James G. Stavridis
|James G. Stavridis|
Admiral James G. Stavridis, Dean, The Fletcher School at Tufts University, (U.S. Navy retired) — September 2014
|Birth name||James George Stavridis|
February 15, 1955 |
West Palm Beach, Florida, U.S.
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1976-2013|
|Commands held||U.S. European Command
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
U.S. Southern Command
|Awards|| Defense Distinguished Service Medal
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Defense Superior Service Medal
Legion of Merit
James George Stavridis (born February 15, 1955) is the 12th Dean of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, the oldest school in the United States dedicated solely to graduate studies in international affairs. He is also Chairman of the Board of the U.S. Naval Institute. Stavridis is a retired United States Navy admiral who served as the 15th Commander, U.S. European Command (USEUCOM, May 2009 – May 2013) and NATO's 16th Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR, June 2009 – May 2013). He is the first Navy officer to have held these positions. His book "The Accidental Admiral" describing his tenure in these jobs was published on October 1, 2014. Previously, he served as Commander, U.S. Southern Command from October 2006 to June 2009. Since leaving active duty, Stavridis has frequently appeared on major broadcast and cable television networks to comment on national security and foreign policy matters.
Stavridis is a 1976 distinguished graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy. He earned a PhD and Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University in International Relations in 1984, where he won the Gullion Prize as outstanding student. He is also a 1992 distinguished graduate of the United States National War College.
Stavridis was born in West Palm Beach, Florida, the son of Shirley (née Schaffer) and P. George Stavridis. He is married to Laura Hall, author of Navy Spouses Guide. His paternal grandparents were Pontic Greeks born and raised in northeastern Anatolia, that is modern Turkey, who emigrated to the United States.
His 2008 book, Destroyer Captain: Lessons of a First Command, goes into more detail about his Greek refugee origins. He wrote,
In the early 1920's, my grandfather, a short, stocky Greek schoolteacher named Dimitrios Stavridis, was expelled from Turkey as part of 'ethnic cleansing' (read pogrom) directed against Greeks living in the remains of the Ottoman Empire. He barely escaped with his life in a small boat crossing the Aegean Sea to Athens and thence to Ellis Island. His brother was not so lucky and was killed by the Turks as part of the violence directed at the Greek minority.
A NATO exercise off the coast of modern Turkey was the "most amazing historical irony [he] could imagine," and prompted Stavridis to write of his grandfather: "His grandson, who speaks barely a few words of Greek, returns in command of a billion-dollar destroyer to the very city - Smyrna, now called İzmir - from which he sailed in a refugee craft all those years ago."
Stavridis is a 1976 distinguished graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy and a native of South Florida. He is a career surface warfare officer and served at sea in aircraft carriers, cruisers, and destroyers. After serving with distinction as Operations Officer on the newly commissioned USS Valley Forge, Stavridis commanded destroyer USS Barry from 1993 to 1995, completing deployments to Haiti, Bosnia, and the Persian Gulf. Barry won the Battenberg Cup as the top ship in the Atlantic Fleet under his command. In 1998, he commanded Destroyer Squadron 21 and deployed to the Persian Gulf in 1998, winning the Navy League’s John Paul Jones Award for Inspirational Leadership. From 2002 to 2004, Stavridis commanded Enterprise Carrier Strike Group, conducting combat operations in the Persian Gulf in support of both the successful Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Afterwards, Vice Admiral Stavridis served as senior military assistant to the United States Secretary of Defense. On October 19, 2006, he became the first navy commander of United States Southern Command in Miami, Florida. In July, 2009, he became Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR). He retired as SACEUR in 2013.
Ashore, he served as a strategic and long range planner on the staffs of the Chief of Naval Operations and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. At the start of the "Global War on Terror", he was selected as the director of the Navy Operations Group, Deep Blue, USA. He has also served as the executive assistant to the Secretary of the Navy and the senior military assistant to the United States Secretary of Defense.
