James MacLachlan

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Not to be confused with James McLachlan
James Archibald Findlay MacLachlan
The nose art of his aircraft depicts his amputated arm giving the V sign
MacLachlan with his Hawker Hurricane, RAF Tangmere, November 1941.
Nickname(s) "One-Armed Mac"
Born (1919-04-01)1 April 1919
Styal, Cheshire
Died 31 July 1943(1943-07-31) (aged 24)
Buried at Pont-l'Évêque, France
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch  Royal Air Force
Years of service 1937–1943
Rank Squadron Leader
Commands held No. 1 Squadron RAF

Second World War

Awards Distinguished Service Order
Distinguished Flying Cross & Two Bars
War Cross (Czechoslovakia)

Squadron Leader James Archibald Findlay MacLachlan DSODFC & Two Bars (1 April 1919 – 31 July 1943) was a Royal Air Force (RAF) flying ace of the Second World War.

Born in Cheshire in 1919, MacLachlan joined the RAF aged 17 in March 1937. He progressed quickly through flight training and was granted a commission in March 1938. He completed his flight training in early 1939 and had considerable time to gain experience in operational types upon the outbreak of the Second World War. When the Battle of France began in May 1940 he was serving with No. 88 Squadron RAF flying the Fairey Battle light bomber he was credited with two enemy aircraft damaged and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) in July 1940.

Surviving the battle he transferred to fighter pilot school in the summer 1940. During the Battle of Britain he served with No. 73 Squadron RAF and No. 145 Squadron RAF. He achieved a probable victory during the battle. In late 1940 he transferred to Malta and joined No. 261 Squadron RAF. By February 1941 he had achieved 8 victories (2 at night) but was wounded in action on 16 February 1941. His arm was so severely damaged it was amputated. He returned to operations in November 1941 with an artificial left arm. He was awarded a medal bar to his DFC.

He joined No. 1 Squadron RAF as Squadron Leader and led night fighter operations in defence of Britain. In May 1942 he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order after claiming 3 victories, often flying with Karel Kuttelwascher. He achieved 2 more victories making him a night fighter ace and bringing his tally to 13. He left the Squadron to conduct lecturing tours to the United States in July 1942. He returned to action in mid-1943 with No. 132 Squadron RAF where he achieved his last 3 victories—all in one mission—to bring his final tally to 16. MacLachlan was awarded a second bar to his DFC.

On 18 July 1943 the P-51 Mustang in which he was flying was hit by flak and crashed over France. The Germans reported him as a prisoner of war but he died in a military hospital from his injuries. During the course of his combat career he flew the Fairey Battle, Hawker Hurricane, Supermarine Spitfire and P-51 Mustang.

Early life[edit]


James MacLachlan was born on 1 April 1919 at Styal in Cheshire, the second of six children of Hugh MacLachlan and his wife Helen (née Orr-Ewing). The MacLachlans lived in the family home in Styal, where Hugh was employed as an oil and chemical manufacturer until his premature death in 1928 from Peritonitis. Following their father's death the family moved to Southampton to be close to Helen's parents. Her father Archiblad Orr-Ewing, whose connection with the Plymouth Brethren, China Inland Mission and the missionary field resulted in James being boarded at Monkton Combe School in September 1931 aged 12 having completed two years at King Edward's evangelical school. James brothers, Hugh Jnr, Gordon and Archie would follow him through the institutions.


James was not academically talented although he did excel at poetry and attracted trouble from his school masters by forming libelous rhymes about his contemporaries and members of staff. He played rugby and enjoyed rowing but was not a sporty child. He enjoyed wildlife and animals. It encouraged in him a fascination with biology, and he regularly supplied rabbits and other specimens to the laboratory. He was never appointed a prefect and did not rise to a notable rank in the School Officer Training Corps. He engaged in carpentry and metal work. He and his friends built and manufactured a .22 pistol in the workshops. It test fired and worked. Keen to acquire a real firearm, he obtained a service revolver but shot himself in the hand. Eager for adventure, MacLachlan contemplated his future. At 17 he travelled to Scotland in May 1936 for a holiday near Comrie and Crief. While there he went for a five-shilling flight at the RAF Leuchars open day which, according to his mother, made up his mind to become a pilot. He gained his Leaving School Certificate and gained entry into the Royal Air Force (RAF) on a Short Service Commission one month short on his 18th birthday in March 1938.

