locations like Durham and Greensboro, North Carolina and New Orleans, Louisiana. During the tour, he lectured to students, white liberals, and anyone else listening about his racial ideology, an ideological position between the "muscular approach" of Malcolm X and the nonviolent program of Martin Luther King Jr..[34]

By the Spring of 1963, Baldwin had become so much a spokesman for the Civil Rights Movement that for its May 17 issue on the turmoil in Birmingham, Alabama, Time magazine put James Baldwin on the cover. "There is not another writer," said Time, "who expresses with such poignancy and abrasiveness the dark realities of the racial ferment in North and South."[35] In a cable Baldwin sent to Attorney General Robert Kennedy during the crisis, Baldwin blamed the violence in Birmingham on the FBI, J.Edgar Hoover, Mississippi Senator James O. Eastland, and President Kennedy for failing to use "the great prestige of his office as the moral forum which it can be." Attorney General Kennedy invited Baldwin to meet with him over breakfast, and that meeting was followed up with a second, when Kennedy met with Baldwin and others Baldwin had invited to Kennedy's Manhattan apartment.[36] The delegation included Kenneth B. Clark, a psychologist who had played a key role in the Brown v. Board of Education decision; actor Harry Belafonte, singer Lena Horne, writer Lorraine Hansberry, and activists from civil rights organizations.[37] Although most of the attendees of this meeting left feeling "devastated," the meeting was an important one in voicing the concerns of the civil rights movement and it provided exposure of the civil rights issue not just as a political issue but also as a moral issue.[38]

Baldwin also made a prominent appearance at the Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963, with Belafonte and long time friends Sidney Poitier and Marlon Brando.[39] The civil rights movement was hostile to homosexuals. The only known gay men in the movement were James Baldwin and Bayard Rustin. Rustin and King were very close, as Rustin received credit for the success of the March on Washington. Many were bothered by Rustins sexual orientation. King himself spoke on the topic of sexual orientation in a school editorial column during his college years. The pressure later resulted in King distancing himself from both men. At the time, Baldwin was neither in the closet or open to the public about his sexual orientation. Later on, Baldwin was conspicuously uninvited to speak at the end of the March on Washington.[40] After a bomb exploded in a Birmingham church not long after the March on Washington, Baldwin called for a nationwide campaign of civil disobedience in response to this "terrifying crisis." He traveled to Selma, Alabama, where SNCC had organized a voter registration drive; he watched mothers with babies and elderly men and women standing in long lines for hours, as armed deputies and state troopers stood by—or intervened to smash a reporter's camera or use cattle prods on SNCC workers. After his day of watching, he spoke in a crowded church, blaming Washington—"the good white people on the hill." Returning to Washington, he told a New York Post reporter the federal government could protect Negroes—it could send federal troops into the South. He blamed the Kennedys for not acting.[41] In March 1964, Baldwin joined marchers who walked 50 miles from Selma, Alabama, to the capitol in Montgomery under the protection of federal troops.[42]

Nonetheless, he rejected the label civil rights activist, or that he had participated in a civil rights movement, instead agreeing with Malcolm X's assertion that if one is a citizen, one should not have to fight for one's civil rights. In a 1979 speech at UC Berkeley, he called it, instead, "the latest slave rebellion."[43]

In 1968, Baldwin signed the “Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War.[44]

Inspiration and relationships[edit]

Richard Wright (1908–1960) photographed in 1939 by Carl Van Vechten

As a young man, Baldwin's poetry teacher was Countee Cullen.[45]

A great influence on Baldwin was the painter Beauford Delaney. In The Price of the Ticket (1985), Baldwin describes Delaney as

the first living proof, for me, that a black man could be an artist. In a warmer time, a less blasphemous place, he would have been recognized as my teacher and I as his pupil. He became, for me, an example of courage and integrity, humility and passion. An absolute integrity: I saw him shaken many times and I lived to see him broken but I never saw him bow.

