Jan Tarnowski

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Jan Amor Tarnowski
Jan Amor Tarnowski.PNG

POL COA Tarnowski hrabia.svg
Coat of arms Leliwa
Spouse(s) Barbara Tęczyńska
Zofia Szydłowiecka

Issue

with Barbara Tęczyńska
Jan Aleksander Tarnowski
Jan Amor Tarnowski
with Zofia Szydłowiecka
Zofia Tarnowska
Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski
Noble family House of Tarnowski
Father Jan Amor Mlodszy Tarnowski
Mother Barbara Zawisza z Różnowa
Born 1488
Tarnów, Poland
Died May 16, 1561 (aged 72–73)
Wiewiórka, Poland

Jan Amor Tarnowski (Latin: Joannes Tarnovius) (1488–1561) was a Polish szlachcic (nobleman), knight, military commander, military theoretician, and statesman of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. He was Grand Crown Hetman from 1527 and was the founder of the city of Tarnopol, where he built the Ternopil Castle and the Ternopil Pond.

History[edit]

He was born in 1488, son of Jan Amor Iunior Tarnowski, Kraków's castellan, and his second wife Barbara of Rożnowo, granddaughter of famous knight Zawisza Czarny. He was a scion of an important family clan started by the castellan of Kraków Spycimir Leliwita in mid-14th century. He had five siblings from first marriage of his father. They were Jan Amor Starszy, Jan Aleksander (d. 1497), Katarzyna, Zofia and Elżbieta.[1] He had also five sisters from the first marriage of his mother.[2] He spent his earliest years in Rożnowo and Staresioło. He was designed for be a priest. After death of his father in 1500, his teacher Maciej Drzewiecki convinced Barbara z Rożnowa to resign from this plan. In 1501 Jan Tarnowski was sent to king's court. Suddenly, on 17 June 1501 king Jan Olbracht died and Jan Tarnowski returned to Rożnowo, his mother's domain.[3]

Bust of Tarnowski on the Krasiński Palace in Ursynów.

In 1508 he fought against Muscovy in battle of Orsza and in 1509 against Moldavia in battle of Chocim and upon Dniestr as a commander of his own chorągiew (banner/company).[4] Then in 1512 he was involved in battle of Łopuszna, where Tatars where defeated by Poles.[5] He made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and became a knight of Order of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. He travelled across Europe, amongst others he went to Portugal and for his services against the Moors in Africa king Manuel I of Portugal knighted him. He was owner of Tarnów, Wiewiórka, Rożnów, Przeworsk, Stare Sioło, a Knight of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre from September 1, 1518, castellan of Wojnicz from 6 June 1522, voivode of Ruthenian Voivodeship from April 2, 1527 and of Kraków Voivodeship from October 10, 1535, castellan of Kraków and Starost of Sandomierz, Stryj, Żydaczów, Dolina, Sandecz, Chmielnów, Lubaczów and Horodło from March 15, 1536.

Tarnowski's parade burgonet morion helmet.
Hetman Tarnowski

In 1521, he participated in Ottoman-Habsburg wars. He was amongst the first Hetmans of the Polish Army after its great reforms. He led the Polish Army to many victories amongst which was the victory at Obertyn (1531) against Moldavians, and at Starodub (1535) against the Muscovites in the Muscovite wars.

He also developed, among other things, horse artillery, field hospitals at the expense of the government, headquarters services, and field sappers. Throughout his entire service as a Hetman, he preached a doctrine of flexibility. Poet Jan Kochanowski wrote a poem O śmierci Jana Tarnowskiego (on the death of Jan Tarnowski]]. He is one of the characters on the famous painting by Jan Matejko, Prussian Homage.

Family[edit]

About 1511 he married with Barbara Tęczyńska, daughter of Mikołaj Tęczyński, voivode of Ruthenian Voivodeship. She was niece of first mother's husband.[5] Upon first wife's death he married Zofia Szydłowiecka in 1530. He had four children, amongst them Zofia Tarnowska and Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski.

