James Stirling (1835–1917)

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James Stirling (1835–1917)
Born 2 October 1835
Galston, East Ayrshire
Died 12 January 1917
Ashford, Kent
Nationality Scottish
Parents Robert Stirling
Engineering career
Engineering discipline Locomotive engineer
Employer(s) Glasgow and South Western Railway
South Eastern Railway

James Stirling (1835–1917) was a Scottish mechanical engineer. He was Locomotive Superintendent of the Glasgow and South Western Railway and later the South Eastern Railway. Stirling was born on 2 October 1835, a son[1] of Robert Stirling, rector of Galston, East Ayrshire.[1]

Career[edit]

Glasgow and South Western Railway[edit]

After working for a village millwright he joined the Glasgow and South Western Railway (GSWR) where he was apprenticed to his brother Patrick, who had been Locomotive Superintendent of that railway since 1853.[2][1] On completion of his apprenticeship, he spent a year as a fitter at Sharp Stewart in Manchester, before returning to the GSWR drawing office at Kilmarnock; he later became works manager.[1][2] On 1 March 1866, his brother Patrick left the GSWR for the Great Northern Railway (GNR), where he became Works Manager at Doncaster, and James was appointed Locomotive Superintendent of the GSWR in his place.[1][2] Patrick became the Locomotive Superintendent of the GNR from 1 October 1866),[3]

South Eastern Railway[edit]

At the end of June 1878 he left the GSWR for the South Eastern Railway.[1][4] He retired in 1898 and died in Ashford, Kent in 1917.[5]

Locomotives[edit]

Like his brother, James Stirling favoured the domeless boiler, known as the "straightback" and cabs for the enginemen.[2][4] Although not the first British locomotive engineer to use the 4-4-0 type, he was the first to produce a 4-4-0 which could be regarded as successful, with his G&SWR 6 Class of 1873.[4] Stirling also invented a steam reverser, using it on most of his designs from 1874.[2][6]

On the South Eastern Railway, Stirling designed just six classes of locomotive in his twenty years - three of these were of the 4-4-0 type for express passenger work, each more capable than the last; his other three classes were an 0-6-0 for goods, an 0-4-4T for suburban passenger, and an 0-6-0T for shunting. At his retirement at the end of 1898, the SER had 459 engines, of which 384 were to Stirling's design, and seven others had been purchased to outside design; ten more to Stirling's design would be built in 1899.[7]

Class Wheel
arrangement
Built Total Notes Rebuilt Ref
Glasgow and South Western Railway (1866–78)
157 class 0-4-0ST 1866–70 5 [8]
159 class 2-2-2WT 1867 1 [9]
8 class 2-4-0 1868–70 15 [9]
75 class 2-4-0 1870–71 10 [9]
187 class 0-4-2 1870–71 20 [10]
65 class 0-4-0 1871–74 22 [11]
208 class 0-4-2 1873 10 [12]
6 class 4-4-0 1873–7 22 [13]
218 class 0-4-0ST 1873 2 [14]
220 class 0-4-0ST 1874 1 [14]
221 class 0-4-2 1874–78 60 [15]
113 class 0-4-0ST 1875–76 6 [14]
13 class 0-6-0 1877–78 12 [16]
1 class 0-4-4T 1879 4 design modified by Hugh Smellie prior to construction [17]
South Eastern Railway (1878–98)
O class 0-6-0 1878-99 122 last 5 built by SE&CR 59 to O1, 1903–32 [18]
A class 4-4-0 1879-81 12 [19]
Q class 0-4-4T 1881-97 118 55 to Q1, 1903–17 [20]
F class 4-4-0 1883-98 88 76 to F1, 1903–20 [21]
R class 0-6-0T 1888-98 25 13 to R1, 1910–22 [22]
B class 4-4-0 1898-99 29 last 5 built by SE&CR 27 to B1, 1910–27 [23]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Webb 1946, p. 59.
  2. ^ a b c d e Baxter 1984, p. 125.
  3. ^ Groves 1986, pp. 7,10.
  4. ^ a b c Nock 1987, p. 15.
  5. ^ Steamindex 2008, para. 2.
  6. ^ Nock 1987, p. 19.
  7. ^ Bradley 1985, pp. 223,226.
  8. ^ Baxter 1984, pp. 148–9.
  9. ^ a b c Baxter 1984, p. 144.
  10. ^ Baxter 1984, pp. 144–5.
  11. ^ Baxter 1984, p. 148.
  12. ^ Baxter 1984, p. 145.
  13. ^ Baxter 1984, pp. 147–8.
  14. ^ a b c Baxter 1984, p. 149.
  15. ^ Baxter 1984, pp. 145–7.
  16. ^ Baxter 1984, pp. 149–150.
  17. ^ Baxter 1984, pp. 152–3.
  18. ^ Bradley 1985, pp. 144–159.
  19. ^ Bradley 1985, pp. 139–143.
  20. ^ Bradley 1985, pp. 160–171.
  21. ^ Bradley 1985, pp. 171–193.
  22. ^ Bradley 1985, pp. 193–204.
  23. ^ Bradley 1985, pp. 204–216.

References[edit]

  • Baxter, Bertram (1984). Baxter, David, ed. Volume 4: Scottish and remaining English Companies in the LMS Group. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825-1923. Ashbourne: Moorland Publishing. 
  • Bradley, D.L. (September 1985) [1963]. The Locomotive History of the South Eastern Railway (2nd ed.). London: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-48-7. 
  • Groves, Norman (1986). Great Northern Locomotive History: Volume 1 1847-66. RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-61-4. 
  • Nock, O.S. (1987). Great Locomotives of the Southern Railway. London: Guild Publishing/Book Club Associates. CN 5587. 
  • "James Stirling (born 1835)". Steamindex. 13 March 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2009. 
  • Webb, Ben (1946). Locomotive Engineers of the Southern Railway. London: Ian Allan. 
Business positions
Preceded by
Patrick Stirling
Locomotive Superintendent of the
Glasgow and South Western Railway

1866-1878
Succeeded by
Hugh Smellie
Preceded by
Richard Mansell
Locomotive Superintendent of
South Eastern Railway

1878–1898
Succeeded by
Harry Wainwright