Stavridis has long advocated the use of "Smart Power," which he defines as the balance of hard and soft power taken together. In numerous articles and speeches, he has advocated creating security in the 21st century by building bridges, not walls. Stavridis has stressed the need to connect international, inter-agency, and public-private actors to build security, lining all of them with effective strategic communications. His message was articulated in his book "Partnership for the Americas" which was published by the NDU Press and was based on his time as Commander of the U.S. Southern Command from 2006-2009 and was summarized in his 2012 Ted Global talk in Scotland which has been viewed more than 300,000 times on line.
Based on an anonymous complaint, in early 2011 the DOD IG began investigating allegations that ADM Stavridis “engaged in misconduct relating to official and unofficial travel and other matters.” He was subsequently the subject of a May 3, 2012, report by the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and was later absolved of wrongdoing by the Secretary of the Navy on September 11, 2012. In a Memorandum for the Record, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus wrote that Stavridis: "has consistently demonstrated himself to be a model naval officer and a devoted public servant whose motivation is to do that which is necessary and appropriate to advance the interests of the United States." Mabus concluded that "I have determined that ADM Stavridis never attempted to use his public office for private gain nor did he commit personal misconduct."
Stavridis earned a PhD in International Relations (1984) and Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy (1983) from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, where he won the Gullion Prize as outstanding student. He was appointed Dean of The Fletcher School on July 1, 2013. He is also a 1992 distinguished graduate of the United States National War College. In 2003, He was honored with the Naval War College Distinguished Graduate Leadership Award. He frequently publishes his thoughts, opinions and analyses in myriad publications, including the Western Hemisphere policy publication Americas Quarterly and the United States Naval Institute's blog.
As Dean of The Fletcher School, Stavridis has initiated a strategic planning process, invited several high level speakers to the campus, and is focusing thematically on the Arctic, the role of women in international relations, synthetic biology and its impact on foreign affairs, cyber, and the role of online media and social networks in public diplomacy.
Awards and decorations
- United States Decorations
Surface Warfare Officer badge
- International decorations
|NATO Meritorious Service Medal|
|NATO Medal for Yugoslavia|
|Commander's degree, National Order of the Legion of Honour of France|
|Grand Cross Order of the Crown (Belgium)|
|Grand Cross Order of the Phoenix (Greece)|
|Commendation Ministry of Defense: "Cross of Merit and Honour First Class" (Greece)|
|Estonian Order of the Cross of the Eagle First Class|
|Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Knight Grand Cross of the Republic|
|Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Grand Merit Cross with Star|
|Grand Officer of the Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg|
|The Commander's Cross with Star of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary|
|Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit (Poland)|
|Order of Duke Trpimir (Croatia)|
|Cross of Commander of the Order for Merits to Lithuania|
|Investiture Medal of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.|
|Order of Naval Merit (Argentina)|
|Order of Naval Merit in the degree of Grand Officer (Brazil)|
|Cruz de la Victoria (Chile)|
|Order of Naval Merit Admiral Padilla (Colombia)|
|Order of the Peruvian Cross of Naval Merit in the rank of Grand Cross along with a White Ribbon (Peru)|
|The Emblem of Honor of the General Staff of Romania|
|Medal of Honorary Recognition of Latvia|
|Military Merit Grand Cross Medal of the Portuguese Republic|
|Order of Vakhtang Gorgasali - I Rank (Country of Georgia)|
|Albanian Medal of Gratitude|
|Slovenian Medal for multinational cooperation 1st grade|