Early RAF career[edit]

On 1 March 1937 he arrived at the No. 10 Elementary Training School and Reserve Flying Training Centre at RAF Yatesbury in Wiltshire. It was run by the British Aeroplane Company. He was assigned to B Flight. MacLachlan was uncomfortable with the military banter and the use of religious profanities. He also complained about the bills applicants were forced to pay. Mess bills were reportedly £ 2 10s (Shillings) per week and laundry 5s. Most of his salary was expended in these necessities.

MacLachlan was not given time to settle in. His first flight was in a Tiger Moth on 2 March 1937 in which he gained a 45-minute experience in an open-cockpit. He flew solo for the first time on 9 March after rapidly coming to grips with his trainer. He wrote, "You will be glad to hear I went solo today...Mr Sharp did a slow roll. It was pretty grim when we were upside down with nothing but 6,000 feet of air between us and the ground.....I simply love flying". MacLachlan was the youngest trainee of the group and after 23 solo and 28 hours dual flight he passed as an 'Average' grade pilot on the 27 April. He had come second overall in his examinations. He travelled to RAF Uxbridge the following month. There, he was promoted to acting Pilot Officer service number 39639. He was posted to No. 3 Flying Training School at Grantham in Lincolnshire. He flew the Hawker Hart and the Hawker Audax for the first time on 20 May 1938. He enjoyed the speed of the aircraft immensely and indulged in his passion for motor cars by buying an Austin 7 with his first pay for £14 7s.

Despite getting lost in navigational exercises he passed as an 'Above Average' pilot and his probation was passed. He made his choice as to the type of Squadron he wanted to fly with. He chose from a list of medium bomber or light bomber Squadrons. He proceeded to the No. 3 Advanced Flying Training School in Gloucestershire. He practiced dive-bombing and level bombing attacks and exercised in close air support operations. He rounded off his training at RAF Penrose in Wales at the No. 5 Armament Training Camp. On 26 November 1937 he once again passed as an 'Above Average' pilot. He was promptly posted to No. 88 Squadron RAF at RAF Boscombe Down. MacLachlans logbook read 92 hours flying to his credit.

88 Squadron was a new unit and part of the Expansion Schemes of the late 1930s designed to increase the number of aircraft in response to the threat of the German Luftwaffe. He joined the Squadron on 6 December 1937 and it was re-equipped with the Fairey Battle. He flew the aircraft for the first time on 30 December. In May 1938 he joined the No. 7 Armament Training Station in Northumberland to engage in formation flying aerial gunnery and bombing practice. It also practiced in mock attacks on the British Army 2nd Infantry Division. By the time war broke out in September 1939, MacLachlan had two years of experience in flying the machine.

Second World War[edit]

On 1 September 1939 Germany invaded Poland. 88 Squadron moved to France On 2 September and Britain and her Allies declared war the following day. 88 Squadron formed part of the RAF Advanced Air Striking Force (AASF). On 12 September 1939 88 Squadron was based south east of Rheims. At this time the Luftwaffe was heavily engaged in Poland and only a few small-scale skirmishes were fought with a thin German fighter screen left to guard western Germany against a French attack. On 20 September 1939 elements of the Squadron were intercepted by Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters from Jagdgeschwader 26 (JG 26—Fighter Wing 26) over the border. Four Battles were shot down. On 30 September No. 150 Squadron RAF lost five Battles on unescorted missions into German airspace. It quickly became clear to the crews the Battle was too slow and too poorly armed to defend itself. Operations were shut down. The Squadron took measures to increase its defensive power by adding a third machine gun in the back of the cockpit for the observer to use. On 26 October MacLachlan was promoted to Flying Officer and undertook an attack mission. During the course of the flight his wingtip made contact with the ground but he was able to return to base. The Squadron settled down into winter quarters until March when they were reassigned to the French border region with Spain. On 1 April he celebrated his 21st birthday and took the opportunity of driving from Perpignan across the frontier into the Pyrenees to celebrate it. On 9 April the Squadron was put on alert when the Germans invaded Denmark and Norway and the Squadron were soon relocated to northern France at Mourmelon. On 10 May the Phoney War came to a close with the German invasion of Western Europe.[1]

