James Van Fleet
|James Van Fleet|
General James Van Fleet, commanding officer, U.S. Eighth Army, c. 1953.
|Birth name||James Alward Van Fleet|
March 19, 1892|
Coytesville (Fort Lee, New Jersey
|Died||September 23, 1992
Polk City, Florida
|Buried at||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1915–1953|
James Alward Van Fleet (March 19, 1892 – September 23, 1992) was a U.S. Army officer during World War I, World War II and the Korean War. Van Fleet was a native of New Jersey, who was raised in Florida and graduated from the U.S. Military Academy. He served as a regimental, divisional and corps commander during World War II and as the commanding General of U.S. Army and other United Nations forces during the Korean War.
Early life and education
James Van Fleet was born in the Coytesville section of Fort Lee, New Jersey, but his parents moved to Florida when he was an infant and he was raised there. Van Fleet received his high school education at the Summerlin Institute in Bartow, Florida.
After graduating from Summerlin in 1911, Van Fleet received an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York. While he was a cadet at West Point, he was a member of the Army football team and was a standout fullback on the undefeated Army team of 1914. Van Fleet graduated in the West Point Class of 1915 that included many future generals, and which military historians have called "the class the stars fell on." Van Fleet's classmates included Dwight D. Eisenhower and Omar Bradley. After graduation, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army infantry.
While serving as the senior officer of the University of Florida's U.S. Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) program, Van Fleet also served as the head coach of the Florida Gators football team in 1923 and 1924. He led the Gators into national prominence with a 12–3–4 (.737) record.
World War II
Van Fleet commanded the 8th Infantry Regiment for three years and led it into combat in Europe in World War II, participating in the D-Day landings on Utah Beach in June 1944. Although widely regarded as an outstanding officer, he was blocked from promotion because the Army Chief of Staff, General George Marshall, erroneously confused Van Fleet with a well-known alcoholic officer with a similar name. When Eisenhower, now the European Theater commander, informed Marshall of his mistake, Van Fleet was soon promoted to divisional and corps command. He later served with General George S. Patton's U.S. Third Army as commander of III Corps.
Post World War II
In 1946, Van Fleet was sent to Greece as the executor of the "Truman Doctrine," and he was instrumental in the outcome of the Greek Civil War by providing advice to the Greek government and 250 military advisers, as well as administering $400 million in military aid. The central square in the northern Greek city of Kastoria has featured a bust of Van Fleet for many years, and was replaced with a new statue as recently as 2007.
Van Fleet was commanding general of the U.S. Second Army from August 10, 1950 to April 11, 1951.
In April 1951, Van Fleet replaced General Matthew B. Ridgway as commander of the U.S. Eighth Army and United Nations forces in Korea when Ridgway took over for General MacArthur upon MacArthur's recall to the United States. He continued Ridgway's efforts to strengthen the Eighth Army in its campaign against numerically superior Communist Chinese and North Korean enemy forces. His only son, U.S. Air Force Captain James A. Van Fleet, Jr., was a B-26 bomber pilot who was killed in the Korean War.
Legacy and death
At the time of his retirement from active duty on March 31, 1953, former President Harry S. Truman said "General Van Fleet is the greatest general we have ever had . . . I sent him to Greece and he won the war. I sent him to Korea and he won the war." Van Fleet was the recipient of three Distinguished Service Crosses (the U.S. Army's second highest award for bravery in combat), three Silver Stars, three Bronze Stars, three Purple Hearts for wounds received in combat, and his most prized possession—the Combat Infantryman's Badge of the common foot soldier.
In 1957, Van Fleet was the moving spirit behind the establishment in New York of the Korea Society, the first nonprofit organization in the United States dedicated to the promotion of friendly relations between the peoples of the United States and Korea "through mutual understanding and appreciation of their respective cultures, aims, ideals, arts, sciences and industries."
Van Fleet died in his sleep on his ranch outside Polk City, Florida on September 23, 1992, several months after celebrating his 100th birthday in 1992. He was the oldest living general officer in the United States at the time of his death. Van Fleet was buried in Section 7 of Arlington National Cemetery.
Shortly after his death, The Korea Society established its annual James A. Van Fleet Award to recognize those who have made outstanding contributions to closer U.S.-Korea ties. The Gen. James A. Van Fleet State Trail, running from Polk City to Mabel, Florida, is also named in his honor. The University of Florida bestowed an honorary doctorate on him in 1946, and the university's military sciences building, which houses the U.S. Air Force, Army and Navy ROTC programs, is named Van Fleet Hall. He was inducted into the University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame as an "honorary letter winner" in 1971. In 1998, a panel of Florida historians and other consultants named Van Fleet one of the fifty most important Floridians of the 20th century.
Van Fleet's estate donated his papers to the George C. Marshall Foundation, and are the second largest collection of papers held by the foundation, after those of General Marshall.
General Van Fleet was also an art collector and donated many rare and exceptional Asian objects to the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art.
Van Fleet and his wife, Helen Moore Van Fleet (1892-1984), had three children, eight grandchildren, and twelve great-grandchildren.