Important Works[edit]

  • Terminatio ex itinerario, fragmenty ogł. K. Hartleb "Itinerarium J. Tarnowskiego z pobytu w Ziemi Św. z r. 1518", Kwartalnik Historyczny 1930; rękopis: Biblioteka Czartoryskich, Teki Naruszewicza nr 33, r. 1518, (dziennik podróży do Ziemi Świętej w roku 1517; cz. 1 po łacinie, cz. 2 po polsku)
  • Pouczenie hetmana podskarbiemu koronnemu dane, powst. 1528, ogł. S. Kutrzeba "Polskie ustawy i artykuły wojskowe od XV do XVIII wieku", Kraków 1939, PAU Archiwum Komisji Historii Wojskowej nr 3, s. 38-39
  • 4 speeches from 1537, in Stanisław Orzechowski Annales, Dobromil 1611 and later editions
  • 2 speeches (pt. Głos... miany... na sejmie piotrkowskim 1548 roku; Mowa... na sejmie lubelskim 1554 miana), in A. Małecki "Wybór mów staropolskich", Kraków 1860, Biblioteka Polska, series V, book 6-8, s. 33-34
  • Consilium rationis bellicae, Tarnów 1558, printshop of Łazarz Andrysowic; in M. Malinowski Stanisława Łaskiego, wojewody sieradzkiego, prace naukowe i dyplomatyczne, Wilno 1864, s. 173-249; also in A. Piliński, Poznań 1879; pt. "Zasady sztuki wojskowej", Lwów 1882, Biblioteka Mrówki nr 147,
  • Artykuły wojenne, in I. Polkowski "Sprawy wojenne króla Stefana Batorego. Dyjaryjusze, relacyje, listy i akta z lat 1576-1586", Kraków 1887, Acta Historica Res Gestas Poloniae Illustrantia, t. 11, s. 240 nn.; there: Oprawianie zamków albo miast, before 1561; reprint S. Kutrzeba "Polskie ustawy i artykuły wojskowe od XV do XVIII wieku", Kraków 1939, PAU Archiwum Komisji Historii Wojskowej nr 3, s. 313-319;
  • De bello cum iuratissimis Christianae fidei hostibus Turcis gerendo disputatio sapientissima, Würzburg 1595, printshop of G. Fleichsamnn, (edition by J. G. Schedius with explanation); next printing: Selectissimarum orationum et consultationum de bello Turcico variorum et diversorum auctorum libri XIV, Frankfurt 1598-1599; also in 2, volume 4, part 2, Leipzig (1595), s. 1-17; Conring De bello contra Turcas gerendo, 1664,
  • O obronie koronnej i o sprawie i powinności urzędników wojennych, Kraków 1579, Łazarz printshop (published with Ustawy prawa ziemskiego polskiego... uatributed to Jan Palczowski ); reprint: M. Malinowski Stanisława Łaskiego, wojewody sieradzkiego, prace naukowe i dyplomatyczne, Wilno 1864, s. 173-249; K. J. Turowski edition, Kraków 1858, Biblioteka Polska, motebook 133-134,
  • Kronika polska, work lost

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Podhorodecki, Leszek (1994). Sławni hetmani Rzeczypospolitej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo MADA. p. 17. ISBN 83-86170-06-9. 
  2. ^ Dworzaczek, Włodzimierz (1985). Hetman Jan Tarnowski. Z dziejów możnowładztwa małopolskiego. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy PAX. p. 17. ISBN 83-211-0584-X. 
  3. ^ Podhorodecki, Leszek (1994). Sławni hetmani Rzeczypospolitej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo MADA. p. 18. ISBN 83-86170-06-9. 
  4. ^ Podhorodecki, Leszek (1994). Sławni hetmani Rzeczypospolitej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo MADA. pp. 20–21. ISBN 83-86170-06-9. 
  5. ^ a b Podhorodecki, Leszek (1994). Sławni hetmani Rzeczypospolitej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo MADA. p. 21. ISBN 83-86170-06-9. 

References[edit]