James Tour

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James Mitchell Tour
Professor James Tour.jpg
Born 1959
New York City
Residence Houston, Texas
Nationality American
Fields Organic Chemistry
Materials Science
Nanotechnology
Institutions Rice University, 1999-present
University of South Carolina, 1988-1999
Alma mater Stanford University, Postdoctoral
University of Wisconsin, Postdoctoral
Purdue University, PhD
Syracuse University, BS
Thesis Metal-Promoted Cyclization and Transition-Metal-Promoted Carbonylative Cyclization Reactions
Doctoral advisor Ei-ichi Negishi
Known for Molecular electronics, nanotechnology, carbon materials
Spouse Shireen G. Tour
Website
www.jmtour.com

James M. Tour is a synthetic organic chemist, specializing in nanotechnology. Dr. Tour is the T. T. and W. F. Chao Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, and Professor of Computer Science at Rice University in Houston, Texas, United States.

Career[edit]

He is well known for his work in molecular electronics and molecular switching molecules. He has also been involved in other work, such as the creation of a nanocar and NanoKids, an interactive learning DVD to teach children fundamentals of chemistry and physics, SciRave, Dance Dance revolution and Guitar Hero packages to teach science concepts to middle-school students and SciRave-STEM for elementary school children, and much work on carbon nanotubes and graphene.[1][2][3][4] Dr. Tour’s work on carbon materials chemistry is broad and encompasses fullerene purification,[5][6] composites,[7][8] conductive inks for radio frequencies identification tags,[9][10] carbon nanoreporters for identifying oil downhole,[11][12] graphene synthesis from cookies and insects,[13] graphitic electronic devices,[14][15] carbon particle drug delivery for treatment of traumatic brain injury,[16][17] the merging of 2D graphene with 1D nanotubes to make a conjoined hybrid material,[18] a new graphene-nanotube 2D material called rebar graphene,[19] graphene quantum dots from coal,[20] gas barrier composites,[21] graphene nanoribbon deicing films,[22] supercapacitors and battery device structures,[23][24] and water splitting to H2 and O2 using metal chalcogenides.[25] His work with the synthesis of graphene oxide,[26] its mechanism of formation,[27] and its use in capturing radionuclides from water is extensive.[28] Dr. Tour has developed oxide based electronic memories that can also be transparent and built onto flexible substrates.[29] More recently, he has been using porous metal structures to make renewable energy devices including batteries and supercapacitors, as well as electronic memories.[30] Tour is also well known for his work on nanocars, single-molecule vehicles with four independently rotating wheels, axles, and light-activated motors.[31] His early independent career focused upon the synthesis of conjugated polymers and precise oligomers.[32] Dr. Tour was also a founder of the Molecular Electronics Corporation. He holds joint appointments in the departments of chemistry, computer science, and materials science and nanoengineering at Rice University. Dr. Tour received degrees from Syracuse University (BS, 1981), Purdue University (PhD, 1986) and completed postdoctoral work at the University of Wisconsin–Madison (1986–1987) and Stanford University (1987–1988).[33]

Tour holds more than 60 United States patents plus many non-US patents.[34] He has more than 500 research publications.

In the Scientific American article "Better Killing Through Chemistry",[35] which appeared a few months after the September 11 attacks, Tour is credited for highlighting the issue of the ease of obtaining chemical weapon precursors in the United States.

In 2001, Tour signed the Discovery Institute's "A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism", a controversial petition which the intelligent design movement uses to promote intelligent design by attempting to cast doubt on evolution.[36][37] To those who "are disconcerted or even angered that I signed a statement back in 2001" he responded "I have been labeled as an Intelligent Design (ID) proponent. I am not. I do not know how to use science to prove intelligent design although some others might. I am sympathetic to the arguments on the matter and I find some of them intriguing, but the scientific proof is not there, in my opinion. So I prefer to be free of that ID label."[38]

He had also said that he felt the explanations offered by evolution are incomplete, and he found it hard to believe that nature can produce the machinery of cells through random processes.[36] On his website, he writes that "From what I can see, microevolution is a fact" and "there is no argument regarding microevolution. The core of the debate for me, therefore, is the extrapolation of microevolution to macroevolution."[38]

