James Henry Carleton
|James Henry Carleton|
James Henry Carleton
December 27, 1814|
|Died||January 7, 1873
San Antonio, Texas
|Place of burial||Mount Auburn Cemetery|
|Allegiance|| United States of America
|Years of service||1839 - 1873|
|Rank||Brevet Major General|
|Commands held||1st California Infantry 1861
District of Southern California 1861, 1862
California Column 1862
Department of New Mexico 1862-1866
James Henry Carleton (December 27, 1814 – January 7, 1873) was an officer in the U. S. Army and a general in the Union army during the American Civil War. Carleton is best known as an Indian fighter in the southwestern United States.
Carleton was born in Lubec, Maine. He was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the US Army in 1839, during the Aroostook War, and took part in the Mexican-American War. He served in the 1st U.S. Dragoons in the American West, participating as a Lieutenant in an 1844 expedition to the Pawnee and the Oto.
Mountain Meadows Massacre
In May 1859, Carleton and K Company of the First Dragoons out of Fort Tejon, California, was detailed to escort Major Henry Prince, a paymaster, with government funds to the Southern Utah Territory. Arriving at Mountain Meadows, the command rendezvoused with the Santa Clara Expedition of the Department of Utah from Camp Floyd under the command of Captain Ruben Campbell who had arrived in the area the previous week. With orders from General Clarke, commander of the Department of California, to bury the victims of the massacre that occurred in September 1857, the dragoons gathered the remains of 34 found scattered on the plain and buried them in a mass grave. A crude monument was constructed of rocks with a cross of cedar and an engraved marker. Assistant Surgeon Charles Brewer of the Santa Clara Expedition was in charge of a burial detail that had interred the remains of 39 in three mass graves a few days before the arrival of K Company. After an investigation of the incident, Major Carleton felt his findings were significant enough to deliver as a Special Report to Major W. W. Mackall, Assistant Adjutant-General, U.S.A., San Francisco, California. Major Carleton concluded that Mormons, some dressed as Indians, had murdered and plundered the possessions of 120 men, women, and children of a California bound emigrant train with the assistance of Paiute Tribesmen. In 1860, Major Carleton, attacked suspected Paiute raiders along the Mojave Road with a reinforced 1st Dragoons, Company K.
Civil War Service
In 1861 Carleton raised and was appointed colonel of the 1st California Volunteer Infantry Regiment. In October 1861, Colonel Carleton replaced Brigadier General George Wright as commander of the District of Southern California. In 1862 he led the so-called California Column across California, Arizona, New Mexico, and into Texas. Along the way the Californians fought the Battle of Picacho Pass and, afterward, the Battle of Apache Pass. Carleton was promoted to Brigadier General of volunteers on April 28, during the march from California to Arizona. He also established Fort Bowie near Apache Pass. Carleton finally linked up with Union forces under General Edward R. S. Canby in New Mexico. After the Confederate threat to New Mexico seemed to have been eliminated, Canby and many of the Union forces were sent to the east; so, in late August, Carleton was placed in command of the Department of New Mexico. Because of uncertainty as to whether the Confederates would try to re-invade New Mexico, Carleton took measures such as maintaining spies along the New Mexico-Texas border and retaining the services of volunteer units from Colorado which had played a prominent role in expelling the Confederates from New Mexico in the winter and spring of 1862.
Near the end of the Civil War in 1865, Carleton was appointed brevet major general in the regular army. He retained command of his volunteer troops until 1866 when U.S. Regulars took over in the West. Carleton served as a lieutenant colonel of the 4th U.S. Cavalry after the war.
During his tenure as department commander, Carleton was concerned mainly with the threat posed by Navajo raiders. Although he was strong on discipline he remained popular with his men. In the fall of 1862 Carleton decreed several measures in the aftermath of the Confederates; including internal passports, curfews, and martial law. The campaign against the Navajos was relentless, with his primary field commander being Colonel Christopher "Kit" Carson. Fort Sumner was established by Carleton in October 1862 with the intention to house the Navajos, despite warnings of its unsuitability for a large human presence. Against the "great evil" of Navajo raiders he began scorched earth tactics, stating that they "must be whipped and fear us before they will cease killing and robbing the people." After the Navajo surrender at Canyon de Chelly, the entire nation was forced to march on the Long Walk to Fort Sumner. Carleton found "severity would be the most humane course" and felt expropriating the Navajo was in their best interests. At the end of the journey 2,000 Navajos remained unaccounted for, with official records stating 336 died along the way. Carleton next sent Carson on an expedition to rid the southwest of Indian raids which resulted in the Battle of Adobe Walls. One notorious quote by Carleton on the subject of Indians:
- "All Indian men of that tribe are to be killed whenever and wherever you can find them…. If the Indians send in a flag of truce say to the bearer ... that you have been sent to punish them for their treachery and their crimes. That you have no power to make peace, that you are there to kill them wherever you can find them."
Literary Efforts and Death
Carleton wrote several books on the military: The Battle of Buena Vista (1848), Diary of an Excursion to the Ruins of Abo, Quarra, and the Grand Quivira in New Mexico in 1853 (1855) and The Prairie Log Books (posthumous, 1944). It was partly on the strength of The Battle of Buena Vista that Carleton received an appointment from Secretary of War Jefferson Davis in 1856 to make a study of European cavalry tactics. Carleton did not make the trip abroad himself, but based his report on the observations of Capt. George B. McClellan, who had recently returned from Europe. One of Carleton's children, Henry Guy Carleton (1852–1910) was a journalist, playwright, and inventor. General Carleton died, serving with the Fourth Cavalry Regiment in his permanent rank of Lieutenant Colonel, at age 59 in January 7, 1873, in San Antonio, Texas, and is buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts; his son, Henry was later buried beside him.
- Carleton, James Henry (1983), The Prairie Logbooks, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, pp. 3–152, ISBN 0-8032-6314-7
- Thompson, Jacob. Message of the President of the United States: communicating, in compliance with a resolution of the Senate, information in relation to the massacre at Mountain Meadows, and other massacres in Utah Territory, 36th Congress, 1st Session, Exec. Doc. No. 42, Washington D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1860 p. 14
- Carleton, James Henry. Special Report on the Mountain Meadows Massacre, Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1902, p. 1
- Carleton, 1902, p. 15
- Thompson, pp. 16-17
- Carleton, 1902, p. 17
- Balance, Jim. Major General James Henry Carleton Accessed August 21 2014
- Sides, Hampton, Blood and Thunder, New York City: Doubleday, 2006, pp. 516-517. ISBN 0-385-50777-1.
- Dunlay, Tom. Kit Carson and the Indians, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000, pp. 304-305, ISBN 978-0803266421
- Eigen's Political & Historical Quotations -- http://politicalquotes.org
- Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- Hunt, Aurora, James H. Carleton, 1814–1873, Western Frontier Dragoon, Frontier Military Series II, Glendale, California: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1958.
- Pettis, George Henry, The California column. Its campaigns and services in New Mexico, Arizona and Texas, during the Civil War, with sketches of Brigadier General James H. Carleton, its commander, and other officers and soldiers, Santa Fe: New Mexican Printing Co., 1908 
- James Henry Carleton Papers : typescript transcripts of letters and reports, 1851-1865 (1 binder) are housed in the Department of Special Collections and University Archives at Stanford University Libraries