James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury

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The Most Honourable
The Marquess of Salisbury
KG GCVO CB PC
James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury.jpg
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
27 April 1925 – 4 June 1929
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Succeeded by The Lord Parmoor
Lord Privy Seal
In office
6 November 1924 – 4 June 1929
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by John Robert Clynes
Succeeded by James Henry Thomas
In office
17 October 1903 – 4 December 1905
Monarch Edward VII
Prime Minister The Marquess of Salisbury
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by Arthur Balfour
Succeeded by The Marquess of Ripon
Lord President of the Council
In office
24 October 1922 – 22 January 1924
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Andrew Bonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Arthur Balfour
Succeeded by The Lord Parmoor
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
24 October 1922 – 25 May 1923
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Andrew Bonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Sir William Sutherland
Succeeded by J. C. C. Davidson
Personal details
Born (1861-10-23)23 October 1861
London, United Kingdom
Died 4 April 1947(1947-04-04) (aged 85)
London, United Kingdom
Nationality British
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s) Lady Cicely Gore
(1867–1955)
Alma mater University College, Oxford

James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG GCVO CB PC (23 October 1861 – 4 April 1947), known as Viscount Cranborne from 1868 to 1903, was a British statesman.

Background and education[edit]

Born in London, Salisbury was the eldest son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, who serve as British Prime Minister by his wife Georgina (née Alderson). The Right Reverend Lord William Cecil, Lord Cecil of Chelwood and Lord Quickswood were his younger brothers and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour his first cousin. He was educated at Eton and University College, Oxford.

Political career[edit]

Lord Salisbury sat as Conservative Member of Parliament for Darwen from 1885 to 1892 and for Rochester from 1893 to 1903, when he succeeded his father and entered the House of Lords. He served under his father and then his cousin Arthur Balfour as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1900 to 1903 and under Balfour as Lord Privy Seal from 1903 to 1905 and as President of the Board of Trade in 1905. In 1903 he was sworn of the Privy Council. In December 1908, he was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Hertfordshire.[1]

Salisbury played a leading role in opposing David Lloyd George's People's Budget and the Parliament Bill of 1911. In 1917 he was made a Knight of the Garter. He returned to the government in the 1920s and served under Andrew Bonar Law and Stanley Baldwin as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1922 to 1923, as Lord President of the Council from 1922 to 1924, as Lord Privy Seal from 1924 to 1929 and as Leader of the House of Lords from 1925 to 1929. He resigned as leader of the Conservative peers in June 1931 and became one of the most prominent opponents of Indian Home Rule in the Lords, supporting the campaign against the legislation waged in the House of Commons by Winston Churchill.

Salisbury was part of two parliamentary deputations which called on the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Neville Chamberlain, in the autumn of 1936 to remonstrate with them about the slow pace of British rearmament in the face of the growing threat from Nazi Germany. The delegation was led by Sir Austen Chamberlain, a former Foreign Secretary and its most prominent speakers included Winston Churchill, Leo Amery and Roger Keyes.

He was also Lord High Steward at the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1937.

Family[edit]

Lord Salisbury married Lady Cicely Gore, second daughter of Arthur Gore, 5th Earl of Arran, in 1887. They had four children:

Lord Salisbury died in April 1947, aged 85, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Robert. The Marchioness of Salisbury died in February 1955.

He was the grandfather of actor Jonathan Cecil, via his youngest son, David.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
New constituency Member of Parliament for Darwen
18851892
Succeeded by
Charles Philip Huntington
Preceded by
Horatio Davies
Member of Parliament for Rochester
18931903
Succeeded by
Charles Tuff
Political offices
Preceded by
Hon. St John Brodrick
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
1900–1903
Succeeded by
Earl Percy
Preceded by
Arthur Balfour
Lord Privy Seal
1903–1905
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Ripon
Preceded by
Gerald Balfour
President of the Board of Trade
1905
Succeeded by
David Lloyd George
Preceded by
Sir William Sutherland
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1922–1923
Succeeded by
John Davidson
Preceded by
Arthur Balfour
Lord President of the Council
1922–1924
Succeeded by
The Lord Parmoor
Preceded by
John Robert Clynes
Lord Privy Seal
1924–1929
Succeeded by
James Henry Thomas
Preceded by
The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Leader of the House of Lords
1925–1929
Succeeded by
The Lord Parmoor
Party political offices
Preceded by
The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Leader of the Conservative Party in the House of Lords
1925–1931
Succeeded by
The Viscount Hailsham
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Marquess of Salisbury
1903–1947
Succeeded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
Baron Cecil
(descended by acceleration)

1903–1941
Succeeded by
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil