Jamie Carragher

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Jamie Carragher
Jamie Carragher meets the fans.jpg
Carragher in 2012.
Personal information
Full name James Lee Duncan Carragher[1]
Date of birth (1978-01-28) 28 January 1978 (age 36)[2]
Place of birth Bootle, Merseyside, England
Height 6 ft 1 in (1.85 m)[3]
Playing position Defender
Youth career
1988–1989 Liverpool
1989–1990 Everton
1990–1996 Liverpool
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
1996–2013 Liverpool 508 (4)
National team
1996–1997 England U20 4 (1)
1996–2000 England U21 27 (1)
1999–2010 England 38 (0)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.
† Appearances (Goals).

James Lee Duncan "Jamie" Carragher (/ˈkærəɡər/; born 28 January 1978) is a retired English footballer who played as a defender for Premier League club Liverpool for 17 years. He is currently a pundit on Sky Sports alongside Gary Neville. A one-club man, he was Liverpool's vice-captain for 10 years, and is the club's second-longest ever serving player, making his 737th appearance for Liverpool in all competitions on 19 May 2013. Carragher also holds the record for the most appearances in European competition for Liverpool with 150.

Carragher started his footballing career at the Liverpool Academy, making his professional debut in the 1996–97 season and becoming a first team regular the following season. Having initially played as a full-back, the arrival of manager Rafael Benítez in 2004 saw Carragher move to become a centre-back, where he remained. His honours with Liverpool include two FA Cups, three League Cups, two Community Shields, one Champions League, one UEFA Cup and two Super Cups.

Internationally, Carragher held the national record for most caps at under-21 level and earned his senior debut in 1999. He represented England at the 2004 European Championship and the 2006 FIFA World Cup, before announcing his retirement from international football in 2007. He did, however, temporarily come out of retirement in order to represent England at the 2010 FIFA World Cup, before retiring again with 38 senior England caps.

Club career[edit]

Carragher in action against Manchester City.

Born in Bootle, Merseyside, Carragher attended the FA's school of excellence in Lilleshall in his youth.[4][5] Although a childhood Everton supporter, he joined Merseyside rivals Liverpool in 1988, and regularly turned up at Liverpool's School of Excellence wearing a Graeme Sharp Everton kit.[6] Carragher's father was also an Everton supporter, and his two middle names (Lee Duncan) are a tribute to Gordon Lee and Duncan McKenzie – manager Lee dropped McKenzie on the day of Carragher's birth.[7] He spent a year at the Everton School of Excellence at the age of 11, but returned to Liverpool due to the club's superior coaching set-up under Steve Heighway.[8] He failed to impress in his first appearances to the Liverpool A and B teams due to his then-small stature, but after being moved from up front to a midfield role he was able to establish himself in the reserve team.[9] He played his first game for the reserves in the 1994–95 season, and was named man of the match against Blackburn Rovers at Haig Avenue.[10] He helped Liverpool to win the 1996 FA Youth Cup with a 4–1 aggregate victory over a West Ham United side that included Rio Ferdinand and Frank Lampard.[11] Carragher was tried out in defence for the first time during the tournament, and later admitted that Liverpool were not the most technically gifted side in the competition, but instead relied on team spirit and the outstanding talents of Michael Owen.[11]

He made his first team début for the "Reds" under Roy Evans in a League Cup quarter-final against Middlesbrough at the Riverside Stadium on 8 January 1997, coming on as a substitute for Rob Jones 75 minutes into a 2–1 defeat.[12] Three days later he made his Premier League debut as a substitute at Anfield, playing the entire second half of a 0–0 draw with West Ham United.[13] On 18 January, he was scheduled to play as a centre-half against Aston Villa, only to be replaced in the starting line-up by Bjørn Tore Kvarme; however Patrik Berger was taken ill and Carragher was his last minute replacement in central midfield.[13] He played well alongside Jamie Redknapp, and scored his first goal with a header in front of the Kop in a 3–0 win.[14] Despite this auspicious start, it proved to be his last contribution to the 1996–97 campaign.[15]