Battle of France[edit]

The Squadron did not see action in the Battle of France on the first day of the campaign—10 May—but many other Battle Squadrons did and suffered high losses attacking German ground forces. The Squadron's airfield came under air attack from the first day. Junkers Ju 88s destroyed hangars and two aircraft in a night attack. On 11 May it was bombed again and three of four aircraft were lost attacking German Army columns in daylight hours. On 14 May McLachlan flew his first sortie over the Sedan bridgeheads. The German thrust at Sedan threatened to outflank the Maginot Line in the south and the Allied Armies in the north by breaking through in the centre and advancing to the English Channel. On 12 May Sedan fell. Heinz Guderian's XIX Panzer Corps and Georg-Hans Reinhardt's XXXXI Panzer Corps were breaking through onto the west bank on the 14 May. Desperate to halt the attacks, General Marcel Têtu, commander of the Allied Tactical Air Forces in consultation with Patrick Playfair, commander of the AASF ordered all available units to attack. No. 88 Squadron was committed to the air offensive. Six aircraft attacked armoured column positions, four attacked bridges. One aircraft was lost. Despite heavy anti-aircraft fire and German fighter opposition MacLachlan attacked and got away at low altitude. Allied units suffered 50 percent losses that day. On 15 May the airfield was hit twice again and the Squadron moved back near Troyes.[2]

On 19 May the Squadron flew night operations owing to German air superiority. MacLachlan flew a raid against Givet, on the French-Belgian border; his only action in support of Allied forces in the Battle of Belgium. He was ordered to fly daylight missions on 21 May near the Somme where German Panzer units were seen to be moving. The Squadron claimed one German tank destroyed. His low-level flying did not impress his observer, Sergeant Hardy, who said to a member of the Squadron: "I don't want to be killed by that f*****g MacLachlan - he does not care for his crew. I'm going to the C.O and ask to be re-crewed."[3] The Commanding Officer approved his request. On his next mission he was shot down and killed in action with his new pilot. MacLachlan flew missions against rail targets in Germany on 23 May, attacking Bingen am Rhein. On 25 May he flew against targets near Sedan and his Battle was damaged by flak. The unit relocated to Moissy and he flew missions in support of French Army forces around Abbeville. On 10 June near Fleury, his cockpit hood was shot away by accurate ground fire but MacLachlan was unhurt. On 13 June he flew a daylight mission against German spearheads and while returning to base flew under a formation of Junkers Ju 87 dive bombers. The escorting Bf 109s gave chase and shot one Battle down. MacLachlan claimed to have managed to fire on two Bf 109s and damaged them—these claims cannot be confirmed.[4]

One last raid was carried out on the 14 June—the day Paris fell—and the Squadron abandoned France as Allied resistance crumbled. They landed at Houssay airfield. They then took off for RAF Driffield in Yorkshire. As they crossed over England MacLachlan took a detour to do a low fly-past over his old school at Monkton Combe near Bath. The stunt was witnessed by his brother who was attending the institution at the time. 88 Squadron relocated to Belfast, Northern Ireland on 23 June for rest and refitting. Following intensive operations during the Battle of France MacLachlan was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) (gazetted 16 July 1940).[5]

Fighter pilot training[edit]

MacLachlan did not take to his new posting and was eager to get back to the action. MacLachlan volunteered for service with RAF Fighter Command during the Battle of Britain which had begun in July 1940. He learned on the 18 August that he had been one of five pilots chosen from 88 Squadron to retrain as fighter pilots. He was posted to RAF Drem for training with No. 145 Squadron. He flew a Hawker Hurricane fighter for the first time days later on 22 August. Within nine days he had logged 18 hours in the type. On 3 September he was given official leave to travel to London. There he received his DFC at Buckingham Palace. He returned to No. 145 shortly afterwards and was based at RAF Tangmere, Croydon and Westhampnett. No. 11 Group RAF was in the thick of the fighting and suffered many casualties. MacLachlan and his group were to replace the many pilots killed or wounded. MacLachlan practiced operational take-offs, fighter tactics, radio control, break-aways and Dogfights—the essence of air-to-air combat. He was sent on patrols on 30 August, but only over Scotland, to guard against attacks from Luftflotte 5 (Air Fleet 5) based in Norway. No interceptions were made as air combat was rare in the north. On 21 September MacLachlan survived a force-landing at Dyce, caused by an oil leak. On 27 September 1940 MacLachlan was posted to the south at Debden, arriving two days later. He was then assigned to No. 73 Squadron RAF at RAF Castle Camps.[6]

