|58th Chairperson of the Republican National Committee|
January 18, 2001 – December 5, 2001
|Preceded by||Jim Nicholson|
|Succeeded by||Marc Racicot|
|68th Governor of Virginia|
January 17, 1998 – January 12, 2002
|Preceded by||George Allen|
|Succeeded by||Mark Warner|
|38th Attorney General of Virginia|
January 15, 1994 – June 11, 1997
|Preceded by||Stephen Rosenthal|
|Succeeded by||Richard Cullen|
|Born||James Stuart Gilmore III
October 6, 1949
Richmond, Virginia, U.S.
|Alma mater||University of Virginia|
|Awards||Joint Service Commendation Medal|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1971–1974|
|Unit||650th Military Intelligence Group|
A native Virginian, Gilmore received a Bachelor's of Arts and a Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia, and then served in the U.S. Army as a counterintelligence agent. He later was elected to public office as a county prosecutor, as the Attorney General of Virginia, and as Governor of Virginia.
Early life and education
Gilmore was born in Richmond, Virginia to Margaret Evelyn (née Kandle), a church secretary, and James Stuart Gilmore, Jr., a grocery store meat cutter. He graduated from John Randolph Tucker High School and received an undergraduate degree from the University of Virginia in 1971. Gilmore was a member of the University's College Republicans chapter, and the Jefferson Literary & Debating Society.
Gilmore enlisted in the United States Army after attending college, receiving training and preparation for service in the Military Intelligence Corps at the newly created United States Army Intelligence Center at Fort Huachuca in Arizona. Gilmore also received rigorous foreign language education at the United States Defense Language Institute in Monterrey, California. Gilmore then worked for three years in the early 1970s, in the 650th Military Intelligence Group. Serving in West Germany during the Vietnam War and fluent in German, he served as a U.S. Army Counterintelligence Agent.
After his service in the U.S. Army, Gilmore entered the University of Virginia Law School in the mid-1970s, graduating in 1977. After working for a decade as an attorney at the firm Benedetti, Gilmore, Warthen and Dalton, he was elected Commonwealth's Attorney of his native Henrico County in 1987 and 1991, and then was first elected to statewide office in 1993 as Virginia's Attorney General. Gilmore resigned in 1997 to run for Governor, also joining the law firm of LeClairRyan as a partner.
Governor of Virginia
In 1997, Gilmore faced then-Lieutenant Governor Don Beyer and Reform Party Sue Harris Debauche in a bid to succeed George Allen as governor. Gilmore campaigned heavily on the twin promises of hiring 4,000 new teachers in public schools and phasing out Virginia's personal property tax on automobiles. Gilmore was elected, winning 56% of the vote to Beyer's 43%.
In his first year as Governor, Gilmore pushed for car tax reduction legislation that was eventually passed by the Democrat-controlled General Assembly. The legislation reduced car taxes on all cars valued less than $1,000, and phased out the tax on auto values over $1,000 as follows: 12.5% reduction in 1998; 25% reduction in 1999; 47.5% reduction in 2000; 70% reduction in 2001; 100% reduction in 2002. Beginning in 2001, Virginia's economy slowed and tax revenues flattened. In addition to a downturn in the national economy in 2001, Northern Virginia's economy was severely impacted after terrorists flew a hijacked airplane into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, on September 11, 2001, resulting in the closure of Reagan National Airport for several months. Despite the economic downturn, Gilmore insisted on advancing the car tax phase out from a 47.5% reduction of each taxpayer's bill in 2000 to the scheduled 70% reduction in 2001. Gilmore signed an executive order reducing state spending by all agencies, except for education, to keep the state's budget balanced during the economic downturn. Democrats criticized the spending reductions and car tax cut. According to the Washington Post, "Virginia's politicians struggled to balance car-tax relief against demands for public services." When Gilmore left office in January 2002, the state's "rainy day fund," or revenue stabilization fund, contained $1 billion.
Gilmore also implemented new Standards of Learning reforms in Virginia's public schools. The Standards of Learning prescribed a uniform curriculum in mathematics, science, English and social studies and instituted new tests at the end of the third, fifth and eighth grades, as well as end-of-course tests in high school, to measure student achievement. During Gilmore's term, Virginia's public school students' scores increased on these state tests as well as nationally normed tests.
In 1999, Gilmore proposed and signed into law legislation that reduced tuitions at public colleges and universities by 20%. Gilmore also commissioned a Blue Ribbon Commission on Higher Education that studied accountability and governance of public colleges and universities. Gilmore's Commission authored the first blueprint for decentralized regulatory and administrative authority to some universities in return for agreements to meet agreed upon performance objectives.