|Navy National Defense Cross (Guatemala)|
|Grand Cross (Dominican Republic)|
|Kuwait Liberation Medal (Saudi Arabia)|
|Kuwait Liberation Medal (Kuwait)|
- Other Awards and Honors
- Business Executives for National Security 2012 Eisenhower Award
- Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum 2011 Intrepid Freedom Award
- AFCEA 2011 David Sarnoff Award
- The Order of St. Andrew the Apostle 2011 Athenagoras Human Rights Award
- Navy League of the United States 2011 Alfred Theyer Mahan Award for Literary Achievement
- JINSA 2011 Henry M. Jackson Distinguished Service Award
- Atlantic Council 2011 Distinguished Military Leadership Award
- Chian Federation 33rd Annual Homeric Award
- Israeli Distinguished Ally Award, May 2013
- Stimson Center Pragmatist + Idealist Award, November 2013
- The Accidental Admiral: A Sailor Takes Command at NATO U.S. Naval Institute Press, 2014 ISBN 978-1-61251-704-9
- Partnership for the Americas: Western Hemisphere Strategy and U.S. Southern Command, NDU Press, November 2010
- Command At Sea, Sixth Edition, Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, Co-authored with Rear Admiral Robert Girrier, USN, 2010 ISBN 9781591147985
- Destroyer Captain: Lessons of a First Command, U.S. Naval Institute Press, 2007 ISBN 9781591148494
- Watch Officer’s Guide, Twelfth Edition, Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, Co-authored with Captain Robert Girrier, 2006 ISBN 9781591149361
- Division Officer’s Guide, Eleventh Edition, Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, Co-authored with Commander Robert Girrier, 2005 ISBN 9781591147992
Selected articles, reviews and commentary
- Air & Space Power Journal en Español:
- “Semi-Sumergibles: Una Amenaza Emergente en las Américas.” Air & Space Power Journal en Español, Volumen XX, No. 2, pp. 3–5, Segundo Trimestre 2008
- Atlantic Council:
- “NATO: A Bridge Across Time,” Freedom’s Challenge – Marking the 20th Anniversary of the Fall of the Berlin Wall, December 2009
- Americas Quarterly:
- “The Americas: We’re All in This Together,” October 2007 Vol. 1, Issue 2
- Australian Defence Force Journal:
- “Let Us Dare,” Australian Defence Force Journal: Journal of the Australian Profession of Arms, Issue No. 181, 2010, pp. 72–77
- Foreign Affairs:
- "NATO's Success in Libya: The Right Way to Run an Intervention," pp. 2–7, No. 2, Vol 91, March/April 2012 (with Ambassador Ivo H. Daalder)
- International Herald Tribune:
- "NATO Success in Libya," OPED October 31, 2011 (with Ambassador Ivo H. Daalder)
- "Afghan Realities," Op-Ed. 25–26 September 2010, p. 9
- Joint Force Quarterly:
- "Sailing the Cyber Sea," pp. 61–67, Issue 65, 2nd quarter 2012
- "An Intelligent Theater," pp. 104–108, Issue 56, 1st quarter 2010
- “Whatever Happened to the “War on Drugs”? pp. 109–113, Issue 51, 4th Quarter 2008
- “Strategic Communication and National Security,” pp. 4–7, Issue 46, 3rd Quarter 2007
- “The Second Revolution,” Spring 2003 (Reprinted as one of top articles of previous decades)
- “The Second Revolution,” Summer 1997 (First Prize, RMA Essay Contest)
- Le Journal du Parlement: Politique – Economie – Culture:
- Ėditorial. “Un long chemin,” pp. 1–2, Nouvelle Serie Nº 51, Inter-session 2010.
- Military review:
- “Strengthening the Bridge: Building Partnership Capacity,” pp. 2–6, January–February 2010
- “Partnership for the Americas: The Human Rights Initiative,” pp. 2–8, May–June 2007
- “Roosevelt, Churchill, and the Naval Wars,” Book Review, pp. 92, July 1986
- “U Boats Wars,” Book Review, pp. 87–88, July 1985
- “Submarine Boats: The Beginnings of Underwater Warfare,” Book Review, pp. 92–93, August 1984
- “The Bowfin: The Story of One of America’s Fabled Fleet Submarines in the World War II,” Book Review, pp. 79–80, February 1984
- Naval history:
- “Sea of Gray: The Around the World Cruise of the Confederate Raider Shenandoah,” Book Review, June 2006
- “A Dishonorable Few,” Book Review, pp. 70, December 2005
- “Cruise of the Sea Eagle,” Book Review, pp. 68–69, October 2005
- “Patrick O’Brian: A Life Revealed,” Book Review, pp. 67, October 2000
- “Damn the Torpedoes,” Book Review, pp. 50, October 1999
- Naval Law Review:
- “United Nations of the Sea Treaty: Time for a Review?” pp. 78–88, Spring 1992 with Captain George Galdorisi, USN (Ret.)
- Naval War College Review:
- “Taming the Outlaw Sea,” Autumn 2010, Volume 63, Number 4, pp. 72–83
- “Perspectivas sobre estrategia marítima,” Introducción: Una Estrategia Marítima en las Américas, Naval War College Press, pp. vii-xi, Winter 2009
- “The Heart of an Officer,” Naval War College Review, Volume 62, pp. 26–41, Spring 2009
- “Sailing to a New Port,” pp. 7–13, Summer 2007, Volume 60, Number 3
- “El Dorado Canyon,” Book Review, pp. 136–138, Winter 2004
- “From Annapolis to Scapa Flow,” Book Review, pp. 180–181, Autumn 2003
- “Soldiers and Civilians,” Book Review, pp. 175–176, Summer 2002
- “A World Explored,” Review Essay, pp. 95–97, Spring 2002
- “The Tale of the Red Knight,” pp. 141–147, Autumn 2001
- “Seapower: Theory and Practice,” Book Review, pp. 134–136, Winter 1997
- “The Nightingale’s Song,” Book Review, pp. 136–137, Spring 1996
- “The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery,” Book Review, pp. 113, September–October 1985
- “Conway’s All the World’s Fighting Ships,” Book Review, pp. 122–123, May–June 1985
- “Vietnam: A History,” Book Review, pp. 138–139, January–February 1985
- “The Future of Conflict in the 1980s,” Book Review, pp. 117–118, July–August 1984
- “Soviet Policy and Practice toward Third World Conflicts,” Book Review, pp. 104–105, May–June 1984
- “The American Style of Foreign Policy,” Book Review,” pp. 121-123, November–December 1983
- “Marine Technology Transfer and the Law of the Sea,” pp. 38–50, July–August 1983
- RUSI Journal:
- “NATO Taking a Fix – Charting a Course,” Vol. 154, No. 6, pp. 44–47, December 2009
- “Time,” p. 38, An Ocean Away, June 2010
- “Semi-submersibles: An Emerging Threat in the Americas,” p. 36, An Ocean Away, May 2008
- “Humanitarian Operations: Evolving Missions and New Approaches,” pp. 25–27, January–February 2008
- "What to DO After You've Been NATO's Supreme Allied Commander" June 4, 2014
- Turkish Policy Quarterly:
- “The Long Road,” Volume 9 Number 1, pp. 23–29, July 2010
- U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings:
- "Rejoinder to “Punch Them in the Nose…and Then Leave” by CDR John Kuehn," comment and discussion, pp. 8, September 2012"
- "Another View," pp. 7, June 2011
- "The Death of NATO: A Rebuttal," pp. 6, January 2011
- “Teaching the Ropes,” pp. 30–34, May 2010
- "Sailing Across the Bridge," pp. 16–20, 1 October 2009
- "One Minute to Midnight," book review, pp. 27–73, March 2009,
- “Read, Think, Write, and Publish,” pp. 16–19, August 2008
- “The Far Reaches,” pp. 81–82, September 2007
- “Sailing in Southern Waters: A New Wind,” pp. 16–21, 1 May 2007
- “Six Frigates,” Book Review, pp. 83–84, December 2006
- “Sea of Thunder,” Book Review, pp. 81–82, November 2006
- “Deconstructing War,” pp. 42–45, December 2005
- “From Sword to Shield,” pp. 48–51, August 2004
- “Adapting Aviation Tactical Training for the Surface Warfare Community,” pp. 36–37, January 2003
- “The Tragedy of Great Power Politics,” Book Review, pp. 91–92, July 2002
- “Making Room for Risk: Managing Disruptive Techniques,” September 2001
- “A Soldier’s Duty,” Book Review, pp. 82–83, August 2001
- “Requiem for a Sailor’s Writer,” pp. 130–131, May 2000