On 30 September MacLachlan flew in defence of London as a large raid sought to attack the city. The RAF fighters performed well but 73 Squadron did not encounter the enemy. As September ended the Luftwaffe began sending fighter-bombers (Jabos)—bomb carrying Bf 109s—over England. On 7 October he intercepted one such raid and engaged in air-to-air combat for the first time as a fighter pilot. At 09:50 the unit was scrambled to defend Chelmsford. Flying with No. 257 Squadron they overflew the Thames Estuary. No contact was made. At 12:30 they were scrambled again. This time MacLachlan spotted two Bf 109s at 20,000 feet. Six more attacked the Squadron and MacLachlan managed to fire a burst which hit one and it dove away emitting smoke and gained a probable victory. Two weeks later MacLachlan learned he was to be relocated to Malta. Twelve pilots and 207 men boarded HMS Argus on 7 November 1940 and set sail for the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations.[7]

Siege of Malta[edit]

The convoy sent to Malta constituted a part of Operation Collar. The operation was to supply aircraft defences for the Island. In June 1940 Italy had declared war on France when the country was on the verge of collapse at the hands of the German Wehrmacht. The Italians hoped they could take advantage of the weakened Allies by joining the Axis Powers. It was the Italian intent to launch a series of air, naval and land offensives throughout the Mediterranean and in particularly in North Africa. Malta lay across Italian sea communications between Sicily and Italian-held Libya. The island had the potential to be a useful base from which the British could disrupt Axis supplies to and from North Africa and the ensuing North African Campaign. The Regia Aeronautica (Italian Air Force) resolved to eliminate the island by bombing shipping bring in supplies and attacking the island directly. With air power crucial to both sides, the island was reinforced.

MacLachlan found himself at the heart of the battle for the island before the Squadron arrived. On 27 November the convoy came under attack from the Italian Navy in the Battle of Cape Spartivento. MacLachlan saw the Italian fleet at a distance and witnessed enemy shells splashing around the ship. He also witnessed an attack by Italian Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 bombers but they failed to damage the ships. Most of the Hurricanes that took off from the Argus fell into the water out of fuel. The pilots had not run the Hurricanes at economic speeds for fuel consumption.[8]

A 261 Sqn Hurricane II at RAF Ta Kali, Malta, in September 1941.

Serving on Malta with No. 261 Squadron at RAF Ta' Qali, MacLachlan soon got bored, with little to do and no aircraft to fly. He was granted a trip to Tangiers in Spanish Morocco for Christmas and New Year's leave. While there he was arrested by the authorities for taking pictures near a Spanish Navy facility and released a short time later. He travelled to Gibraltar where he wangled trips on flying boats from No. 202 Squadron RAF which was monitoring German and Vichy French shipping sailing between eastern Spanish ports and Italy. MacLachlan returned to Malta on a Short Sunderland on 5 January 1941.[9]

A new convoy, codenamed Operation Excess was on its way through Malta with ammunition supplies. Excess coincided with the arrival of the Luftwaffe Fliegerkorps X in Sicily to support the faltering Italians in the theatre, after the failed invasion of Egypt. On 9 January the Regia Aeronautica flew a fighter sweep over the Grand Harbour. 18 Macchi C.200s from 6° Gruppo engaged in aerial combat. MacLachlan climbed to 22,000 feet and spotted enemy fighters 10,000 below. He 'bounced' a group of six and shot one down. He saw a large plume of water where it crashed. He circled the sea and noticed the Italian pilot had survived. Capitano Luigi Armanino was taken aboard a rescue craft to a prisoner of war camp in Malta, wounded in the thigh and arm. A second Macchi was shot down minutes later. The following day he attacked an Italian Fiat CR.42 over the Excess convoy. Four others appeared and they climbed over him and dropped onto his tail. Not risking a 5:1 encounter, MacLachlan flew over the Excess convoy and was fired upon in error but with no ill effect on his machine. By the 10 January HMS Illustrious had docked in Malta. The Luftwaffe attacked the ship and scored six damaging hits. MacLachlan's squadron failed to intercept the Ju 87 dive bombers that morning. On 16 January he witnessed several formations of Ju 87s and Junkers Ju 88s attack the ship. Unable to stand the sight, he raced with a fellow pilot to a dispersal strip and asked to take-off only to be refused.[10][11]