Carragher broke into the first team in the 1997–98 season as the team struggled to keep pace with Arsenal and Manchester United despite having talented players such as Owen, Redknapp, Robbie Fowler, Steve McManaman and Paul Ince.[16] Throughout his early playing career, he was essentially used as a utility player that spent time as a centre-half, full-back and defensive midfielder in a squad that was often negatively labelled the "Spice Boys". Carragher, young and aware of the negative media reputations of that squad, learned to shun the spotlight and focus on football instead as new manager Gérard Houllier used him consistently in a new continental side focused on discipline.[17] In his autobiography, Carragher admitted that "I always felt close to Gérard", and was full of praise for the French manager during the early part of his reign.[18] He went on to make 44 appearances in the 1998–99 season, and was named as the club's Player of the Year.[19]

Carragher was restricted to the right-back position after scoring two own goals in a 3–2 home defeat to Manchester United early in the 1999–2000 season.[20] Houllier never again played him at centre-back, as Sami Hyypiä and Stéphane Henchoz formed solid partnership.[21]

The 2000–01 season saw Carragher switch to he the left-back position and win his first senior honours, as Liverpool went on to win the FA Cup, League Cup, UEFA Cup, Community Shield and Super Cup in the space of just a few months.

During a January 2002 FA Cup tie against Arsenal, he threw a coin back into the stands that had been tossed at him and received a red card.[22][23] He escaped an FA misconduct charge after publicly apologising, but he did receive a formal police warning about the incident.[24] From 2002 until 2004, Carragher was hit by two serious injuries, missing the 2002 FIFA World Cup for an operation on his knee, and later receiving a broken leg after a tackle by Blackburn Rovers' Lucas Neill at Ewood Park in September 2003. During this period, Carragher's place in the team was also threatened by signings of Steve Finnan and John Arne Riise. Despite this, he was able to win a second League Cup in 2003 with Liverpool, and shortly afterwards was named the club's vice-captain.

Carragher in action against Benfica.

The 2004–05 season proved to be a career-defining one for Carragher. New manager Rafael Benítez moved him to centre-half, where he would manage 56 appearances all season alongside Sami Hyypiä. Carragher developed a reputation as a strong and positionally astute defender and would remain in the centre-half position for the rest of his career.[25] This season also saw Carragher prove central to Liverpool's triumph in the UEFA Champions League, in particular when he made two vital last-ditch intercepts in the Final in extra-time whilst suffering from cramp.[26] Carragher was subsequently awarded the Liverpool Player of the Year Award at the end of the campaign, and went on to captain the team to their UEFA Super Cup victory over CSKA Moscow.[27] In May 2006, Carragher played in the FA Cup Final against West Ham United, his tenth final in as many years of club football. Despite scoring an own goal in the 21st minute, Liverpool went on to win the Final 3–1 on penalties after the match finished 3–3 after extra-time, giving Carragher his second FA Cup win. He would appear in the FA Community Shield win two months later.

"I'd plummeted to the deepest put of misery, only to instantly recover to ascend the highest of peaks... no footballer fancies a sneak preview of the most humiliating defeat in sporting history. But having staged a comeback that will echo in eternity, none of us would want it any other way."

— Carragher reflects on Liverpool's Champions League win.[28]

On 9 December 2006, Carragher scored his first league goal since January 1999, in a match against Fulham at Anfield. Fellow defender Daniel Agger flicked the ball on from a corner, and Carragher slid the ball under Fulham keeper Jan Laštůvka at the far post. The goal was only his fourth in his Liverpool career.[29]

Carragher for Liverpool in 2011.