- “The Got Game,” pp. 51–54, June 1999
- “Beyond the Law of the Sea,” Book Review, pp. 116–117, March 1999
- “A Perfect Form One,” pp. 45–47, October 1995 (USNI Prize Winner)
- “Handling the Arleigh Burkes,” pp. 66–69, October 1994
- “Beyond Joint: The Interagency Action,” pp. 94–99, May 1993
- “To Begin Again,” pp. 35–39, July 1993
- “A Measure of Success,” pp. 80–81, February 1992
- “Aegis in the Third World,” pp. 61–64, September 1991
- “New Era Tactic,” pp. 76–78, July 1991
- “Retreat from Doomsday,” Book Review, pp. 105–106, July 1989
- “Antisubmarine Warfare Tactics,” pp. 23–25, April 1989
- “Surface Navy Performance,” pp. 28–29, February 1988
- “Creating ASW Killing Zones,” pp. 38–42, October 1987
- “An Alliance for the Pacific,” pp. 77–80, July 1987
- “Supercarrier,” Book Review, pp. 105–106, February 1987
- “Handling a Ticonderoga,” pp. 107–110, January 1987
- “The Global Maritime Coalition,” pp. 58–64, April 1985
- “Resources Wars,” pp. 72–77, January 1985 (USNI Prize Winner)
- “Naval Strategy and National Ocean Policy,” pp. 42–47, July 1984
- “Politics Awareness Training in the Navy,” pp. 23–24, March 1984
- “War, Peace, and Leadership,” pp. 78–80, August 1983 (USNI Prize Winner)
- “Closing the Gaps in Naval Leadership,” pp. 76–78, July 1982 (USNI Prize Winner)
- “Carrier Commander/On Leading Snipes,” pp. 74–76, January 1981
- “Handling a Spruance Class Destroyer,” pp. 125–126, October 1979
- Miami Herald:
- “Region Has Strong Partners,” OPED, June 16, 2009
- “Productive Partnerships Make Region Stronger,” OPED, December 2, 2008
- “What I’ve Learned,” OPED, May 24, 2008
- “Ready to help Caribbean neighbors,” OPED with Thomas Shannon, April 3, 2008
- “Why We Love Miami,” OPED, September 26, 2007
- “Build a True Partnership,” OPED, March 8, 2007
- USAID Frontiers in Development:
- "Combat and Compassion," with Dr. Reuben Brigety, pp. 50–60, Spring, 2012
- Washington Post
- "The Dark Side of Globalization," May 2, 2013, OPED page
- Foreign Policy
- "The New Triad: Time to Found a Cyber Force," on-line, June 21, 2013
- On Patrol
- "NATO 3.0 and an Evolving EUCOM," Summer 2013, pp. 57–59
- USNA 1976 Lucky Bag Yearbook
- "Nominations of ADM James G. Stavridis, USN, for Reappointment to the Grade of Admiral and to be Commander, U.S. European Command and Supreme Allied Commander, Europe; Lt. Gen. Douglas M. Fraser, USAF, to be General and Commander, U.S. Southern Command; and LTG Stanley A. McChrystal, USA, to be General and Commander, International Security Assistance Force and Commander, U.S. Forces, Afghanistan". NOMINATIONS BEFORE THE SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE, FIRST SESSION, 111TH CONGRESS. Government Printing Office. June 2, 2009. p. 793. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- "SAE - U.S. Admiral James G. Stavridis appointed NATO Supreme Commander / World Council of Hellenes Abroad". En.sae.gr. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "NATO Commander Admiral James Stavridis Named Next Fletcher Dean". Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- "Naval Institute Appoints Admiral James G. Stavridis Chair of the Board".