Three days later, MacLachlan was in action against two German units: Sturzkampfgeschwader 2 (StG 2—Dive Bomber Wing 2) and Sturzkampfgeschwader 2 (StG 1—Dive Bomber Wing 1). He attacked one Ju 87 killing the gunner before dispatching it into the sea. Returning to base he spotted a Ju 87 that had double-backed, hoping to slip past the defences to attack the aircraft carrier. MacLachlan destroyed the aircraft (3–4 victories) and then had to take evasive action when attacked by an Italian CR.42.[12] He shot the Italian fighter into the sea: Sergente Maggiore Iacone from 70a Squadriglia bailed out was taken prisoner. He passed single CR.42s and Ju 87s flying low and unaware of his presence—his fifth victory making him a flying ace.[13] RAF fighters claimed six Ju 87s shot down and three can be confirmed. Oberfeldwebel Kurt Zube and his gunner was killed as was Unteroffizier Rudolf Vater—both served in I./StG 1. Obergefreiter Hans Küsters of II./StG 2 was also killed. A further I./StG 1 Ju 87 returned badly damaged with a dead gunner.[14]

Frustrated at exhausting his ammunition he landed. After the Hurricanes had been refueled he was scrambled again. MacLachlan stumbled across a Cant Z.506-B bomber of 612 Squadriglia during the sortie. He shot it down into the sea. The pilot, Sottotenente Ignazio Rossi was killed in action.[15] Landing again another raid came in after re-fueling and re-arming. He climbed and singled out a Junkers Ju 88 of 8./Lehrgeschwader 1 (LG 1—Learning Wing 1). The Ju 88 saw him coming and swung around to a head-on position. After a brief turning duel MacLachlan hit the port engine and it crashed into the bay near Zonkor Point. For his actions he was awarded the Bar to his DFC on 24 January.[16]

Wounded in action[edit]

On 9 February he claimed a night victory—a Ju 88 which vanished. MacLachlan claimed it destroyed. The Malta Y Service was combing the air waves and picked up the German crew's desperate distress calls. The aircraft was actually a Heinkel He 111 from 5./Kampfgeschwader 26 (KG 26—Bomber Wing 26). All the crew survived though one was wounded. Within half an hour he was in the air again. He engaged a Ju 88 from II./LG 1 and claimed it shot down. In fact the Ju 88 managed to reach Catania, Sicily where it was written off in a crash-landing.[17][18] Over the next few days morale began to sink when Bf 109s from 7./JG 26, led by Oberleutnant Joachim Müncheberg appeared over Malta and immediately took a toll of Hurricanes. The British fighter could not match the performance of the Bf 109. MacLachlan took a flight of them by surprise on the 11 February but the German pilots spotted them in time, climbed and dived. According to MacLachlan they "left us standing". In his diary he noted the poor morale of the Squadron owing to the success of the Bf 109s and he recorded the desperation of pilots eager to shoot one down.[19]

On 16 February 1941 MacLachlan's Hurricane Mk. Ia (V7731) was again in battle with the Luftwaffe. In the morning his Squadron engaged Bf 109s over Malta. After careful manoeuvreing he managed to get onto the tail of a Bf 109 but neglected to check his own six o'clock position. He was hit by cannon fire which shattered his engine and cockpit. His left arm began bleeding profusely and ceased to function. He managed to remove his helmet and radio equipment and slide back the canopy and jump out. MacLachlan gave up trying to reach for his ripcord, assuming it must have been shot off. He had almost given up altogether when he claimed the thought of his mother reading the telegram informing her he had been killed in action spurred him on to try once again. He struggled and found the ripcord and deployed his parachute. Exhausted, he landed in someone's garden and lay there intending to "die quietly":

