James Irwin

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For other people named James Irwin, see James Irwin (disambiguation).
James B. Irwin
Jim Irwin Apollo 15 LMP.jpg
NASA Astronaut
Nationality American
Status Deceased
Born James Benson Irwin
(1930-03-17)March 17, 1930
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Died August 8, 1991(1991-08-08) (aged 61)
Glenwood Springs, Colorado, U.S.
Other occupation
Test pilot
USNA, B.S. 1951
UMich, M.S. 1957
Rank Colonel, USAF
Time in space
12d 07h 12m
Selection 1966 NASA Group 5
Total EVAs
3
Total EVA time
18 hours 35 minutes
Missions Apollo 15
Mission insignia
Apollo 15-insignia.png
Retirement July 31, 1972

James Benson "Jim" Irwin (March 17, 1930 – August 8, 1991), (Col, USAF), was an American astronaut, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and a United States Air Force pilot. He served as Lunar Module Pilot for Apollo 15, the fourth human lunar landing. He was the eighth person to walk on the Moon and the first, and youngest, of those astronauts to die.[1]

Biography[edit]

Early life and education[edit]

Irwin's grandparents emigrated to the USA from Altmore Parish at Pomeroy in County Tyrone, Ireland (now Northern Ireland) around 1859.[2] Irwin is a third cousin of Cherith Andrews (née McFarland) socialite and Advertising Manager at the Daily Mirror Northern Ireland. Irwin himself was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania of Scottish and Irish descent.[3] Irwin graduated from East High School in Salt Lake City, Utah in 1947. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Naval Science from the United States Naval Academy in 1951 and a Master of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering and Instrumentation Engineering from the University of Michigan in 1957.

Flight experience[edit]

He received flight training at Hondo Air Base and Reese Air Force Base, Texas. He graduated from the Air Force Experimental Test Pilot School in 1961 and the Aerospace Research Pilot School in 1963. Prior to joining NASA, he was chief of the Advanced Requirements Branch at Headquarters Air Defense Command. During his time in the United States Air Force he received an Air Force Distinguished Service Medal and two Air Force Commendation Medals. He also received an Outstanding Unit Citation while with the 4750th Training Wing.

Irwin was a developmental test pilot for the Lockheed YF-12. His first flight of that aircraft was on the day that one of his five children was born.[4]

In 1961, a student pilot Irwin was training crashed the plane they were flying on a training mission. They both survived, but Irwin suffered compound fractures, amnesia, and nearly lost a leg.[5] Dr. John Forrest, a U.S. Air Force orthopedic surgeon, was instrumental in preventing the amputation of Irwin's leg.

During his military service, he accumulated more than 7,015 hours flying time, 5,300 hours in jet aircraft.[5]

NASA career[edit]

Irwin's Apollo 15 space suit

Irwin was one of the 19 astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966. He served as a member of the astronaut support crew for Apollo 10, the first mission to carry the full Apollo stack to the Moon and the dry run for the first manned Moon landing. He then served as backup Lunar Module Pilot for the second Moon landing mission, Apollo 12.

Apollo 15[edit]

Main article: Apollo 15
Irwin and the lunar rover during Apollo 15

Between July 26 and August 7, 1971 – as the Apollo 15 Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) – Irwin logged 295 hours and 11 minutes in space. His extra-vehicular activity (EVA) on the Moon's surface amounted to 18 hours and 35 minutes of the mission time (an additional 33 minutes was used to do a stand-up EVA by opening the LM's docking hatch to survey the surroundings and take photographs).[6] Irwin and David Scott's mission was more science-based than previous missions, which meant that they received intensive geological training to meet the demanding nature of the J-Mission profile.[1] This extra training is credited with allowing them to make one of the most important discoveries of the Apollo era, the Genesis Rock.[6]

Apollo 15 landed in the Moon's Hadley-Apennine region, noted for its mountains and rilles.[1] As a J-Mission, they would spend more time on the moon than previous missions, to allow for three EVAs. As well, Irwin was the first automobile passenger on the Moon as Scott drove the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) carried along for this mission in the Lunar Module (LM) Falcon's Descent Stage.[1] Scott and Irwin's stay on the Moon was just under three days at 66 hours and 54 minutes.[1]

A patch cut by Irwin from a backpack abandoned on the Moon during the Apollo 15 mission was auctioned at Christie's in 2001 for US$310,500 in a consignment of material from Irwin's estate that garnered "a combined $500,000".[7]

Health problems on Apollo 15[edit]

Once the rendezvous procedure was completed between Falcon and the Endeavour CSM, Irwin and Scott were busy moving items like rock samples into the CSM and preparing the Lunar Module for final separation. During this intense period of work the earliest symptoms of a heart condition appeared.[8] Both Scott and Irwin had been working with no sleep for 23 hours, during which they conducted a final moonwalk, performed the ascent from the lunar surface, rendezvoused with Endeavour, and encountered the problems that delayed the Lunar Module jettison maneuver.[9] The astronauts' physiological vital signs were being monitored back on Earth, and the Flight surgeons noticed some irregularities in Irwin's heart rhythms.[9] Irwin's heart had developed bigeminy.[10] Dr. Charles Berry stated to Chris Kraft, deputy director of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) at the time: "It's serious, [i]f he were on Earth. I'd have him in ICU being treated for a heart attack."[10] Endeavour's cabin atmosphere was 100% oxygen when in space, so it was decided that he was in no serious danger by Dr. Charles Berry.[10] Specifically, "In truth,...he's in an ICU. He's getting one hundred percent oxygen, he's being continuously monitored, and best of all, he's in zero g. Whatever strain his heart is under, well, we can't do better than zero g."[10]