- "Board of Directors". U.S. Naval Institute. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- Miles, Donna (June 30, 2009). "Stavridis Assumes Top European Command Post From Craddock". DefenseLink. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
- "NATO Secretary General welcomes new Supreme Allied Commander Europe". 13 May 2013.
- "P. George Stavridis". Morning Call. 2001-09-19. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
- "Mrs. Minnie Schaffer". Morning Call. 1985-04-07. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
- Navy Spouse's Guide - Laura Hall Stavridis - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
- Shanker, Thom (June 29, 2009). "For a Post in Europe, a Renaissance Admiral". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
- Oren, Amir (October 16, 2009). "U.S. NATO chief blames Turkey for 'ethnic cleansing' of Greeks, including own family". Haaretz. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
- NATO biography page retrieved in March 2012, http://www.aco.nato.int/page15314820.aspx
- Oliver Barrett (July 25, 2013). "Talking 'Smart Power' With Admiral Stavridis". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- " DOD IG Report No. 11H118481105, of May 3, 2012
- "Stavridis II: Winning the Battle, Losing the War". TIME.com.
- "The Power of Soft Power: Dean Stavridis Featured in Tufts Magazine | Tufts Fletcher School". Fletcher.tufts.edu. 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2014-07-29.
- "ACO - Allied Command Operations | French Chief of Defence visits SHAPE". Aco.nato.int. 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "Admiral Stavridis Receives Order of the Cross of the Eagle from Estonia".
- "Germany honors SACEUR Stavridis with medal".
- Postanowienie Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 20 kwietnia 2011 r. o nadaniu orderu (M.P. Nr 71, poz. 695)
- "The President awards NATO Supreme Allied Commander Admiral James G. Stavridis with the Cross of Commander". Office of the President of the Republic of Lithuania. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- nl:Inhuldigingsmedaille 2013
- "Ejército de Chile - Noticias". Ejercito.cl. 2008-01-09. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- [dead link]
- "Sargs.lv". Sargs.lv. 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "Admiral James G. Stavridis given the Vakhtang Gorgasali award by Saakashvili".
- "President Nishani awards the "Medal of Gratitude" to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Admiral Stavridis".
- "Intrepid Freedom Award". Intrepidmuseum.org. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "AFCEA". AFCEA. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "Order Of Saint Andrew The Apostle". Archons.org. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "The 2011 Henry M. Jackson Distinguished Service Award & Grateful Nation Award Dinner - November 7, Washington DC | JINSA Online". Jinsa.org. 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "2011 Atlantic Council Annual Awards Dinner: Biden, Stavridis, Kent, Domingo | Atlantic Council". Acus.org. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "NEO, October 2012 - Chian Federation to Present Adm. James G. Stavridis with 33rd Annual Homeric Award". Neomagazine.com. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
- "Stimson Center Honoring James Stavridis and Nokia with Pragmatist + Idealist Awards this Friday | Spotlight | The Stimson Center | Pragmatic Steps for Global Security". Stimson.org. 2013-11-12. Retrieved 2014-07-29.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to James G. Stavridis.|
- U.S. Smart Power: Interview with Adm. Stavridis. Bjoern H. Seibert, Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Summer 2008 Vol 32:2.
- Interview with Adm. Stavridis. Col David H. Gurney, USMC, Joint Force Quarterly, Issue 50, 3d Quarter 2008
- EUCOM blog
- Stavridis gives testimony regarding Libya crisis, 28 March 2011 - see 4.39pm
GEN Bantz J. Craddock
|United States Southern Command
Gen Douglas M. Fraser
GEN Bantz J. Craddock
|U.S. European Command
Gen Philip M. Breedlove
GEN Bantz J. Craddock
|Supreme Allied Commander Europe (NATO)
Gen Philip M. Breedlove
This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "http://www.navy.mil/navydata/bios/navybio.asp?bioID=270".