James O'Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley

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The Lord Tyrawley
MontaguTyrawleyUnknown.jpg
Lord Tyrawley (centre), with John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu (left) and an unknown man (right)
Born 1682
Ireland
Died 14 July 1774 (aged 91 or 92)
Twickenham, London
Buried at Royal Hospital Chelsea
Allegiance  Kingdom of England
 Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branch  English Army
 British Army
Years of service 1703–1773
Rank Field Marshal
Battles/wars War of the Spanish Succession
Seven Years' War

Field Marshal James O'Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley and 1st Baron Kilmaine PC (1682 – 14 July 1774) was an Irish officer in the British Army. After serving as a junior officer in Spain and the Low Countries during the War of the Spanish Succession, he went on to become British ambassador to Lisbon establishing a close relationship with King John V there. He undertook a tour as British ambassador to Saint Petersburg before becoming Governor of Gibraltar where he set about improving the fortifications. He was briefly commander of British troops in Portugal during the Seven Years' War but was replaced within a few months. During his military career he was colonel of eight different regiments.

Military career[edit]

Born the son of Charles O'Hara, 1st Baron Tyrawley and Frances O'Hara (née Rouse), James O'Hara was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Royal Fusiliers on 15 March 1703.[1] He was promoted to captain on 24 March 1705.[2]

O'Hara fought at the Siege of Barcelona in April 1706 and was wounded at the Battle of Almansa in April 1707 during the War of the Spanish Succession.[2] He was redeployed to the Low Countries as aide-de-camp to the Duke of Marlborough and was wounded again at the Battle of Malplaquet in September 1709.[2] He succeeded his father as colonel of the Royal Fusiliers in January 1713 and then served with his regiment in Minorca for several years.[2] For this he was appointed an aide-de-camp to the King in 1717 and, while serving in Ireland, was created Baron Kilmaine in the Peerage of Ireland on 2 January 1722.[3] He succeeded his father as 2nd Baron Tyrawley in June 1724.[2]

O'Hara was appointed British ambassador to Lisbon in January 1727[4] establishing a close relationship with King John V there.[1] Promoted to brigadier-general on 18 December 1735[5] and to major-general on 17 July 1739,[6] he also became colonel of the 5th Regiment of Horse in August 1739.[2] After retiring from his post in Lisbon in January 1741,[7] he declined an American command later that year.[2] Promoted to lieutenant-general on 5 April 1743,[8] he became colonel of the 2nd Troop Horse Grenadier Guards later that month and was appointed British ambassador to Saint Petersburg in November 1743.[9] He retired from the Saint Petersburg post in February 1745.[10]

O'Hara became colonel of the 3rd Troop of Horse Guards in April 1745 and colonel of the Lord Tyrawley's Regiment in December 1746 before becoming Governor of Minorca in 1747.[2] He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in January 1748.[11] He went on to become colonel of the 14th Regiment of Dragoons in July 1749,[12] colonel of the 3rd (King's Own) Regiment of Dragoons in July 1752 and colonel of the Coldstream Guards in April 1755.[2]

O'Hara became Governor of Gibraltar in 1756 and set about improving the fortifications. These changes came under criticism from William Skinner who was British Chief Engineer. The two of them were called before the bar of the House of Commons where O'Hara harangued Skinner who took the anger in good humour.[13] O'Hara went on to be Governor of Portsmouth in 1759.[1]

Promoted to full general on 14 March 1761,[14] O'Hara returned to Lisbon as British ambasador and commander of British troops in February 1762 for the duration of the Seven Years' War but was replaced by General John Burgoyne in July 1762 and returned to England in protest.[2] Promoted to field marshal on 10 June 1763,[15] he moved to Milbourne House in Barnes in 1770.[16] He died at Twickenham on 14 July 1774 and was buried in the chapel of the Royal Hospital Chelsea.[17]

The Siege of Barcelona, where O'Hara first saw action

Family[edit]

In November 1724 O'Hara married Mary Stewart, daughter of William Stewart, 2nd Viscount Mountjoy.[17] He had no children by this marriage but had at least two illegitimate children including Charles O'Hara, who followed him into the Army, and George Anne Bellamy, who became an actress.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "O'Hara, James, second Baron Tyrawley and Baron Kilmaine (1681/2–1773)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Heathcote, p. 234
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 6023. p. 2. 6 January 1722. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  4. ^ The London Gazette: no. 6642. p. 1. 16 January 1727. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 7464. p. 1. 16 December 1735. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 7823. p. 2. 14 July 1739. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 8082. p. 2. 5 January 1741. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 8211. p. 3. 2 April 1743. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 8327. p. 1. 12 May 1744. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  10. ^ The London Gazette: no. 8417. p. 1. 23 March 1745. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  11. ^ "Library and Archive Catalogue". Royal Society. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  12. ^ The London Gazette: no. 8876. p. 1. 15 August 1749. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  13. ^ Latcham, Paul (2004). "Skinner, William (1699/1700–1780)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  14. ^ The London Gazette: no. 10086. p. 2. 10 March 1761. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  15. ^ The London Gazette: no. 10332. p. 5. 19 July 1763. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  16. ^ "People of Mortlake, Barnes and East Sheen". Barnes History. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  17. ^ a b Heathcote, p.235

Sources[edit]

  • Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals 1736-1997. Pen & Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-696-5. 
Military offices
Preceded by
The Lord Tyrawley
Colonel of The Royal Regiment of Fuzileers
1713–1739
Succeeded by
William Hargrave
Preceded by
Thomas Pearce
Colonel of the 5th Regiment of Horse
1739–1743
Succeeded by
John Brown
Preceded by
The Earl of Crawford
Captain and Colonel of the
2nd Troop Horse Grenadier Guards

1743–1745
Succeeded by
The Earl of Rothes
Preceded by
The 2nd Earl of Albemarle
Captain and Colonel of the
3rd Troop of Horse Guards

1745–1746
Regiment disbanded
Preceded by
Francis Columbine
Colonel of The Lord Tyrawley's Regiment
1746–1749
Succeeded by
Edward Pole
Preceded by
Archibald Hamilton
Colonel of the 14th Regiment of Dragoons
1749–1752
Succeeded by
Louis Dejean
Preceded by
Humphrey Bland
Colonel of the 3rd (King's Own) Regiment of Dragoons
1752–1755
Succeeded by
The 3rd Earl of Albemarle
Preceded by
The 2nd Earl of Albemarle
Colonel of the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards
1755–1773
Succeeded by
The Earl Waldegrave
Preceded by
Earl of Stair
Governor of Minorca
1747–1756
Succeeded by
Hyacinthe Gaëtan de Lannion
Preceded by
Thomas Fowke
Governor of Gibraltar
1756–1757
Succeeded by
The Earl of Home
Preceded by
Henry Hawley
Governor of Portsmouth
1759–1773
Succeeded by
Edward Harvey
Peerage of Ireland
New creation Baron Kilmaine
1722–1774
Extinct
Preceded by
Charles O'Hara
Baron Tyrawley
1724–1774