James Ellison (polygamist)
James Ellison was an American white supremacist leader from San Antonio, Texas. In 1971, he founded the radical organization The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord (CSA). Ellison purchased a 250-acre (1.0 km2) strip of land near Elijah, Missouri to serve as his compound. He was also a close associate of both Richard Wayne Snell and Timothy McVeigh.
Ellison was a polygamist who spent time in federal prison with his 'high priest' Kerry Noble. Robert G. Millar, founder of Elohim City, Oklahoma, became one of his spiritual advisers. He was also mentored by Richard Girnt Butler of the Aryan Nations and Robert Miles, founder of The Mountain Church in Cohoctah, Michigan. Both extreme right leaders taught and practiced Christian Identity, a religion found on the FBI watchlist as an 'extremist religion'. Ellison had very close ties to the KKK and the Northern Idaho group Aryan Nations, led by Richard Butler. Miles had a very active prison ministry and newsletter, relating mostly to several violent white Aryan groups, most notably the Aryan Brotherhood. After Ellison was released from prison, he moved to Elohim City, where he married Millar's granddaughter.
Ellison, Noble, and the entire Council of Elders at CSA were very much influenced and mentored by many outside sources. It was this nine-man council that deliberated on the spiritual meaning and direction of CSA activities.
The siege at CSA: April 20, 1985
The ATF set up what is thought to be around 300 federal agents in Elijah, having them pose as fisherman because the area was a common destination for anglers. On the morning of April 20, 1985, they moved in with a warrant for the arrest of Ellison and surrounded the CSA compound. Some agents were in fishing boats to seal off the lakeside area of the compound. There they waited, until a few hours later when two guards emerged from the compound. They appeared to be unaware of the presence of the officers, and they walked toward a sniper hold-out, until an officer yelled commands to return to the compound; the guards complied. Later, an unnamed individual emerged from the compound and talked with the federal agents, reporting to Ellison that the FBI were outside to negotiate his surrender and the emptying of the compound. Ellison emerged later, and FBI agents felt that he would not go down without a firefight. FBI negotiators convinced him that the CSA would certainly lose in a gun battle. They convinced him they wanted peaceful cooperation, and he asked that his spiritual adviser, assumed to be Robert G. Millar, come to the compound to instruct him. The individual was flown to the area and seemed eager to convince Ellison to stand down, understanding that otherwise there would be certain bloodshed. They allowed the individual into the compound, and the FBI instructed him to call in every 30 minutes to report how negotiations were going.
Attorney Asa Hutchinson, who would later go on to successfully prosecute Ellison and other leaders of the CSA, put on an FBI flak jacket and entered the compound to personally join negotiations, ultimately leading to a peaceful conclusion to the armed standoff. After several calls requesting more time, early on the morning of the fourth day of the siege, Ellison, his command, and all of the males in the compound emerged, and surrendered themselves to authorities. Women and children were earlier evacuated to nearby motel housing at government expense.
U.S. Attorney Asa Hutchinson charged Ellison and most of his leadership with illegal weapons possession, and Ellison faced the maximum 20 years prison sentence. All seven men were indicted on charges of sedition, but the jury found all of the defendants not guilty on all charges as they "did not find the federal witness credible." Ellison was convicted on federal racketeering and weapons charges and sentenced to 20 years in prison. Ellison was released in 1987 after agreeing to testify against the leader and several head members of the Aryan Nations, the parent organization for the prison group Aryan Brotherhood. Upon his release from federal prison, Ellison moved to Elohim City, Oklahoma.
- Hastings, Deborah (February 23, 1997). "Elohim City on Extremists' Underground Railroad". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- Coates, James (April 22, 1985). "Neo-Nazi Fortress Under FBI Siege". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- Coates, James (April 23, 1985). "Neo-Nazi Leader Seized". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- Richey, Warren (October 8, 1985). "US a safe haven for paramilitary groups that provide legal mercenary training". p. 2. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
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- Associated Press (July 14, 1985). "Ellison Trial Begins Monday". Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- Egan, Nancy (2011). "James Ellison". In Martin, Gus. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Second Edition (SAGE). p. 185. ISBN 9781412980166.
- Noble, Kerry (June 12, 2012). "City of Hope". This Land Press. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- Quarles, Chester L. Christian Identity: The Aryan American Bloodline Religion. McFarland. pp. 165–166. ISBN 9780786481484.
- Tucker, Johnathan B., ed. (2000). Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons. MIT Press. pp. 152 ff. ISBN 9780262700719.