James E. Grunig
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James E. Grunig is a noted public relations theorist.
Grunig has over 20 years of experience in the field of Public Relations and he has published 250 articles, books, chapters, papers, and reports as well as received several awards and honors from the Public Relations Society of America and the Institute for Public Relations Research among others. Grunig received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1968 and is Professor Emeritus for the Department of Communication at the University of Maryland.
|Model Name||Type of Communication||Model Characteristics|
|Press agentry/publicity||One-way communication||Uses persuasion and manipulation to influence audiences to behave as the organization desires|
|Public information model||One-way communication||Uses press releases and other one-way communication techniques to distribute organizational information. The public relations practitioner is often referred to as the in-house journalist|
|Two-way asymmetrical model||Two-way communication (imbalanced)||Uses persuasion and manipulation to influence audiences to behave as the organization desires. Differs from the press agentry model through the use of research to find out how best to persuade stakeholders|
|Two-way symmetrical model||Two-way communication||Uses communication to negotiate with the public, resolve conflict and promote mutual understanding and respect between the organization and its stakeholders|
A more thorough explanation of Grunig's public relations is available in The Handbook of Public Relations (2001).
- Faculty bio - Department of Communication, University of Maryland
- Four Models of Public Relations - Interactive Media Lab, University of Florida
- Situational Theory of Publics - Wikipedia link
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