This, however, was not to be. Scarcely had I got myself fairly comfortable and closed my eyes, when I heard the sound of people running. I hurriedly tried to think up some famous last words to give my public, but never had a chance to utter them. I was surrounded by a crowd of shouting gesticulating Maltese, who pulled at my parachute, lifted my head and drove me so furious that I had to give up the dying idea in order to concentrate completely on kicking every Maltese who came within range. From what the pongos told me after, I believe I registered some rather effective shots.[20]

MacLachlan probably was hit by a Bf 109 flown by Joachim Müncheberg—he had reported his 26th victory as a Hurricane with the pilot bailing out. He was the only British pilot to bail out in the battle.[21] MacLachlan remained in hospital with a severely wounded in the left arm. He was pumped with saline solution to prevent blood clotting but his arm was too badly damaged and it was amputated below the elbow. His determination and reputation was as such, the nurses and Squadron were already taking bets on whether or not he would return to action within a fortnight on the day of the operation.[22] While in hospital he began speaking with Luigi Armanino, the pilot he had shot down days earlier. The two men talked at great length about the strength of the Italian aircraft. Luigi Armanino discussed with an interested MacLahlan his exploits piloting CR.42s during the Spanish Civil War.[23][24]

MacLachlan stayed on Malta and took a flight in a transport aircraft on 6 March, winning the shilling bet. He embarked upon HMS Defenderon 22 March to return to Britain. He toured Egypt and then took a detour to Athens, Greece. The Axis had invaded Greece and Yugoslavia on 6 April and the Battle of Greece was on the verge of an out come within two weeks and MacLachlan was evacuated back to Egypt. He flew down the Nile River into Sudan and Kenya in a captured German Junkers Ju 52 and piloted the aircraft himself on 24 April. Stopping at various airfields he flew when he could. On one such occasion he flew a North American T-6 Texan in an aerobatic sortie. He reached South Africa on 10 May. He flew home on a Boeing 314 Clipper via Lagos, Bathurst in Gambia, Lisbon, Portugal, Dublin, Ireland arriving in Bristol on 7 August.[25]

Night fighter[edit]

On MacLachlan reported to No. 1 Depot, RAF Uxbridge and two days later attended No. 2 Central Medical Board on 13 August. He was certified fit to fly and flew Supermarine Spitfire on 21 August. He moved to Bournemouth to see his brother Gordon who was now a Pilot Officer in No. 501 Squadron RAF. At the Queen Mary's Hospital he was fitted with a new arm. MacLachlan explained to the doctors that he required an arm that would allow him to fly a Hurricane. They designed a limb that allowed him to operate the throttle while taking the control column and firing button with his right hand. They spent hours studying the cockpit layout. The medical staff produced an arm with four spring-loaded pins, like fingers, which enabled him to use the controls on the port side of the cockpit. They secured his left arm to the levers of the throttle quadrant: throttle, propeller pitch control, supercharger and mixture control. The landing gear controls were located on the right side. The artificial arm had to interact with the control column while the gear was being retracted or lowered. His new arm proved sufficient and in September 1941 he flew as many hours in Hurricanes as possible, though not without incident. On 7 September 1941 he force-landed in darkness during a searchlight co-operation exercise. On 28 September 1941 he nearly collided with a Bristol Blenheim in low-cloud. Nevertheless, he was cleared for operational flying on 15 October.[26]

Wartime colour photo of Hurricane IIC BE500 flown by Sqn Ldr Denis Smallwood of 87 Sqn in overall RDM2 ("Special Night") scheme and used on intruder operations 1941-1942.

