James Stuart (British Army officer)

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James Stuart
2nd Military Governor of British Ceylon
In office
1 March 1796 – 1 January 1797
Monarch George III
Preceded by Patrick Alexander Agnew
Succeeded by Welbore Ellis Doyle
Personal details
Born (1741-03-02)2 March 1741
Blairhall Perthshire, Scotland
Died 29 April 1815(1815-04-29) (aged 74)
Berkeley Square, London, England
Resting place St. James's Chapel, London, England
Military service
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Rank General
Commands General Officer Commanding, Ceylon
Madras Army
Battles/wars

General James Stuart (1741–1815) was a British Army officer who served in North America during the American Revolutionary War and took part in various campaigns in British India. He was the 1st General Officer Commanding, Ceylon and 2nd Military Governor of British Ceylon. He was appointed in 1 March 1796 and was Governor until 1 January 1797. He was succeeded by Welbore Ellis Doyle.[1]

Early life[edit]

Born the third son of John Stuart of Blairhall in Perthshire, by his wife Anne, daughter of Francis, Earl of Murray, Stuart was educated at schools of Culross and Dunfermline. He studied law Edinburgh and then joined the army serving in the American war of independence.[2]

Military career[edit]

India[edit]

Promoted to major in the 78th Foot, he arrived in India in 1782 and was promoted to lieutenant-colonel on 14 February. He took part in Sir Eyre Coote's campaign against Hyder in the Second Anglo-Mysore War, and was present at the siege of Cuddalore where he commanded the attack on the right of the main position in the assault of 13 July 1782.[2]

He served in the campaign of 1790, under General Sir William Medows, against Tipu Sultan, attacking the fortresses of Dindigul and Palghaut. He served under Cornwallis during the campaigns of 1791–2, and led the siege of Seringapatam, commanding the centre column in the assault of 6 February 1792. Promoted to colonel in August, he returned to Madras in 1794.[2]

On 23 October 1798 he was appointed colonel of the 78th Foot and in the following year, in the last war against Tipu, commanded the Bombay Army, which occupied Coorg, and repulsed Tipu at Seedaseer on 6 March. On 15 March he joined with Major General George Harris (afterwards Lord Harris) before the 1799 Battle of Seringapatam and took charge of the operations on the northern side of the city. After its capture he received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament.[2]

Ceylon[edit]

Promoted to major-general in 1795, he took command of the expedition against Dutch possessions in Ceylon that year. The whole island was secured in 1796, Stuart became commander-in-chief in the same year of the forces in Madras.[2]

Later career and death[edit]

He became commander-in-chief of the Madras Army in 1801. Promoted to lieutenant-general in 1802, he took part in the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1803. In 1805 he returned to England in bad health; promoted to the rank of general on 1 January 1812 he died without issue at Charles Street, Berkeley Square, London, on 29 April 1815. He was buried in a vault in St. James's Chapel, Hampstead Road, London.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sri Lanka". Rulers.org. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Government offices
Preceded by
Patrick Alexander Agnew
Military Governor of British Ceylon
1796–1797
Succeeded by
Welbore Ellis Doyle
Military offices
Preceded by
New Office
General Officer Commanding, Ceylon
1796–1797
Succeeded by
Welbore Ellis Doyle
Preceded by
Robert Abercromby
C-in-C, Bombay Army
1797–1800
Succeeded by
Oliver Nicolls
Preceded by
George Harris
C-in-C, Madras Army
1801–1804
Succeeded by
John Cradock