In Lee Strobel's book "The Case For Faith" - Tour is attributed to the following commentary: "I build molecules for a living, I can't begin to tell you how difficult that job is. I stand in awe of God because of what he has done through his creation. Only a rookie who knows nothing about science would say science takes away from faith. If you really study science, it will bring you closer to God."[39]


Awards[edit]

Tour was named among "The 50 most Influential Scientists in the World Today" by TheBestSchools.org in 2014.[40] Tour was named "Scientist of the Year" by R&D Magazine in 2013.[41] Tour won the ACS Nano Lectureship Award from the American Chemical Society in 2012. Tour was ranked one of the top 10 chemists in the world over the past decade by Thomson Reuters in 2009. That year, he was also made a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Other notable awards won by Tour include the 2008 Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology, the NASA Space Act Award in 2008 for his development of carbon nanotube reinforced elastomers, the Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award from the American Chemical Society (ACS) for his achievements in organic chemistry in 2007, the Small Times magazine's Innovator of the Year Award in 2006, the Southern Chemist of the Year Award from ACS in 2005, the Honda Innovation Award for Nanocars in 2005, the NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award in 1990, and the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award in 1989. In 2005, Tour's journal article "Directional Control in Thermally Driven Single-Molecule Nanocars" was ranked the Most Accessed Journal Article by the American Chemical Society.[42] Tour has twice won the George R. Brown Award for Superior Teaching at Rice University in 2007 and 2012.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zhu, Y.; James, D. K.; Tour, J. M. “New Routes to Graphene, Graphene Oxide and Their Related Applications,” Adv. Mater. 2012, 24, 4924–4955. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201202321
  2. ^ Sun, Z.; Yan, Z.; Yao, J.; Beitler, E.; Zhu, Y.; Tour, J. M. “Growth of Graphene from Solid Carbon Sources,” Nature 2010, 468, 549-552.
  3. ^ Kosynkin, D. V.; Higginbotham, A. L.; Sinitskii, A.; Lomeda, J. R.; Dimiev, A.; Price, B. K.; Tour, J. M. “Longitudinal Unzipping of Carbon Nanotubes to Form Graphene Nanoribbons,” Nature 2009, 458, 872-826.
  4. ^ Dimiev, A.; Kosynkin, D. V.; Sinitskii, A.; Slesarev, A.; Sun, Z.; Tour, J. M. “Layer-by-Layer Removal of Graphene for Device Patterning,” Science 2011, 331, 1168-1172.
  5. ^ Scrivens, W. A.; Tour, J. M. “Synthesis of Gram Quantities of C60 by Plasma Discharge in a Modified Round-Bottomed Flask. Key Parameters for Yield Optimization and Purification,” J. Org. Chem. 1992, 57, 6932-6936.
  6. ^ Scrivens, W. A.; Bedworth, P. V.; Tour, J. M. “Purification of Gram Quantities of C60. A New Inexpensive and Facile Method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 7917-7919.
  7. ^ Higginbotham, A. L.; Moloney, P. G.; Waid, M. C.; Duque, J. G.; Kittrell, C.; Schmidt, H. K.; Stephenson, J. J.; Arepalli, S.; Yowell, L. L.; Tour, J. M. “Carbon Nanotube Composite Curing Through Absorption of Microwave Radiation,” Composites Sci. Tech. 2008, 68, 3087-3092.
  8. ^ Mitchell, C. A.; Bahr, J. L.; Arepalli, S.; Tour, J. M.; Krishnamoorti, R. “Dispersion of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes in Polystyrene,” Macromolecules 2002, 35, 8825-8830.
  9. ^ Jung, M.; Kim, J.; Noh, J.; Lim, N.; Lim, C.; Lee, G.; Kim, J.; Kang, H.; Jung, K.; Leonard, A.; Pyo, M.; Tour, J. M.; Cho, G. “All Printed and Roll-to-Roll Printable 13.56 MHz Operated 1-bit RF Tag on Plastic Foils,” IEEE Trans. Elect. Dev 1 2010, 57, 571-580.