In Liverpool's Champions League semi-final second leg against Chelsea on 1 May 2007, Carragher set a new record for the most appearances in European competition for the club, his 90th European match taking him past Ian Callaghan's 89 matches between 1964 and 1978.[30] Carragher was voted as Liverpool's Player of the Year for a second time after the 2006–07 season by the fans, and immediately agreed a contract extension until 2011. That season also saw Carragher announce his international retirement, citing frustration with a lack of appearances under Steve McClaren.

Jamie Carragher lining up with Liverpool against Wigan Athletic on 9th March 2010

The 2007–08 season saw Carragher reach his 500th appearance for Liverpool, for which he was made captain. On 18 May 2009, in the match against West Bromwich Albion, Carragher was involved in an on-field clash with fellow defender Álvaro Arbeloa, and the two had to be separated by team-mates Xabi Alonso and Daniel Agger. Manager Rafael Beneath us refused to comment on the matter, while Carragher later explained, "We want to keep a clean sheet and we want Pepe to have a chance of the Golden Glove for the fourth season running."[31] The following season saw many questioning his performances and whether he should remain in the starting line-up, although a solid performance against Manchester United on 25 October 2009 silenced his critics.[32] Four days later, he was sent off in a game against Fulham, which was his first red card in more than seven years.[33]

On 4 September 2010, a mixture of Liverpool players past and present played an Everton XI in Carragher's charity fund-raising testimonial match.[34] All proceeds from the game at Anfield went to local charities through Carragher's 23 Foundation.[35] He scored a goal for each side as his Liverpool team beat Everton XI 4–1, first by scoring from the spot for the Reds before converting a penalty own goal for the club he had supported as a boy after the break.

Carragher in 2011.

On 24 October 2010, Carragher scored his seventh own goal in the Premier League.[36] Only Richard Dunne, with ten, has scored more.[37] Weeks later, Carragher dislocated his shoulder in a 2–1 defeat to Tottenham Hotspur, the same game being his 450th Premier League appearance for Liverpool. He was out for around three months with the injury as it required surgery.[38] He returned on 6 February against Chelsea.

Liverpool fans pay their tribute to Jamie Carragher on his last ever match.

On 24 February 2011, Carragher made his 137th European appearance in a match against Sparta Prague at Anfield, setting a new British record. On 17 April 2011, during a match against Arsenal at the Emirates Stadium, both Carragher and Jon Flanagan tried to head away the same ball, resulting in their heads colliding and Carragher being knocked out. After 6 minutes of treatment Carragher was stretchered off and replaced by Sotirios Kyrgiakos. Carragher recovered in time to make his 666th appearance for Liverpool days later, in 5–2 victory against Fulham.[39] This appearance put Carragher second in the list of Liverpool's all-time appearance makers, behind only Ian Callaghan with 857 games. In 2012, Carragher won a third League Cup with Liverpool.

In the first game of the 2012–13 season, and the start of Brendan Rodgers' term as Liverpool manager, Carragher made his 700th appearance for Liverpool in a 1–0 victory in the Europa League third round qualifying tie against FC Gomel.[40] Carragher often captained the side during the Europa League, and after a period of time only making league appearances as a substitute, he began to again earn a string of starting places.

On 7 February 2013, Carragher announced that he would be retiring at the end of the season, stating "It has been a privilege and honour to represent this great club for as long as I have and I am immensely proud to have done so since I was 9."[41][42][43][44] On 9 March 2013, Carragher became only the second player – after Ryan Giggs – to play 500 league games for one club, in a 3–2 win over Tottenham Hotspur. On 19 May 2013, Carragher played his 737th and final game for Liverpool in a 1–0 win over Queens Park Rangers. Before the match, he was given a guard of honour and was presented with a special trophy commemorating his career by Steven Gerrard and Ian Callaghan. During the match, despite his sparse goal record, Carragher hit Robert Green's post with a 30 yard strike, before being substituted in the 87th minute to a standing ovation from both sets of fans and players.[45]

International career[edit]

