James D. Watkins
|James D. Watkins|
|Watkins in March 1982|
|6th United States Secretary of Energy|
March 1, 1989 – January 20, 1993
|President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||John Herrington|
|Succeeded by||Hazel O'Leary|
|Chief of Naval Operations|
June 30, 1982 – June 30, 1986
|Preceded by||Thomas Hayward|
|Succeeded by||Carlisle Trost|
|Born||James David Watkins
March 7, 1927
Alhambra, California, U.S.
|Died||July 26, 2012
Alexandria, Virginia, U.S.
|Resting place||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Spouse(s)||Sheila Jo McKinney Watkins (first wife; 1950 - 1996, her death)
Janet McDonough Watkins
|Children||Katherine Watkins Coopersmith
Laura Jo Watkins
James David Watkins, Jr.
Edward Francis Watkins
|Alma mater||United States Naval Academy
Naval Postgraduate School
|Awards||Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit (3)
Bronze Star (Valor)"
Navy Commendation Medal
Navy Expeditionary Medal
China Service Medal
WWII Victory Medal
Navy Occupation Service Medal
National Defense Service Medal (2)
Vietnam Service Medal (5)
United Nations Korea Medal
Vietnam Campaign Medal
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Commands||Chief of Naval Operations|
|Battles/wars||World War II
James David Watkins (March 7, 1927 – July 26, 2012) was a United States Navy admiral and former Chief of Naval Operations who served as the U.S. Secretary of Energy during the George H. W. Bush administration, also chairing U.S. government commissions on HIV/AIDS and ocean policy. Watkins also served on the boards of various companies and other nongovernmental organizations and as the co-chair of the Joint Ocean Commission Initiative.
Watkins' important positions within the United States Government include:
- Chief of Naval Operations during part of the Reagan Administration (1982-1986)
- Chairman of the Watkins Commission on AIDS (1987-1988)
- Secretary of Energy (1989 - 1993)
- Chairman of the United States Commission on Ocean Policy (also known as the Watkins Commission) (2001-2004)
He has also served several non-Governmental roles:
- Co-chair of the Joint Ocean Commission Initiative (JOCI) (2004-)
- A Director of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (1993 - 2000)
- A Director of GTS Duratek since April 1997
- A Director of Southern California Edison Co.
- A Director of International Technology Corp.
- A Director of Philadelphia Electric Co.
- A Director of VESTAR Inc.
- Trustee, Carnegie Corporation of New York (1993-1998)
- President of the Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education (1994-March 2001)
- Member, Naval Academy Endowment Trust Board of Directors
- Life Member, USNA Alumni Association
- Member of the Board of Directors of the U.S. Naval Academy Foundation
Early life and career
Watkins was born March 7, 1927 in Alhambra, California. His grandfather George Clinton Ward was president of Southern California Edison during the 1930s. His father, Edward Francis Watkins, owned the Southern California Winery Co. His mother, Louise Watkins, unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for Senate in 1938; he described his mother as "a woman ahead of her time."
He attended Webb School of California in Claremont, California; he subsequently graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1949 and received his master's degree in mechanical engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1958.
He spent 37 years in the Navy, serving on destroyers, cruisers and submarines, and shore assignments in personnel management. During his tenure in the U.S. Navy, Watkins served as Chief of Naval Operations, Commander of the Sixth Fleet, Vice Chief of Naval Operations, and Commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet.
Watkins married Sheila Jo McKinney in 1950. They had six children: Laura Jo Kauffmann; Charles Watkins; Katherine Watkins Coopersmith, RNCS; Edward Francis Watkins, a successful internet entrepreneur; Susan Watkins, a nuclear engineer; and Catholic priest Monsignor James D. Watkins, pastor of Immaculate Conception Parish, Northeast Washington D.C.
Admiral Watkins’ ties to oceans as a graduate of the Naval Academy, submariner and former Chief of Naval Operations, contributed to his commitment to ocean policy reform. When the Oceans Act of 2000 was passed, President George W. Bush established the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, and appointed Admiral Watkins to chair the commission. The 16-member commission presented recommendations for a new and comprehensive national ocean policy. Their final report, An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century, was released in 2004.
Concurrently, the Pew Charitable Trusts established the Pew Oceans Commission, which was led by President Bill Clinton’s former Chief of Staff Leon Panetta. The 18-member group presented its own recommendations on ocean policy to Congress and the Administration. Their final report, America's Living Oceans: Charting a Course for Sea Change, was released in 2003.
The two reports listed strikingly similar recommendations. As a result, Congress and the Administration began to recognize the importance of ocean policy reform. To further these recommendations, and to act as one unified force, the two commissions came together in 2004 to establish the Joint Ocean Commission Initiative. Admiral Watkins co-chaired the Joint Ocean Commission Initiative with Leon Panetta, and was called on as an expert to advise and testify before Congress on ocean governance reform. He was also cited in the media as an expert on ocean issues and penned a number of opinion pieces calling for ocean reform that were published in national outlets.
President Reagan appointed Watkins as chairman of his President’s Commission on the HIV Epidemic. The Admiral won the support of many AIDS-awareness advocates when his conservative panel unexpectedly recommended supporting antibias laws to protect HIV-positive people, on-demand treatment for drug addicts, and the speeding of AIDS-related research.
George H. W. Bush Administration
On June 27, 1989, Watkins announced the Ten-Point Plan to strengthen environmental protection and waste management activities at the United States Department of Energy's production, research, and testing facilities. In September 1989, he established the Modernization Review Committee to review the assumptions and recommendations of the 2010 Report. On November 9, 1989, Watkins established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management within the Department of Energy. On August 15, 1990, Secretary Watkins announced plans to increase oil production and decrease consumption to counter Iraqi-Kuwaiti oil losses caused by the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait. On March 4, 1991, he transmitted the Administration's energy bill to the House and Senate. On May 10, 1992, in testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee he reported that, for the first time since 1945, the United States was not building any nuclear weapons.
George W. Bush Administration
Admiral Watkins was appointed to what would be the second Presidential commission to be known as the Watkins Commission when named Chairman of the United States Commission on Ocean Policy in 2001.
He received the Presidential Citizens Medal, Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit with two gold award stars, Bronze Star with Combat V device, China Service Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Navy Occupation Service Medal, Vietnam Service Medal with four campaign stars, and has been decorated and honored by several other nations including receiving the United Nations Service Medal, Vietnam Campaign Medal and decorations from Brazil, Korea, Italy, France, Spain, Japan, Pakistan and Sweden.
In March 2001, Watkins was given the title of President Emeritus of the Consortium for Ocean Research and Education (CORE), and was awarded the Navy's Distinguished Public Award by the Secretary of the Navy. On April 21, 2005, the Naval Postgraduate Mechanical Engineering Building was renamed Watkins Hall, after Admiral James D. Watkins. Watkins was also a member of the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Hall of Fame.
- Valerie J. Nelson (July 29, 2012). "James D. Watkins dies at 85; retired admiral led AIDS, ocean panels". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- San Francisco Chronicle - Why doesn't U.S. join Law of the Sea treaty?
- Washington Post - U.S. Gets a C- on Protecting Oceans
- New York Times - America and the Sea Treaty
- "Former CNO Admiral James Watkins Passes Away". U.S. Navy. 2012-07-27.
- "American Association of Engineering Societies". Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- James David Watkins; A Compassionate Pragmatist, New York Times profile, June 4, 1988
- "Frustrated Admiral of Energy", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Jan/Feb 1990
- Bio at NPR
- Joint Ocean Commission Initiative web site
- Dept. of Energy web site
- Naval Postgraduate School - Hall of Fame Recipients
- Oral History Project of The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, Transcript of the Videotape-Recorded Interview with James D. Watkins, May 11, 2000; Interviewer: Gary Weir.
|Chief of Naval Operations
|United States Secretary of Energy