Gilmore also proposed and signed into law Virginia's first stand-alone Martin Luther King Holiday. Prior to this proposal, Virginia had observed a combined Lee-Jackson-King Day that recognized Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson and Martin Luther King on the same day each year. Gilmore and his wife, Roxane Gatling Gilmore, hosted a historic reception in the Governor's Mansion for Coretta Scott King and announced a technology partnership between Virginia and the King Center for Nonviolence. Gilmore also proposed and funded a new African-American History Trail in Virginia and called upon the State Board of Education to include a more diverse range of historical figures in Virginia's Social Studies curriculum. Test scores during Gilmore's term showed a narrowing of the "achievement gap" between minority and white students. Gilmore significantly increased funding for two of Virginia's historically black universities, Norfolk State University and Virginia State University.
Gilmore created the nation's first state Secretary of Technology, a position first held by Donald Upson. Together they established a statewide technology commission, and signed into law the nation's first comprehensive state Internet policy.
During his term, 37 people were executed in Virginia. Gilmore granted executive clemency to one death row inmate on the basis of mental illness. In another well publicized case, he pardoned Earl Washington, a former death row inmate, after DNA tests, ordered by Gilmore, implicated another person. Gilmore also ordered DNA tests in the case of Derek Rocco Barnabei; the tests confirmed Barnabei's guilt and he was executed.
As Governor, Gilmore signed into law legislation establishing a 24-hour waiting period and informed consent for women seeking an abortion, as well as a ban against partial birth abortion. Gilmore increased funding for adoption services. He also signed into law a bill that banned human cloning. In 1998, Gilmore went to court to try to prevent the removal of a feeding tube of coma victim Hugh Finn. Gilmore argued that removal of a feeding tube was not removal of artificial life support because it amounted to starvation of an infirm person who could not feed himself. As Attorney General of Virginia, Gilmore had defended a legal challenge to Virginia's first parental notification law for minors seeking abortions.
The Virginia Constitution forbids any Governor from serving consecutive terms, so Gilmore could not run for a second term in 2001. He was succeeded by Democrat Mark Warner, who took office in early 2002.
1997–2003: Other positions
During his term as governor, Gilmore chaired the Congressional Advisory Commission on Electronic Commerce. The Commission was charged with the task of making recommendations to the United States Congress on Internet taxation. The Commission's Report to Congress opposed taxation of the Internet.
From 1999 to 2003, Gilmore chaired the Congressional Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction, nicknamed the Gilmore Commission. It presented five reports to Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, and to Congress each December 15 from 1999 through 2003.
From January 2001 to January 2002, Gilmore was the Chairman of the Republican National Committee . Gilmore, who desired to focus on electing conservative candidates across the United States, resigned from this position due to differences of opinion with the Bush Administration, who wanted the RNC to focus on re-electing the President to a second term in office.
Presidential candidacy in 2008
A "Draft Gilmore for President" group was formed in August 2006 encouraging Gilmore to run for president. On December 19, 2006, Gilmore announced he would form an exploratory committee to "fill the conservative void" in the race. On January 9, 2007, Gilmore officially filed papers with the Federal Election Commission to form the Jim Gilmore for President Exploratory Committee.
Gilmore said he represented "the Republican wing of the Republican Party" in the race for the 2008 Presidential nomination; the comment mirrored the slogan used by Howard Dean when seeking the Democratic nomination in the 2004 election, who lifted the slogan from Senator Paul Wellstone. Gilmore officially announced his candidacy on April 26, 2007.
In the first quarter of 2007 Gilmore raised $174,790, the second lowest of any of the major-party candidates. Gilmore hosted only one fundraiser in the first quarter due to a late exploratory announcement.
On July 14, 2007, Gilmore announced that he was ending his campaign. Gilmore said that it would be "impractical" to run, citing the difficulty of raising enough money to be competitive in early-voting states of Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina.
In an interview with Politico.com, Gilmore said that he had been approached to run for the Senate seat of John Warner, who announced his retirement for his senate term ending in 2009. By the end of the summer, many media outlets, most notably the Washington Post, thought it would be a foregone conclusion that Gilmore would jump into the Senate race. Gilmore's successor as governor, Mark Warner, had already announced in September, and 11th District Congressman Tom Davis had informally announced his candidacy a few days after Mark Warner's announcement.
Gilmore lobbied strongly for choosing the party's nominee at a statewide convention rather than a primary, claiming that a convention would cost only $1 million versus the $4 million required to run a primary campaign. This was no small consideration, as the race for the Democratic nomination essentially ended with Mark Warner's entry into the race. It was understood that Warner would use his considerable wealth to self-finance his campaign. It was thought that a convention would favor Gilmore, since most of the delegates would come from the party's activist base, which is tilted strongly to the right. A primary was thought to favor Davis due to his popularity in voter-rich Northern Virginia; Davis is a moderate Republican, and most Republicans in Northern Virginia tend to be more moderate than their counterparts elsewhere in the state. On October 13, 2007 the state party's central committee voted 47–37 to hold a convention rather than a primary. With this decision, Gilmore said he was seriously considering a run for the Senate.