On 3 November 1941 MacLachlan was promoted to Squadron Leader and was given command of No. 1 Squadron at Redhill Aerodrome, equipped with the Hawker Hurricane Mk. IIc for night intruder operations over western Europe. MacLachlan was assigned his personal aircraft, Hurricane BD983/JX-Q. He painted an emblem showing a left arm with a cannon shell passing through it and the fingers giving the V sign. The Squadron spent the winter, 1941–2 in intensive night fighter training with searchlight and Ground Control Station (CGI). In February 1942 he attended the Searchlight School at Shrivenham. In his absence he missed the Channel Dash and subsequent air battle during which the Squadron lost two pilots. The Squadron scored its first success on 1 April—his 21st birthday—when Karel Kuttelwascher—with whom he often flew—destroyed two Ju 88s. MacLachlan found locating German aircraft in the dark difficult, though he himself claimed a locomotive damaged on the night and left two of its wagons destroyed.[27]

In 1942 the Baedeker Raids were in operation against British cities in relation for RAF Bomber Commands attacks on Germany. The Luftwaffe was stepping up its campaign although it was fully engaged on the Eastern Front. On 18 April Do 217s raided Portsmouth in retaliation for an attack on Lübeck on 28/29 March. An attack on Rostock resulted in retaliation in raids on Bath, Exeter, Canterbury, Norwich and York. On the night of 26–27 April 1942 the Luftwaffe attacked Bath. MacLachlan took off in the evening of the 26 April and headed for airfields around Evreux and Dreux. He claimed a I./Kampfgeschwader 2 (KG 2—Bomber Wing 2) Dornier Do 217 destroyed which came down near Evreux severely damaged. A second was damaged but his port cannon jammed preventing its destruction. Air Vice Marshall Trafford Leigh-Mallory sent his congratulations and his exploits were printed in The Times newspaper. On 30 April MacLachlan and Kuttelwascher set out again with a 25 minute interval between both. Kuttelwascher claimed a Do 217 and He 111, but MacLachlan settled for the destruction of two locomotives between Le Havre and Rouen. He also damaged a tug boat on the Seine and destroyed another locomotive near Yvetot. These successes were achieved in two missions.[28]

On 4/5 May the Luftwaffe hit Exeter severely. That night he claimed destroyed two He 111s of Küstenfliegergruppe 506. He trailed the German bombers back to France and attacked them where they believed they were safe. In fact both of his victims were Ju 88s which crashed near Dinard. From Feldwebel Robert Bogel's Wrk Nr. 1528, only the gunner was able to bail out, while observer Leutnant zur See (Naval rank) Roman Wallner and Obergefreiter Johan Beibl were killed. There was only one survivor from Unteroffizier Josef Palmer's Ju 88D-4 Wrk Nr. 1154; Unteroffizier Karl Schorn managed to bail out but Leutnant zur See Ernst Tramp and Richard Staub were killed. On 29 May the award of MacLachlan's Distinguished Service Order (DSO) was announced. His tally stood at 11 air victories and was becoming a recognised night flyer and ground-attack ace.[29]

On 3/4 June 1942 he destroyed two Do 217s of KG 2 and damaged two more (victories 12–13). Flying with Kuttelwascher, they trailed a formation of 15 German bombers that had raided Poole. Sighting them over their own airfield he destroyed one and then was detected by searchlights. Taking evasive action he latched onto another and shot it down. A third and fourth were damaged. Kuttelwascher arrived and as MacLachlan left and claimed another He 111 and Do 217. MacLachlan saw two flashes on the ground denoting a crashed aircraft after he attacked. MacLachlan's first victim appears to have been Unteroffizier Gerhard Wagner's Wrk Nr. 5392 Do 217 from 3./KG 2. Wagner, Feldwebel Wilhelm Oberwohr, Unteroffizier Josef Maier and Oberfledwebel Anton Lamm were killed. Another II./KG 2 Do 217 crashed there while another was severely damaged. Another Do 217 fell 40 miles south of Cherbourg but this machine—Wrk nr. 5331 piloted by Feldwebel Hans Koch of 7./KG 2—was likely a victim of Kuttelwascher. All of the crew were killed in action. The Daily Express hailed their success with two articles, "The Killers Who Stalk By Night". Needing a rest, the Squadron was withdrawn to Yorkshire. On 31 July he was posted to 59 Operational Training Unit as an instructor. While there he and Kuttelwascher were decorated with the Czechoslovak War Cross by President of Czechoslovakia Edvard Beneš on 11 August 1942.[30]

American tour[edit]

Channel Front[edit]