  10. ^ Noh, J.; Jung, M.; Jung, K.; Lee, G.; Lim, S.; Kim, D.; Kim, S.; Tour, J. M.; Cho, G. “Integrable single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network based thin film transistors using roll-to-roll gravure and inkjet,” Org. Electronics 2011, 12, 2185–2191.
  11. ^ Berlin, J. M.; Yu, J.; Lu, W.; Walsh, E. E.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Chen, W.; Kan, A. T.; Wong, M. S.; Tomson, M. B.; Tour, J. M. “Engineered Nanoparticles for Hydrocarbon Detection in Oil-field Rocks,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2011, 4, 505-509.
  12. ^ Hwang, C.-C.; Wang, L.; Lu, W.; Ruan, G.; Kini, G. C.; Xiang, C.; Samuel, E. L. G.; Shi, W.; Kan, A. T.; Wong, M. S.; Tomson, M. B.; Tour, J. M. “Highly Stable Carbon Nanoparticles Designed for Downhole Hydrocarbon Detection,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2012, 5, 8304–8309. DOI: 10.1039/c2ee21574h
  13. ^ Ruan, G.; Sun, Z.; Peng, Z.; Tour, J. M. “Growth of Graphene from Food, Insects, and Waste,” ACS Nano 2011, 5, 7601–7607.
  14. ^ Sinitskii, A.; Tour, J. M. “Lithographic Graphitic Memories,” ACS Nano 2009, 3, 2760-2766.
  15. ^ Li, Y.; Sinitskii, A.; Tour, J. M. “Electronic Two-Terminal Bistable Graphitic Memories,” Nature Mater. 2008, 7, 966-971.
  16. ^ Sano, D.; Berlin, J. M.; Pham, T. T.; Marcano, D. C.; Valdecanas, D. R.; Zhou, G.; Milas, L.; Myers, J. N.; Tour, J. M. “Noncovalent Assembly of Targeted Carbon Nanovectors Enables Synergistic Drug and Radiation Cancer Therapy in Vivo,” ACS Nano 2012, 6, 2497–2505. DOI: 10.1021/nn204885f
  17. ^ Sharpe, M. A.; Marcano, D. C.; Berlin, J. M.; Widmayer, M. A.; Baskin, D. S.; Tour, J. M. “Antibody-Targeted Nanovectors for the Treatment of Brain Cancers,” ACS Nano 2012, 6, 3114–3120. DOI: 10.1021/nn2048679.
  18. ^ Zhu, Y.; Li, L.; Zhang, C.; Casillas, G.; Sun, Z.; Yan, Z.; Ruan, G.; Peng, Z.; Raji1, A.-R. O.; Kittrell, C.; Hauge, R. H.; Tour, J. M. “A Seamless Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Graphene Hybrid Material,” Nature Commun. 2012, 3, 1225. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2234
  19. ^ Yan, Z.; Peng, Z.; Casillas, G.; Lin, J.; Xiang, C.; Zhou, H.; Yang, Y.; Ruan, G.; Raji, A.-R. O.; Samuel, E. L. G.; Hauge, R. H.; Yacaman, M. J.; Tour, J. M. “Rebar Graphene,” ACS Nano, 2014, 8, XXXX. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn501132n
  20. ^ Ye, R.; Xiang, C.; Lin, J.; Peng, Z.; Huang, K.; Yan, Z.; Cook, N. P.; Samuel, E. L. G.; Hwang, C.-C.; Ruan, G.; Ceriotti, G.; Raji, A.-R. O.; Martí, A. A.; Tour, J. M. “Coal as an Abundant Source of Graphene Quantum Dots,”Nature Commun. 2013, 4:2943, 1-6. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3943
  21. ^ Xiang, C.; Cox, P. J.; Kukovecz, A.; Genorio, B.; Hashim, D. P.; Yan, Z.; Peng, Z.; Hwang, C.-C.; Ruan, G.; Samuel, E. L. G.; Sudeep, P. M.; Konya, Z.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.; Tour, J. M. “Functionalized Low Defect Graphene Nanoribbons and Polyurethane Composite Film for Improved Gas Barrier and Mechanical Performances,” ACS Nano 2013, 7, 10380–10386. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn404843n
  22. ^ Volman, V.; Zhu, Y.; Raji, A.-R., O.; Genorio, B.; Lu, W.; Xiang, C.; Kittrell, C.; Tour, J. M. “Radio-Frequency-Transparent, Electrically Conductive Graphene Nanoribbon Thin Films as Deicing Heating Layers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2014, 6, 298-304. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am404203y
  23. ^ Yang, Y.; Fan, X.; Casillas, G.; Peng, Z.; Ruan, G.; Wang, G.; Yacaman, M. J.; Tour, J. M. “Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Fe2O3/Fe3C Graphene Heterogeneous Thin Films for Lithium-Ion Batteries,” ACS Nano 2014, 8, 3939-3946. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn500865d