Later support came from Richard Wright, whom Baldwin called "the greatest black writer in the world." Wright and Baldwin became friends, and Wright helped Baldwin secure the Eugene F. Saxon Memorial Award. Baldwin's essay "Notes of a Native Son" and his essay collection Notes of a Native Son allude to Wright's novel Native Son. In Baldwin's 1949 essay "Everybody's Protest Novel", however, Baldwin indicated that Native Son, like Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, lacked credible characters and psychological complexity, and the two authors' friendship ended.[46] Interviewed by Julius Lester,[47] however, Baldwin explained, "I knew Richard and I loved him. I was not attacking him; I was trying to clarify something for myself." In 1965, Baldwin participated in a debate with William F. Buckley, on the topic of whether the American dream has adversely affected African Americans. The debate took place at Cambridge University in the UK. The spectating student body voted overwhelmingly in Baldwin's favour.[48]

In 1949 Baldwin met and fell in love with Lucien Happersberger, age 17, though Happersberger's marriage three years later left Baldwin distraught.[49] Happersberger died on August 21, 2010 in Switzerland.

Baldwin was a close friend of the singer, pianist, and civil rights activist Nina Simone. With Langston Hughes and Lorraine Hansberry, Baldwin helped awaken Simone to the civil rights movement then gelling. Baldwin also provided her with literary references influential on her later work. Famously, Baldwin and Hansberry met with Robert F. Kennedy, along with Kenneth Clark and Lena Horne, in an attempt to persuade Kennedy of the importance of civil rights legislation.[50]

Baldwin influenced the work of French painter Philippe Derome, who he met in Paris in the early 1960s. Baldwin also knew Marlon Brando, Charlton Heston, Billy Dee Williams, Huey P. Newton, Nikki Giovanni, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean Genet (with whom he campaigned on behalf of the Black Panther Party), Lee Strasberg, Elia Kazan, Rip Torn, Alex Haley, Miles Davis, Amiri Baraka, Martin Luther King, Jr., Margaret Mead, Josephine Baker, Allen Ginsberg, Chinua Achebe and Maya Angelou. He wrote at length about his "political relationship" with Malcolm X. He collaborated with childhood friend Richard Avedon on the book Nothing Personal, which is available for public viewing at the Schomburg Center in Harlem.[45]

Maya Angelou called Baldwin her "friend and brother", and credited him for "setting the stage" for her 1969 autobiography I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Baldwin was made a Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur by the French government in 1986.[51]

James Baldwin was also a close friend of Nobel Prize winning novelist Toni Morrison. Upon Baldwin's death, Toni Morrison wrote a eulogy for Baldwin that appeared in the New York Times. In the eulogy, entitled "Life in His Language," Toni Morrison credits James Baldwin as being her literary inspiration and the person who showed her the true potential of writing. She writes,

You knew, didn't you, how I needed your language and the mind that formed it? How I relied on your fierce courage to tame wildernesses for me? How strengthened I was by the certainty that came from knowing you would never hurt me? You knew, didn't you, how I loved your love? You knew. This then is no calamity. No. This is jubilee. 'Our crown,' you said, 'has already been bought and paid for. All we have to do,' you said, 'is wear it.'[52]

Death[edit]

Early on December 1, 1987[53][54] (some sources say late on November 30[55][56]) Baldwin died from esophageal cancer[57] in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France.[58][59] He was buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, near New York City.

Legacy[edit]

Baldwin's influence on other writers has been profound: Toni Morrison edited the Library of America two-volume editions of Baldwin's fiction and essays, and a recent collection of critical essays links these two writers.

One of Baldwin's richest short stories, "Sonny's Blues", appears in many anthologies of short fiction used in introductory college literature classes.

In 1986, within the work The Story of English, Robert MacNeil, with Robert McCrum and William Cran, mentioned James Baldwin as an influential writer of African American Literature, on the level of Booker T. Washington, and held both men up as prime examples of Black writers.

In 1987, Kevin Brown, a photo-journalist from Baltimore, founded the National James Baldwin Literary Society. The group organizes free public events celebrating Baldwin's life and legacy.