In 1996, Carragher made his first appearance for the England U-21 side. Playing as a defensive midfielder, he became a regular for the team and was eventually made captain. By 2000, when he became ineligible for the team due to age, he had set the record for the most caps at this level with 27. This record was later eclipsed in 2007 by former Liverpool goalkeeper Scott Carson.[46]

On 28 April 1999 he earned his first cap for the senior England team, coming on as a substitute against Hungary. He made his full international début against Netherlands at White Hart Lane in 2001, and later came on as a substitute in England's famous 5–1 victory over Germany in the Olympiastadion. Carragher missed the 2002 FIFA World Cup to undergo knee injury; though he had the option to delay surgery this would have required him to miss pre-season training with Liverpool.[47]

He was selected for UEFA Euro 2004 but did not play a game, Ledley King being preferred in his position. He was later selected for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, and although not in the original starting eleven, he replaced Gary Neville who suffered an injury. Carragher was one of three players to have a penalty saved by Portugal's Ricardo Pereira, as England yet again succumbed to a penalty shoot-out exit in the quarter-finals. Carragher, who had been brought on as a substitute for Aaron Lennon late in the game, scored with his first attempt but was forced to re-take his penalty by the referee, who had not blown his whistle.

On 9 July 2007 it was reported that Carragher was considering retiring from the England squad. When Talksport host Adrian Durham accused Carragher of "bottling it" on his programme, Carragher phoned in to defend himself and say that as he was not being regularly selected he was indeed thinking about retirement, but would leave it until the upcoming match against Germany to decide.[48] Carragher did subsequently retire from international football, although he left open the possibility to return if needed for an international tournament. Carragher was said to have been unhappy at the failure of successive England managers to pick him regularly at centre-back.[49] In his autobiography, he stated a number of reasons for his retirement: he prioritized Liverpool over England, he wanted to spend more time with his family, and most of all he was unwilling to feature as a squad player.[50]

On 11 May 2010, it was announced that Carragher had been named in Fabio Capello's preliminary 30-man squad for the 2010 FIFA World Cup.[51] Carragher said of his return to international football, "The FA got in touch a few weeks ago and asked if I would have a rethink, due to injury problems; I said I would make myself available."[52] On 24 May, Carragher played his first match for England in three years, a friendly against Mexico which England won 3–1.[53] Carragher appeared in both of England's opening World Cup games, receiving a booking in each which resulted in a one-match ban.[54] He was not selected for the knock-out stage exit at the hands of Germany, being dropped in favour of Matthew Upson. Carragher subsequently permanently retired from international football, stating that his international return had been a "one-off" due to injuries to other players.[55]

Style of play[edit]

Carragher played as a striker in his youth, before being converted into a defender. He was able to play across the back four, though spent much of his career at right-back and centre-back. Despite retaining his first team place for Liverpool over a constant stream of new signings (including internationals such as Rigobert Song, Markus Babbel, and Christian Ziege), Carragher was sometimes labelled as a "limited defender" as he was compared unfavorably with attacking full-backs such as Ashley Cole.[56] His main limitation was his poor crossing ability.[56]

Broadcasting career[edit]

Following his retirement in 2013, it was announced that Carragher had signed a contract to join Sky Sports as a pundit alongside the likes of Graeme Souness, Gary Neville and Jamie Redknapp.[57] He is also an occasional sports columnist for the Daily Mail.[58] It was announced in June 2013 that Carragher will appear on the new look Monday Night Football programme on Sky Sports alongside Gary Neville with presenter Ed Chamberlin.[59]

Personal life[edit]

Carragher taking a picture with a fan.

