|James Guthrie Harbord|
General James G. Harbord
March 21, 1866|
|Died||August 20, 1947
Rye, New York
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1889–1922|
|Commands held||2nd Division (Army)
4th Marine Brigade
|Awards||Distinguished Service Medal|
Harbord was born in Bloomington, Illinois, and raised in Bushong, Kansas and Manhattan, Kansas. He graduated from Kansas State Agricultural College in 1886, and thereafter worked as an instructor at the college for two years. In 1889, he enlisted in the Army, and in 1891 he received a commission.
Harbord's first overseas experience came as a member of the occupation army in Cuba after the Spanish-American War. After leaving Cuba, he served as Assistant Chief of the Philippines Constabulary from 1903 to 1909 and again from 1910 to 1913. In 1916, he was on the Mexican border with General John J. Pershing, pursuing Pancho Villa.
When the United States entered World War I in 1917, Harbord went to France as General Pershing's chief of staff, which won him a promotion to Brigadier General. Throughout the war he continued to work closely with General Pershing. In June 1918, he was given command of the Fourth Marine Brigade, which was serving as part of the Army Second Infantry Division, and then on July 15, briefly given command of the Division itself. He commanded the Marines during the Battle of Château-Thierry and the Battle of Belleau Wood. In August 1918, Harbord was recalled from the front and put in charge of troop and supply movement. Following the war, he was promoted to Major General and awarded the Distinguished Service Medal.
In August 1919, President Woodrow Wilson sent a fact-finding mission to the Middle East, headed by General Harbord, to investigate the feasibility of the Balfour Declaration, which supported the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine, taken from the Ottoman Empire during the war. Harbord was also to report on Turkish-Armenian relations in the wake of the Armenian Genocide. Harbord's report stated that "the temptation to reprisals for past wrongs" would make it extremely difficult to maintain peace in the region.
Radio Corporation of America
In 1922, Harbord retired from the Army to become President of the Radio Corporation of America. While Harbord was President of RCA, the corporation undertook a number of significant moves. In 1926, RCA began television broadcasts and formed NBC. In 1928, RCA was one of four corporations that jointly formed RKO Pictures. Finally, in 1929, RCA acquired the Victor Talking Machine Company (maker of the famous "Victrola") and became RCA-Victor. In 1928, Harbord took a leave of absence to campaign for Herbert Hoover for President, and in 1930 he officially retired from the position, allowing David Sarnoff to assume the office.
Harbord remained as Chairman of the Board for RCA until 1947, finally retiring shortly before his death. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
- Leaves From a War Diary (1931)
- The American Army in France 1917-1919 (1936)
- John Arthur Garraty & Mark Christopher Carnes, ed. (1999). "James Harbord". American National Biography. volume 10: Handerson-Hofmann. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512783-8.
- Robert McHenry, ed. (1978). "James Harbord". Webster's American Military Biographies. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-486-24758-9.
- Short biography of Harbord
- James Gutherie Harbord, Lieutenant General, United States Army, Arlington National Cemetery profile.