Jamot

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Jamot
Ranikot Fort 07a.jpg
Jam Nizamuddin (fort)
Total population
4.6 million
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan,[citation needed] 3,046,000
 Iran,[citation needed] 11,1000
Languages
Baloch, Sindhi and Siraiki
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
Sindhi, Baloch

The Jamot (Urdu: جاموٹ‎, Sindhi: ڄاموٽ) is a Sindhi speaking ethnic group found in Sindh and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan.

Clans[edit]

This tribe is mainly divided into many clans including:

Origin[edit]

On the origins of the name Jamot (Sammat) several theories have been put forward.

  • Some believe their name comes from, and they should be are considered descendants of Sam (Shem), the eldest of the three surviving sons of the prophet Nuh (Noah).
  • According to others they are the descendants of Sam, the son of Umar, son of Hashim, son of Abu Lahab, an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
  • Yet others believe Sam was the son of Umar, son of Akrama, son of Abu Jahal, the tormentor of Muhammad.
  • Some argue that because rulers used the title of Jam, Sam are descendants of Jamshid, the legendary king of Persia who could see in his wine cup (magical jams).

Tribal chief[edit]

Jam or Ja'am (Urdu: جام) means sardar, Nawab or king). It is the title given to the leading Royal family of a Jamot tribe or state. The Chief Minister of Balouchistan Jam Mohammad Yousaf, is the Supreme Chief, Nawab of the Tribe.

History[edit]

The Jamot are an old tribe living in Balochistan. The sub tribe of Jamot Rulers named created a kingdom in Lower Sindh, in Upper Sindh Shikarpur Sibi Kachhi of upper Balochistan and in Lasbela lower Balochistan and the Run of Kachchh(Gujrat) and in Multan(1351-1517). The ruling tribe Sammas were fiercely independent and rebelled against Delhi Sultanate. They reached the height of their power during the reign of Jam Nizamuddin II, the Jam Nindo (1461-1509) who is still recalled as a hero, and his rule as a golden age. The Capital of all the early dynasties was the city of Thatta. Jam Nizamuddin II or Jam Nindo, as he was affectionately known, ruled in golden age as the leader of the Jamot Dynasty from 866 to 1461. The rise of Thatta as an important commercial and cultural center was directly related to his patronage and policies.

During the rule of Kalhora kings the Abro and Airi tribe was ruling tribe of kachhi (Bhag) Mian Shah Ali better known as Sháhal Muhammad (the kalhora king) gives important job to Abro tribe in state and divided it among his children and brothers, and himself selected his residence in the village of Habíbání.

In the year 1142 A.H. (1729 A.D.) Murad Kaleri, tribal chiefs of the country near Siwi brought into subjection. Murad Kaleri was also known as Ganjah, was appointed by Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro as an agent in charge of Siwí, and brought into subjection powerful chiefs like Jafar Khan Magsí, the land owner of Ganjobah, Ali Mardan Abro and Ibrahim Khan Abro chiefs of Nausharo, Kachhi, Mahyan Eri and Lahná Machhi, big land owners of Bhag Nari, Kala Khan and other chiefs of the tribe of Barzoi, the owners of Dhadhar.

Mián Núr Muhammad now commenced hostilities with Mír Abdulláh the Khan of Kalat, who was a Baloch and got the title of “the Eagle of Kóhistán” In 1143 A.H. (1730 A.D.) he marched and took the fort of Kartah from Mubárak Khán,[1]

Unfortunately, in 1144 A.H. (1731 A.D.) a force of Baloch, invaded the land of Káchhah and occupied that part of the country.[2]

In 1145 A.H. (1732 A.D.) the Mián’s son Muhammad went to Khiár and Wankár with a few selected chiefs and celebrated his marriage with a daughter of Murádalí Khán, a cousin of Mír Abdulláh Khán; and in the next year his other son Khudádád Khán also married a daughter of a kinsman of his. Thus the connection between the Siráís and the Baloch became stronger and closer by these marriages.[3]

A period of expansion then commenced. Mir Ahmad made successive descents on the plains of Sibi. Mir Samandar extended his raids to Zhob, Bori, and Thal-Chotiali, and levied an annual sum of Rs. 40,000 from the Kalhoras.

Mir Abdullah was eventually slain in a fight with the Kalhoras at Jandrihar near Sanni in Kachhi. During the reign of Mir Abdullah's successor, Mir Muhabbat, Nadir Shah rose to power; and the Ahmadzai ruler obtained through him in 1740 the cession of Kachhi, in compensation for the blood(khoonbaha) of Mir Abdullah and the men who had fallen with him.[4]

Las Bela[edit]

The Jams of Las Bela are the former rulers of the Las Bela princely state founded in 1742 by Ali Khan I. His descendants ruled Las Bela until 1955. From the early period of history till the rise of the Aliani family of the Jamoot tribe in the middle of the eighteenth century, only a few facts are known regarding the early history of Las Bela.

The chiefs of the Gujar, Ronjha, Gunga and Burfat tribes, who are still to be found in Lasbela, are said to have exercised a semi-independent power previous to the rise of the Aliani family of the Jamot tribe, to which the present Jam of Lasbela belongs. The Jams of Lasbela reside in Balochistan and they speak Lasi. Former Chief Minister of Balouchistan Jam Mohammad Yousaf, is the Sardar and head of this Tribe.

Roonjha[edit]

Some people claim Ronjha tribe as Indian Rajputs but the research of the Dr N A Baloch and kako Peiromall the Ronjha tribe belongs to the Jam Unars family which was the first ruler of the Samma dynasty that is why 50 graves between Gunkko hill and Bawani village are said to be those of Samma are suggested by C_R Roy in annual biography of Indian archeology VOL.X11 1937. A famous ruler of Ronjha tribe was the Jam Sapar who leaves mark with his honesty and faith(Reff: Kingdom of Samma VOL.II).

Jamots of Karachi (Malir)[edit]

Different tribes are settled in the district, majority of who are Muslim. Among Mohammadans the tribes settled here are Syed, Jokhia, Jamot and Mohannas. These tribes are landowners keep herds and do fishing. The sea along Pakistan’s Karachi coastline “The Jamots, the feudal family in the area. Haji Shafi Jamot, he was chairman of defunct District Council Malir, Karachi. His Son Jan-e-Alam Jamot, nazim (mayor) of Bin Qasim town. The defunct Malir district is PS-129 which mainly falls within Ibrahim Haidri and adjoining areas. Largely dubbed as fisherfolk community, Mehmood Alam Jamot(MPA), whose family is known for retaining this seat for many a times.

Culture[edit]

As Nawab Bugti Said "The people of Jamoot tribe also there in these organizations," Nawab Bugti said, adding that people of all Baloch tribes had started joining the BLA and the BLF.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • History of Sind (Dr N A Baloch)
  • Tarikh-e-Balochistan (Roy bahadur Hathuram)
  • History of Islam (Dr Sarwat Solat)
  • Kingdom of Sammas (Gulam Mohammad Lakho)
  • The Chach Nama- English translation by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979.
  • Tarikh-i Hind Wa Sindh, Arabic (تاريخ الهند والسند )