  24. ^ Zhang, C.; Peng, Z.; Lin, J.; Zhu, Y. Ruan, G.; Hwang, C.-C.; Lu, W.; Hauge, R. H.; Tour, J. M. “Splitting of a Vertical Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Carpet to a Graphene Nanoribbon Carpet and Its Use in Supercapacitors,” ACS Nano 2013, 7, 5151–5159. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn400750n
  25. ^ Lin, J., Peng, Z., Wang, G., Zakhidov, D., Larios, E., Yacaman, M. J.; Tour, J. M. “Enhanced Electrocatalysis for Hydrogen Evolution Reactions from WS2 Nanoribbons,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2014, 1301875. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201301875
  26. ^ Dimiev, A. M.; Alemany, L. B.; Tour, J. M. “Graphene Oxide. Origin of Acidity, Its Instability in Water, and a New Dynamic Structural Model,” ACS Nano 2013, 7, 576–588. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn3047378
  27. ^ Dimiev, A. M.; Tour, J. M. “Mechanism of Graphene Oxide Formation,” ACS Nano 2014, 8, 3060–3068. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn500606a
  28. ^ Romanchuk, A. Yu.; Slesarev, A. S.; Kalmykov, S. N.; Kosynkin, D. V.; Tour, J. M. “Graphene Oxide for Effective Radionuclide Removal,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2013, 15, 2321 – 2327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2cp44593j
  29. ^ Yao, J.; Lin, J.; Dai, Y.; Ruan, G.; Yan, Z.; Li, L.; Zhong, L.; Natelson, D.; Tour, J. M. “Highly Transparent Nonvolatile Resistive Memory Devices from Silicon Oxide and Graphene,” Nature Commun. 2012, 3, 1-8. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2110
  30. ^ Yang, Y.; Ruan, G.; Xiang, C.; Wang, G.; Tour, J. M. “Flexible Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Metal-Based Energy Devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.2014, 136, 6187–6190. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja501247f
  31. ^ Chu, P.-L., E.; Wang , L.-Y.; Khatua, S.; Kolomeisky, A.; B.; Link, S.; Tour, J. M. “Synthesis and Single-Molecule Imaging of Highly Mobile Adamantane-Wheeled Nanocars,” ACS Nano 2013, 7, 35–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn304584a
  32. ^ Tour, J. M. “Conjugated Macromolecules of Precise Length and Constitution. Organic Synthesis for the Construction of Nanoarchitectures,” Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, 537-553.
  33. ^ James Tour's Bio at James M Tour Group website
  34. ^ , US Patent and Trademark Office http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.htm&r=0&p=1&f=S&l=50&Query=IN%2FTour-James-M&d=PTXT, retrieved 2011-11-18  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  35. ^ Musser, George (November 2001). "Better Killing through Chemistry: Buying chemical weapons material through the mail is quick and easy". Scientific American. Retrieved 2007-09-06. 
  36. ^ a b Kenneth Chang (2006-02-21). "Few Biologists but Many Evangelicals Sign Anti-Evolution Petition". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-05. 
  37. ^ "Signatories of 'A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism'" (PDF). The Discovery Institute. April 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-05. 
  38. ^ a b Layman’s Reflections on Evolution and Creation. An Insider’s View of the Academy
  39. ^ Strobel, Lee (2000), The Case For Faith, p. 111, ISBN 0-310-23469-7 
  40. ^ http://www.thebestschools.org/features/50-influential-scientists-world-today/
  41. ^ http://www.rdmag.com/news/2013/11/r-d-magazine-announces-2013-scientist-year
  42. ^ Resume of James M. Tour, Ph.D.

External links[edit]