Gilmore formally announced his candidacy via a YouTube video on November 19, 2007. He said that he was running to give Virginia "a strong and steady hand" in the Senate. The domain name jimgilmoreforsenate.com had been registered on July 10—four months before Gilmore's formal entry-- and the username that uploaded the video to YouTube had been registered on October 16.
Gilmore faced a challenge from his right in State Delegate Bob Marshall of Prince William County. Marshall charged Gilmore with being too soft on abortion. However, at the convention Gilmore won the nomination by 65 votes out of 3,000 cast—less than a percentage point.
In the November election, Gilmore was defeated, winning only 34 percent of the vote to Warner's 65 percent. Gilmore only carried four counties in the state—Rockingham, Augusta, Powhatan and Hanover. In many cases, he lost in many areas of the state that are normally reliably Republican.
Gilmore has also served as Chairman of the National Council on Readiness & Preparedness, a homeland security program focused on community involvement and public/private partnerships. He is also President of USA Secure, a non-profit homeland security think tank based in Washington, D.C.
Gilmore and his wife, Roxane Gatling Gilmore, currently reside in Richmond. They have two sons, Jay and Ashton.
- Reitwiesner, William Addams. "The Ancestors of Jim Gilmore". Wargs.com. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- "Member Profile: Mr. Jim Gilmore". Republican National Lawyers Association. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- James S. Gilmore, III[dead link]
- Nagourney, Adam. "Times Topics: James S. Gilmore III". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- Bierbauer, Charles (October 31, 1997). "Car Tax Opposition Propels Gilmore's Candidacy - Oct. 31, 1997". CNN. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- Nov97 Gen Election Results for Governor by Congressional District and Locality[dead link]
- Va. GOP Delegates Rev Up Car-Tax Relief Campaign, The Washington Post
- [dead link]
- "Bios" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- NCTL: National Center for Technology and Law
- Advisory Commission on Electronic Commerce - Report to Congress
- "National Security Research Division | Gilmore Commission". RAND. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- Stuart Rothenberg, "White House takes Gilmore's scalp", CNN.com, December 3, 2001
- "Virginia Patriot". Draftgilmore.org. Retrieved 2012-09-30.[dead link]
- Lewis, Bob (December 19, 2006). "Former Va. governor opens exploratory GOP White House campaign". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 2007-02-08.
- Sweet, Phoebe (April 26, 2007). "Editorial: Bragging rights trump need". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- "First Quarter 2007 FEC Filings | Campaign 2008: Campaign Finance". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-09-30.[dead link]
- Mike Allen, "Gilmore drops out of the race", The Politico, July 14, 2007
- "Jim Gilmore Announces His Candidacy For The U.S. Senate". YouTube. 2007-11-18. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- "Whois on Gilmore's Senate campaign site". Samspade.in. Retrieved 2012-09-30.[dead link]
- "Results by county for 2008 Senate election". Voterinfo.sbe.virginia.gov. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- "Public/Private Partnerships for Community Preparedness and Response". NCORP. 2001-09-11. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- "Who We Are". USA Secure. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
- This article contains some material copied from Republican Party of Virginia.
- Official sites
- Official Senate campaign website
- Virginia Patriot, Gilmore's official blog (former presidential site redirects here)
- Official MySpace profile
- Gilmore's website as governor of Virginia, January 1999
- Topic pages and databases
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Campaign contributions at OpenSecrets.org
- Profile at votimus.com
- Collected articles on James S. Gilmore III from The New York Times
- PBS NewsHour with Jim Lehrer - Vote 2008: Jim Gilmore
- Jim Gilmore at DMOZ
- Hugh Finn case
- Archival Records
- A Guide to the Records of the Policy Office of Governor James S. Gilmore, 1998-2001 at The Library of Virginia
- A Guide to the Policy Office Legislative Files of Governor James S. Gilmore, 1998-2001 at The Library of Virginia
- A Guide to the Policy Office Clemency Files of Governor James S. Gilmore, 1998-2001 at The Library of Virginia
- A Guide to the Executive Office Association Files of Governor James S. Gilmore, 1998-2001 at The Library of Virginia
- A Guide to the Executive Office Congressional E-Commerce Commission Files for Governor James S. Gilmore, 1999-2000 at The Library of Virginia
- Archived Web Site of Jim Gilmore for Senate, 2008 part of Virginia's Political Landscape, 2008 at Virginia Memory
|Attorney General of Virginia
|Party political offices|
|Republican nominee for Governor of Virginia
|Chairperson of the Republican National Committee
|Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Virginia
|Governor of Virginia