While serving with the Air Fighting Development Unit (AFDU) at Wittering, he often flew unofficial sorties in the new North American Mustang Mk.IA (serial no.FD442), usually with fellow ace Flight Lieutenant Geoffrey Page. In early June 1943 the P-51 Mustang was introduced to the RAF Squadrons and MacLachlan was eager to test the machine by flying patrols over France. After many requests he was granted a chance to do so. On 4 June 1943 he overflew Orleans and sighted two Focke-Wulf Fw 190s which he evaded. Needing a wingman, he enlisted Geoffrey Page. They practiced low-level flying over the next weeks to improve teamwork. To allow the P-51 tandem to intrude into German air space undetected MacLachlan asked No. 1 Squadron RAF to provide a diversion with four Hawker Typhoons flying attacks against German night fighter fields around Paris and diversion attacks against shipping off Boulogne. The operation was flown on 29 June 1943.

As the two P-51s crossed over the Seine and reached Rambouillet, they sighted a formation of enemy aircraft. Brief bursts of machine gun fire dispatched four Focke-Wulf Fw 56 trainers—two falling to MacLachlan. Their victims were from JG 105. Gefreiter Walter Seigler was killed in Wrk. Nr. 1868 and Kurt Prager died in Wrk Nr. 2438. Gefreiter Alois Erdl was wounded and the aircraft written off and the fourth was able to force-land safely, damaged. The pilot Gefreiter Gotze-Gerd Kuhn was unhurt. They continued their hunt and flying near Bretigny spotted two Ju 88 night fighters or bombers coming into land. MacLachlan destroyed the first and shared the second with Page. Both aircraft belonged to IV./Kampfgeschwader 6 (KG 6—Bomber Wing 6). The pilots—Gefreiter Gerhard Zimmermann and Unteroffizier Karl Brocks—were killed.[31]

On his next mission on his Mustang FD442 was hit by ground fire when crossing the French coast and crash-landed, with MacLachlan critically injured. He was taken prisoner, and died on 31 July 1943.

He is buried in Route de Caen Communal Cemetery, Pont-l'Évêque in France.

MacLachlan's wartime score was 16.5 aircraft claimed destroyed, with 3 aircraft claimed damaged.[32]

He was awarded a second Bar to the DFC in July 1943.


  1. ^ Cull & Symons, pp. 27-31.
  2. ^ Cull & Symons, pp. 31-33.
  3. ^ Cull & Symons, p. 35.
  4. ^ Cull & Symons, pp. 33-35.
  5. ^ Cull & Symons, pp. 35-36.
  6. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 37-38.
  7. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 39-45.
  8. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 46, 51-52.
  9. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 54-62.
  10. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 65-69.
  11. ^ Thomas 2003, pp. 6-7.
  12. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 71-72.
  13. ^ Gustavsson & Ludovico 2009, p. 60.
  14. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 126.
  15. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, p. 72.
  16. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 73.
  17. ^ Shore Cull, and Malizia 1987, p. 142.
  18. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 77-78.
  19. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 78-81.
  20. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, p. 82.
  21. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, p. 83.
  22. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 82, 85.
  23. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, p. 86.
  24. ^ Shore Cull, and Malizia 1987, p. 108.
  25. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 93-128.
  26. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 129–132.
  27. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 133–140.
  28. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 141–144.
  29. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 145–147.
  30. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, pp. 147–158.
  31. ^ Cull & Symons 2003, p. 171.
  32. ^ Shores & Williams, p. 418.
  • Bowyer, Chaz. (1984) Fighter Pilots of the RAF, 1939–1945. William Kimber & Co Ltd, London. ISBN 978-0-7183-0519-2
  • Cull, Brian and Symons, Rolland. (2003) One-Armed Mac: The Story of Squadron Leader James MacLachlan DSO, DFC and 2 Bars, Czech War Cross. Grub Street, London. ISBN 978-1904010463
  • Gustavsson, Hîkan and Slongo, Ludovico. Fiat CR.42 Aces of World War 2. Osprey, London. ISBN 978-1846034275
  • Kaplan, Phillip. (2007). Fighter Aces of the RAF in the Battle of Britain. Pen & Sword ISBN 978-1844155873
  • Shore, Christopher, Cull, Brian and Malizia (1987). Malta: The Hurricane Years, 1940-41, Volume 1, Grub Street, London. ISBN 978-0948817069