Carragher is married to his childhood sweetheart, Nicola Hart, and has two children.[60] Like several other high profile players to have worn the Liverpool shirt, including Steve McManaman, Robbie Fowler and Michael Owen, Carragher was an ardent supporter of Everton in his youth.[5] Carragher was awarded the Freedom of the Borough of Sefton for his local charity work and "the exceptional example he sets to the youth of today" in 2008. He occasionally visits schools as part of his charity work, promoting the importance of family life.[61] Politically, Carragher is a supporter of the Labour Party and endorsed Andy Burnham in their most recent leadership election.[62] His autobiography, Carra, was released in 2008. Carragher has become a patron to the Alder Hey Charity.[63]

On 28 February 2008, Carragher became involved in an altercation after a former friend hurled abuse at him outside his children’s school. Carragher accepted a police caution following the incident. Liverpool refused to comment.[64]

Career statistics[edit]

Club[edit]

Season Club Division Premier League FA Cup League Cup Europe Other Total
Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals
1996–97 Liverpool Premier League 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 1
1997–98 20 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 23 0
1998–99 34 1 2 0 2 0 6 0 0 0 44 1
1999–00 38 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 40 0
2000–01 34 0 6 4 6 0 12 0 0 0 58 0
2001–02 33 0 2 0 1 0 16 0 1 0 53 0
2002–03 35 0 3 0 5 0 11 0 0 0 54 0
2003–04 22 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 29 0
2004–05 38 0 0 0 3 0 18 0 0 6 56 0
2005–06 36 0 6 0 1 0 13 1 2 0 57 1
2006–07 35 1 1 1 1 0 13 0 3 0 51 1
2007–08 35 0 4 0 3 0 13 0 0 0 55 0
2008–09 38 1 3 0 1 0 12 0 0 0 54 1
2009–10 37 0 2 0 1 0 13 0 0 0 53 0
2010–11 28 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 38 0
2011–12 21 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 31 0
2012–13 24 0 1 0 2 0 11 0 0 0 38 0
Total England 508 4 40 0 35 0 150 1 6 0 737 5
Career total 508 4 40 0 35 0 150 1 6 0 737 5

International[edit]

England national team
Year Apps Goals
1999 1 0
2000 1 0
2001 5 0
2002 1 0
2003 1 0
2004 7 0
2005 6 0
2006 9 0
2007 3 0
2008 0 01
2009 0 01
2010 4 0
Total 38 0
  • 1 – was retired from international football in 2008 and 2009

Honours[edit]

Club[edit]