In 1992, Hampshire College in Amherst, Massachusetts, established the James Baldwin Scholars program, an urban outreach initiative, in honor of Baldwin, who taught at Hampshire in the early 1980s. The JBS Program provides talented students of color from underserved communities an opportunity to develop and improve the skills necessary for college success through coursework and tutorial support for one transitional year, after which Baldwin scholars may apply for full matriculation to Hampshire or any other four-year college program.

In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed James Baldwin on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.[60]

In 2005, the USPS created a first-class postage stamp dedicated to him which featured him on the front, and on the back of the peeling paper had a short biography.

Works[edit]

Baldwin (right of center) with Hollywood actors Charlton Heston and Marlon Brando at the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Sidney Poitier (rear) and Harry Belafonte (right of Brando) can also be seen in the crowd.

Together with others:

Music/Spoken Word Recording:

  • A Lover's Question (CD, Les Disques Du Crépuscule – TWI 928-2, 1990)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Public Broadcasting Service. "James Baldwin: About the author". American Masters. November 29, 2006.
  2. ^ Jean-François Gounardoo, Joseph J. Rodgers (1992). The Racial Problem in the Works of Richard Wright and James Baldwin. Greenwood Press.  p. 158, pp. 148–200
  3. ^ Baldwin J, Notes of a native son.
  4. ^ Bobby Allyn, "DeWitt Clinton’s remarkable alumni", City Room blog, New York Times, July 21, 2009.
  5. ^ Staff. "Richard Avedon", The Daily Telegraph, October 2, 2004 (accessed Sep 14, 2009). "He also edited the school magazine at DeWitt Clinton High, on which the black American writer James' Baldwin was literary editor."
  6. ^ Baldwin, James (1963). The Fire Next Time. Down at the Cross—Letter from a Region of My Mind: Vintage. 
  7. ^ James, Chireau Y. (2005). "Baldwin's God: Sex, Hope and Crisis in Black Holiness Culture". Church History 74 (4): 883–884. 
  8. ^ James Baldwin, The Fire Next Time (New York: Dial Press, 1963 / Vintage Books, 1993), p 37.
  9. ^ a b "James Baldwin wrote about race and identity in America". voanews.com. 
  10. ^ a b Kimberly Winston, "Blacks say atheists were unseen civil rights heroes", USA Today, February 23, 2012.
  11. ^ Herb Boyd, Baldwin's Harlem: A Biography of James Baldwin (New York: Atria Books, 2008), p 178.
  12. ^ a b c d Baldwin, James. The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction, 1948–1985 (New York: St Martin's Press, 1985), "The price of the ticket", p ix.
  13. ^ Field, Douglas (2009). A Historical Guide to James Baldwin. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0195366532. 
  14. ^ Bisexual Books [1], "Bisexual Books", June 30th 2014
  15. ^ James Baldwin: The Price of the Ticket. Dir. Karen Thorsen. American Masters, 1989. .
  16. ^ James Baldwin, "The Discovery of What it Means to be an American," in The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction, 1948–1985 (New York:St. Martin's Marek, 1985), 171.
  17. ^ James Baldwin, "Fifth Avenue, Uptown" in The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction, 1948–1985 (New York: St. Martin’s/Marek, 1985), 206.
  18. ^ Zero: a review of literature and art, Issues 1–7. Arno Press, A New York Times Company. 1974. ISBN 0-405-01753-7. 
  19. ^ "James Baldwin" at the Wayback Machine (archived May 14, 2008), MSN Encarta. Archived 2009-10-31.
  20. ^ Zaborowska, Magdalena (2008). James Baldwin's Turkish Decade: Erotics of Exile. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-4144-1. 
  21. ^ Alain Roullier, "Le gardien des âmes", 1998
  22. ^ Collectif James Baldwin
