Rev. James Townley (6 May 1714 – 5 July 1778) was an English dramatist and anonymous playwright, the second son of Charles Townley, a merchant.
Early and Personal life 
Townley was born in 1714 probably at Tower Hill, London, the second son of Charles Townley, of Clapham, Surrey and Sarah Wilde, daughter of William Wilde of Long-Whatton in Leicestershire. His mother died around the time of his birth. His older brother was the officer of arms Sir Charles Townley. Following his mother's death, his father remarried and had many more children. Townley was a descendant of a younger branch of the Town(e)ley family of Towneley Hall, Burnley, Lancashire, the head of which at this time was the antiquary Charles Towneley.
Around 1740, James married Jane, the daughter of Peter Bonnin of Lisbon, and they went on to have eight children: Charles, a notable engraver, James, George-Stephen, Jane, Sarah, Catherine, Mary and Elizabeth.
He took holy orders, being ordained an Anglican priest on May 28, 1738. He was lecturer at St. Dunstan's in the East, chaplain to the lord mayor, then under-master at Merchant Taylors' School until 1753, when he became grammar master at Christ's Hospital. In 1760, he became head master of Merchant Taylors' School, where in 1762 and 1763 he revived the custom of dramatic performances. He retained his head-mastership until his death on July 5, 1778.
He had taken a keen interest in the theatre, and it has been asserted that many of David Garrick's best productions and revivals owed much to his assistance. He was the author, although the fact was long concealed, of High Life below Stairs, a two-act farce presented at Drury Lane on October 31, 1759; also of False Concord (Covent Garden, March 20, 1764) and The Tutor (Drury Lane, February 4, 1765).
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- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Townley, James (1714-1778)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.