Liverpool

Individual[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Hugman, Barry J. (2005). The PFA Premier & Football League Players' Records 1946–2005. Queen Anne Press. p. 109. ISBN 1-85291-665-6. 
  2. ^ "Jamie Carragher Profile". Eurosport.com. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  3. ^ "Liverpool F.C. Profile". Liverpool F.C. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  4. ^ Biography for Jamie Carragher. IMDB. Retrieved on 9 August 2009.
  5. ^ a b Carragher: I should know how desperate Liverpool are for the title – The last time they won it I was an Everton fan!. The Daily Mail (22 December 2008). Retrieved on 9 August 2009.
  6. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 5
  7. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 12
  8. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 28
  9. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 80
  10. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 81
  11. ^ a b Carragher 2008, p. 82
  12. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 106
  13. ^ a b Carragher 2008, p. 107
  14. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 108
  15. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 110
  16. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 112
  17. ^ May, Pete (4 November 2001). The 10 worst examples of footballers behaving badly. The Guardian
  18. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 120
  19. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 130
  20. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 136
  21. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 137
  22. ^ Hayward, Paul (27 January 2002). "Liverpool lost in red mist". The Daily Telegraph (London: Telegraph Media Group). Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  23. ^ Chaudhary, Vivek (28 January 2002). "Carragher could face legal action". The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  24. ^ "Carragher escapes charge for coin throw". Newsround (BBC). 30 January 2002. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  25. ^ Smyth, Rob (7 March 2007). "Is Jamie Carragher England's best defender?". London: GuardianUnlimited. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  26. ^ "Champions League final clockwatch". BBC Sport (BBC). 25 May 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  27. ^ "Liverpool 3–1 CSKA Moscow (aet)". BBC Sport. 26 August 2005. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  28. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 251
  29. ^ Sinnott, John (10 December 2006). "Liverpool 4–0 Fulham". BBC Sport. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  30. ^ "Carragher the UEFA king at Anfield". Retrieved 3 May 2007. 
  31. ^ Eaton, Paul (17 May 2009). Carra explains Arbeloa exchange. liverpoolfc.tv
  32. ^ McNulty, Phil (25 October 2009). "Liverpool 2–0 Manchester United". BBC Sport (BBC). Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  33. ^ Sanghera, Mandeep (31 October 2009). "Fulham 3–1 Liverpool". BBC Sport (BBC). Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  34. ^ "Jamie Carragher scores for both teams in Liverpool testimonial". Guardian (London). 4 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  35. ^ "Jamie Carragher lines up charity testimonial match". BBC Sport (BBC). 6 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  36. ^ Chadband, Ian (24 October 2010). "Liverpool 2 Blackburn Rovers 1". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  37. ^ Wheeler, Chris (25 October 2010). "Fernando Torres taps into spirit of Anfield as Roy Hodgson faces talk of dressing room revolt". Daily Mail (London). 
  38. ^ "Liverpool's Carragher faces three months out injured". BBC Sport. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  39. ^ "BBC Sport – Football – Fulham 2–5 Liverpool". BBC Sport (BBC). 9 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  40. ^ "Liverpool FC 1 – 0 FC Gomel Match Report". Liverpool F.C. (Liverpool FC). 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  41. ^ "LFC statement on Jamie Carragher". Liverpool F.C. Official Website. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  42. ^ "Carragher announces retirement plans – Liverpool icon to quit at end of the season". DailyMail. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  43. ^ "Jamie Carragher, Liverpool's unsung hero, deserves his place among the club's all-time greats". Daily Telegraph. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  44. ^ "Liverpool's Jamie Carragher to retire from football at end of season". Guardian UK. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  45. ^ "Liverpool 1–0 QPR". BBC Sport. Retrieved 19 May 2013. 
  46. ^ "England U21 defeats Serbia U21 to advance to semifinals". WSN. 17 June 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2009. 
  47. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 204
  48. ^ "JC goes ga-ga over radio slur". SkySports. 10 July 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007. 
  49. ^ "McClaren fails in Carragher bid". BBC News. 15 August 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  50. ^ Carragher 2008, p. 217
  51. ^ "World Cup 2010: Fabio Capello names 30-man England squad". The Daily Telegraph (London: Telegraph Media Group). 11 May 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  52. ^ "Fabio Capello makes surprise England World Cup choices". BBC Sport (BBC). 11 May 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  53. ^ "England 3–1 Mexico". BBC Sport. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  54. ^ McCarra, Kevin (18 June 2010). "World Cup 2010: England labour to goalless draw with Algeria". Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  55. ^ "Carragher to focus on Liverpool". BBC News. 3 July 2010. 
  56. ^ a b Carragher 2008, p. 141
  57. ^ Jamie Carragher joins the Sky Sports team for the 2013/14 season. Sky Sports (30 April 2013).
  58. ^ MailOnline Columnists Jamie Carragher. MailOnline (23 April 2013).
  59. ^ "Old foes Carragher and Neville to team up for Monday Night Football on Sky Sports as Redknapp lands revamped Saturday show". Daily Mail. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
  60. ^ Northcroft, Jonathon (12 October 2008). "Jamie Carragher's club passion". The Times (London). Retrieved 12 March 2009. 
  61. ^ Carragher on family life. BBC Sport (8 October 2008). Retrieved on 17 May 2009.
  62. ^ Jamie Carragher supporting Andy Burnham. labourlist.org (21 June 2010).
  63. ^ Alder Hey Charity. "Meet our supporters", Liverpool 2013. Retrieved on 23 June 2014.
  64. ^ "Jamie Carragher | Assault rap | Gets police caution | The Sun |HomePage|News". The Sun (London). 29 February 2008. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 
Bibliography

External links[edit]