  23. ^ Field, Douglas. Passing as a Cold War novel : anxiety and assimilation in James Baldwin's Giovanni's room. In: American Cold War culture / edited by Douglas Field. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2005.
  24. ^ a b Lawrie Balfour (2001). The Evidence of Things Not Said: James Baldwin and the Promise of American Democracy. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8698-2.  page 51
  25. ^ Miller, D. Quentin (2003). "James Baldwin". In Parini. American Writers Retrospective Supplement II. Scribner's. pp. 1–17. ISBN 0684312492. 
  26. ^ Paul Goodman (June 24, 1962). "Not Enough of a World to Grow In (review of Another Country)". The New York Times. 
  27. ^ Sheldon Binn (January 31, 1963). "Reivew of The Fire Next Time". The New York Times. 
  28. ^ a b Palmer, Colin A.. "Baldwin, James." Encyclopedia of African American Culture and History. 2nd ed. 2005. Print.
  29. ^ Page, Clarence. "James Baldwin: Bearing Witness To The Truth." Chicago News Tribune Dec 16, 1987, sec. Gospel: n. pag. Print.
  30. ^ Altman, Elias (May 2, 2011). "Watered Whiskey: James Baldwin's Uncollected Writings". The Nation. 
  31. ^ a b Palmer, Colin A.. "Baldwin, James." Encyclopedia of African American Culture and History. 2nd ed. 2005. Print.
  32. ^ Cleaver, Eldridge, Notes On a Native Son, Ramparts, June 1966, pp. 51–57
  33. ^ Carol Polsgrove, Divided Minds: Intellectuals and the Civil Rights Movement (2001), pp. 94–99, 155–156.
  34. ^ David Leeming, James Baldwin: A Biography (New York: Henry Holt, 1994), 134.
  35. ^ Carol Polsgrove, Divided Minds, p. 175.
  36. ^ This meeting is discussed in Howard Simon's 1999 play, James Baldwin: A Soul on Fire.
  37. ^ Carol Polsgrove, "Divided Minds," pp. 176–180.
  38. ^ David Leeming, James Baldwin: A Biography
  39. ^ "A Brando timeline". Chicago Sun-Times. July 3, 2004. Retrieved November 30, 2010. 
  40. ^ Anderson, Gary L., and Kathryn G. Herr. "Baldwin, James (1924–1987)." Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. ed. 2007. Print.
  41. ^ Carol Polsgrove, Divided Minds, p. 191, 195–198.
  42. ^ Carol Polsgrove, Divided Minds, p. 236.
  43. ^ "Lecture at UC Berkeley". 
  44. ^ "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" January 30, 1968 New York Post
  45. ^ a b Leeming, David A. (1994). James Baldwin: A Biography. Knopf. p. 442. ISBN 0-394-57708-6. 
  46. ^ Michelle M. Wright '"Alas, Poor Richard!": Transatlantic Baldwin, The Politics of Forgetting, and the Project of Modernity', James Baldwin Now, ed. Dwight A. McBride, New York University Press, 1999, page 208
  47. ^ "Baldwin Reflections". New York Times. 
  48. ^ James Baldwin Debates William F. Buckley (1965) on YouTube
  49. ^ Winston Wilde, Legacies of Love p.93
  50. ^ Fisher, Diane. "Miss Hansberry and Bobby K". Village Voice. Retrieved 8/11/2012. 
  51. ^ Angelou, Maya (December 20, 1987). "A brother's love". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  52. ^ Morrison, Toni (December 20, 1987). "Life in His Language". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-10-17. 
  53. ^ James Baldwin Biography, accessed December 2, 2010
  54. ^ James Baldwin: His Voice Remembered, The New York Times, December 20, 1987
  55. ^ Books & Writers, accessed December 2, 2010
  56. ^ James Baldwin, the Writer, Dies in France at 63, The New York Times, December 1, 1987
  57. ^ James Baldwin: Artist on Fire, by W.J. Weatherby (pp. 367–372)
  58. ^ Out 14 (8), Here Publishing, Feb 2006, p. 32, ISSN 1062-7928, "Baldwin died of stomach cancer in St. Paul de Vence, France, on December 1, 1987." 
  59. ^ James Baldwin, Eloquent Writer In Behalf of Civil Rights, Is Dead, The New York Times, December 2, 1987
  60. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.

Published as[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Archival resources[edit]

External links[edit]