During the post-Trans-Earth injection (TEI) phase of the mission there wasn't much more for Irwin to do other than provide help with Al Worden's EVA to retrieve film magazines from the CSM's SIM bay, by donning a pressure suit and monitoring him. He was able to rest and apparently recover during the rest of the mission.[8] The flight surgeons continued to monitor his EKG until splashdown, but his heart rhythm was normal.[10] This incident apparently was not discussed during the mission debriefing sessions, and the condition did not appear when he returned to Earth. A few months later he had a heart attack.[10]

Stamp incident[edit]

After the return of Apollo 15 to Earth, it was discovered that, without authority, the crew had taken 398 commemorative first day covers to the moon of which a hundred were then sold to a German stamp dealer. The profits of the sale were intended to be used to establish trust funds for the Apollo 15 crew's children. NASA had turned a blind eye to similar activities on earlier flights,[11] but on this occasion the administration decided to reassign the Apollo 15 crew to non-flight positions.

Post-NASA career[edit]

Christianity[edit]

More Than Earthlings, 1983

Irwin left NASA and retired from the U.S. Air Force with the rank of Colonel in 1972 and founded the High Flight Foundation, spending his last 20 years as a "Goodwill Ambassador for the Prince of Peace", stating that "Jesus walking on the earth is more important than man walking on the moon".[13] He frequently spoke about how his experiences in space had made the presence of God even more real to him than before.

Beginning in 1973, Irwin led several expeditions to Mount Ararat, Turkey, in search of the remains of Noah's Ark. In 1982, he was injured during the descent and had to be transported down the mountain on a horse and then to the nearest hospital by Lieutenant Orhan Baser and his commando team. Lieutenant Baser was assigned to protect and lead the team on this expedition.

Freemasonry[edit]

Irwin was a Freemason, belonging to Tajon Lodge # 104 in Colorado Springs, Colorado.[14]

Death[edit]

Irwin suffered a serious heart attack near his home in Colorado Springs, Colorado. He died on August 8, 1991, as the result of a subsequent heart attack in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.[15] He is survived by his widow, Mary Ellen, and their five children. Of the 12 men who have walked on the moon, Irwin was the first to die. The James Irwin Charter Schools were founded in Colorado in his honor.

Organizations[edit]

He was a member of the Air Force Association and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots.[16]

Awards and honors[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Polish Wikipedia.

Irwin's other awards include -

Belgium's Order of Leopold in 1971; Kitty Hawk Memorial Award, 1971; New York Police Department St. George Association's Golden Rule Award in 1972; Christian Service Award; Milan Hulbert Trophy of SWAP International in 1973.

He was also awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Astronautical Engineering from the University of Michigan in 1971; an Honorary Doctorate of Science from the William Jewell College in 1971; and an Honorary D.Sc. from the Samford University in 1972.[17]

He was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame, on October 4, 1997.[18]

In media[edit]

In the 1998 HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon Irwin was played by Gareth Williams.

Bibliography[edit]

  • To Rule the Night: The Discovery Voyage of Astronaut Jim Irwin (with William A. Emerson, Jr., 1973)
  • More Than Earthlings (1983)
  • More Than an Ark on Ararat: Spiritual Lessons Learned While Searching for Noah's Ark (with Monte Unger, 1985)
  • Destination: Moon (1989)
  • Flight Of The Falcon: The Thrilling Adventures Of Colonel Jim Irwin (1991)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Reynolds, David West (2002). Apollo: the epic journey to the moon. TEHABI BOOKS. pp. 166–189. ISBN 0-15-100964-3. 
  2. ^ Allen, Sam (1985) [1985]. To Ulster's Credit. Killinchy, UK. p. 123. 
  3. ^ "Biographical Data: James Irwin". Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. August 1991. Retrieved 2007-02-15. 
  4. ^ http://echoesofapollo.com/2011/08/01/living-with-an-american-hero-2/
  5. ^ a b Flight of the Falcon: The Thrilling Adventures of Colonel Jim Irwin
  6. ^ a b Woods, David (2006-09-14). "Mountains of the Moon". Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. Retrieved 2007-02-15. 
  7. ^ Antiques Roadshow Insider 7 (2): 11. February 2007. 
  8. ^ a b Chaikin, Andrew (1994/1998). A Man on the Moon. Toronto: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-027201-1. 
  9. ^ a b Woods, David (2004-05-28). "Apollo 15 Flight Summary". Apollo Flight Journal. NASA. Retrieved 2007-02-15. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Kraft, Chris; James L. Schefter (March 2001). Flight: My life in Mission Control. New York: Penguin Group. pp. 342–343. ISBN 0-525-94571-7. 
  11. ^ Falling to Earth pp 257-258 - Al Worden ISBN 978-1-58834-309-3
  12. ^ James B. Irwin at New Mexico Museum of Space History
  13. ^ http://www.highflightfoundation.org/about_us
  14. ^ http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/masonicmuseum/images/JamesIrwinAstronautFDC1.jpg
  15. ^ http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1782
  16. ^ Irwin's memberships
  17. ^ Irwin's decorations
  18. ^ James B. Irwin inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame

External links[edit]