Awards and decorations
Van Fleet's personal decorations include:
|1st Row||Combat Infantryman Badge|
|2nd Row||Distinguished Service Cross
w/ two Oak leaf clusters
|Distinguished Service Medal
w/ three Oak leaf clusters
|3rd Row||Silver Star
w/ two Oak leaf clusters
w/ two Oak leaf clusters
w/ two Oak leaf clusters
w/ one Oak leaf cluster
|4th Row||Army Commendation Medal||Mexican Border Service Medal||World War I Victory Medal
w/ three Service stars
|Army of Occupation of Germany Medal|
|5th Row||American Defense Service Medal||American Campaign Medal||European-African-Middle Eastern
w/ five Service stars
|World War II Victory Medal|
|6th Row||Army of Occupation Medal||National Defense Service Medal||Korean Service Medal
w/ seven Service stars
|United Nations Korea Medal|
|7th Row||Presidential Unit Citation||Republic of Korea
Presidential Unit Citation
Van Fleet also received the following foreign decorations:
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Phoenix (Greece)
- Distinguished Medal of Honor (Greece)
- Grand Commander of the Order of George I (Greece)
- Order of Diplomatic Service Merit with gold star (Korea)
- Royal Order, grade 1 (Iran)
- Distinguished Service Order (United Kingdom)
- Legion of Honor (France)
- Croix de Guerre with palm (France)
- Croix de Guerre with palm (Belgium)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Orange Nassau with swords (Netherlands)
- Order of Boyaca (Columbia)
Also decorations from the following countries:
- Republic of China
|No insignia||Cadet, United States Military Academy: June 14, 1911|
|Second Lieutenant, United States Army: June 12, 1915|
|First Lieutenant, United States Army: July 1, 1916|
|Captain, United States Army: May 15, 1917|
|Major, Temporary: June 17, 1918|
|Major, Regular Army: July 2, 1920|
|Captain, Regular Army: November 4, 1922|
|Major, Regular Army: December 6, 1924|
|Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: October 1, 1936|
|Colonel, Army of the United States: June 26, 1941|
|Colonel, Regular Army: February 1, 1944|
|Brigadier General, Army of the United States: August 1, 1944|
|Major General, Army of the United States: November 15, 1944|
|Brigadier General, Regular Army: June 27, 1946|
|Major General, Regular Army: January 24, 1948|
|Lieutenant General, Army of the United States: February 19, 1948|
|General, Army of the United States: July 31, 1951|
Head coaching record
|Florida Gators (Southern Conference) (1923–1924)|
- Army Black Knights
- Florida Gators
- Florida Gators football, 1920–1929
- History of the University of Florida
- List of Korean War veterans who are recipients of the Bronze Star
- List of United States Military Academy alumni
- List of University of Florida faculty and administrators
- List of University of Florida honorary degree recipients
- Report of Van Fleet Mission to Far East
- University Athletic Association
- College Football Data Warehouse, All-Time Coaching Records, J.A. Van Fleet Records by Year. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
- Dennis Hevesi, "James A. Van Fleet, Leader In Korean War, Dies at 100," The New York Times, p. D36 (September 24, 1992; correction September 26, 1992). Retrieved May 15, 2010.
- Ilias Chrissochoidis (ed.), Spyros P. Skouras, Memoirs (1893-1953) (Stanford, 2013), 129.
- "Gen. James Van Fleet, 100; Hero Exalted by Truman," Los Angeles Times, p. A28 (September 24, 1992).
- MilitaryTimes.com, Hall of Valor, James Alward Van Fleet. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
- University of Florida Foundation, Named UF Facilities, Gen. James A. Van Fleet Hall. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
- F Club, Hall of Fame, Honorary Letterwinners. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
- Associated Press, "O'Connell Lauded for Actions," Sarasota Journal (May 3, 1971). Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- The 50 Most Important Floridians of the 20th Century, newspaper magazine published by The Ledger, Lakeland, Florida (March 1, 1998).
- Houterman, Hans. "US Army Officers 1939-1945". unithistories. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- 2009 Southern Conference Football Media Guide, Year-by-Year Standings, pp. 74–77 (2009). Retrieved March 16, 2010.
- 2012 Florida Football Media Guide, University Athletic Association, Gainesville, Florida (2012).
- Braim, Paul F., Will to Win: The Life of General James A. Van Fleet, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland (2001).
- Bruce, Robert B., "Tethered Eagle: Lt-General James A. Van Fleet and the Quest for Military Victory in the Korean War, April - June 1951," Army History 82 (Winter 2012).
- Carlson, Norm, University of Florida Football Vault: The History of the Florida Gators, Whitman Publishing, LLC, Atlanta, Georgia (2007). ISBN 0-7948-2298-3.
- Golenbock, Peter, Go Gators! An Oral History of Florida's Pursuit of Gridiron Glory, Legends Publishing, LLC, St. Petersburg, Florida (2002). ISBN 0-9650782-1-3.
- McCarthy, Kevin M., Fightin' Gators: A History of University of Florida Football, Arcadia Publishing, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina (2000). ISBN 978-0-7385-0559-6.
- McEwen, Tom, The Gators: A Story of Florida Football, The Strode Publishers, Huntsville, Alabama (1974). ISBN 0-87397-025-X.
- Nash, Noel, ed., The Gainesville Sun Presents The Greatest Moments in Florida Gators Football, Sports Publishing, Inc., Champaign, Illinois (1998). ISBN 1-57167-196-X.
- Proctor, Samuel, & Wright Langley, Gator History: A Pictorial History of the University of Florida, South Star Publishing Company, Gainesville, Florida (1986). ISBN 0-938637-00-2.
- Korean Art: Collecting Treasures, online exhibition featuring Korean objects from the Van Fleet Collection at the Harn Museum of Art
- James Van Fleet Digital Collection from the George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
- James A. Van Fleet at the College Football Data Warehouse
- James Alward Van Fleet
- Van Fleet Biography from US DOD Korean War 50th Anniversary Site
- "WILL TO WIN: The Life of General James A. Van Fleet"
- The Korea Society
- Gen. James A. Van Fleet State Trail, Florida
- A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with James Van Fleet" is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
Lt. Gen. Matthew Ridgway
|Commanding General of
Eighth United States Army
Lt. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor