Jan Karski

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Jan Karski
Jan Karski Eagle photo portrait
Born Jan Kozielewski
24 June 1914
Łódź, Congress Poland
Died 13 July 2000 (aged 86)
Washington, D.C., United States
Nationality Polish
Other names Jan Kozielewski (birth name); Piasecki, Kwaśniewski, Znamierowski, Kruszewski, Kucharski, and Witold (akas)
Occupation Polish resistance fighter; diplomat; activist; professor; author
Known for World War II resistance and the Holocaust rescue

Jan Karski (24 June 1914 – 13 July 2000) was a Polish World War II resistance movement fighter and later professor at Georgetown University. In 1942 and 1943 Karski reported to the Polish government in exile and the Western Allies on the situation in German-occupied Poland, especially the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto, and the secretive German-Nazi extermination camps.

Early life[edit]

Jan Karski was born Jan Kozielewski on 24 June 1914 (St John's Day) in Łódź, Poland [1] as recognized by the Karski family’s lawyer, Dr. Wieslawa Kozielewska-Trzaska, Karski's niece and goddaughter, as well as by the Jan Karski Society, an organization established shortly after his death to preserve his legacy. The same date was used by Karski on all existing pre-war hand-written documents, including several in his diplomatic dossier at the League of Nations.

Jan Kozielewski's handwritten pre-WWII document showing birthdate from Lviv archives

Jan Karski was named "Jan" [in Polish John] having been born on St John's Day, following the Polish pre-war custom of naming newborn infants after saints. An error was made in the baptismal records of August 8, as Karski explained later in interviews on several occasions (see Waldemar Piasecki's definitive biography of Karski: One Life, about to be published in Poland) as well as published interviews with his family.

Karski's date of birth is sometimes given as 24 April 1914, based on his baptismal records in Russian and subsequently figuring on his official birth certificate. The Diploma for his Master's degree (awarded in 1935) and the Certificate from the Artillery Reserve Officer Cadet School (awarded in 1936) both reflect his 24 April birthday.[2] This is why some Karski tribute organizations also recognize the date as 24 April, as does the Google Cultural Institute's documentation, Museum of Polish History and the Museum of the City of Łódź, to which Karski left his papers, awards and artwork. The United States Senate withdrew 24 April as Jan Karski day from the final passed resolution in the Congressional Record, according to Polish Press Agency, citing Ms. Urbanska who lobbied for the day.[3] Their colleagues at the Polish Senate did the same, according to the office of Bogdan Borusewicz. All documents handwritten by Jan Karski before WWII list the 24 June date, most importantly his official handwritten resume. All US documents list 11 April, including passport and social security card. Polish PWN Encyclopedia recognizes the date as 22 April.[4] Another variant is on his diplomatic passport which lists his birthday as 22 March 1912. The error reflected in his war-time documents probably served Karski well in his profession.

Karski was raised a Catholic and remained so throughout his life.[5] He grew up in a multi-cultural neighborhood where the majority of the population was then Jewish.

After intensive military training in the prestigious school for mounted artillery officers in Włodzimierz Wołyński, he graduated with a First in the Class of 1936 and ordered to the 5th Regiment of Mounted Artillery, the same military unit where Colonel Józef Beck, Poland's Foreign Affairs Minister, served. He completed his diplomatic education, between 1935 and 1938, in various posts in Romania (twice), Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, and went on to join the Diplomatic Service. After completing and gaining a First in Grand Diplomatic Practice, on 1 January 1939 he started work in the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

World War II[edit]

During the Polish September Campaign, Kozielewski’s 5th Regiment was a unit of Kraków Cavalry Brigade, under General Zygmunt Piasecki and a part of Armia Kraków defending the area between Zabkowice and Częstochowa. After the last Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski on 10 September, some units including 1st Battery of 5th Regiment with Kozielewski tried to reach Hungary but were captured by Red Army between 17 and 20 September. Kozielewski was held prisoner in Kozielszczyna camp (presently Ukraine). He successfully concealed his true rank of 2nd Lieutenant and after a uniform exchange, was identified by the NKVD commander as a Private. He was handed over to the Germans as a person born in Łódź, which was incorporated into the Third Reich, thus escaping the Katyn massacre.[6]

Resistance[edit]

Jan Karski's missions
"The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland", note of Republic of Poland addressed to United Nations, 1942

In November 1939 on a train to a POW camp in General Government (a part of Poland which had not been fully incorporated into The Third Reich), Karski managed to escape, and found his way to Warsaw. There he joined the ZWZ – the first resistance movement in occupied Europe and a predecessor of the Home Army (AK). About that time he adopted a nom de guerre of Jan Karski, which later became his legal name. Other noms de guerre used by him during World War II included Piasecki, Kwaśniewski, Znamierowski, Kruszewski, Kucharski, and Witold. In January 1940 Karski began to organize courier missions with dispatches from the Polish underground to the Polish Government in Exile, then based in Paris. As a courier, Karski made several secret trips between France, Britain and Poland. During one such mission in July 1940 he was arrested by the Gestapo in the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia. Severely tortured, he was finally transported to a hospital in Nowy Sącz, from where he was smuggled out. After a short period of rehabilitation, he returned to active service in the Information and Propaganda Bureau of the Headquarters of the Polish Home Army.[citation needed]

In 1942 Karski was selected by Cyryl Ratajski, the Polish Government Delegate's Office at Home, to perform a secret mission to prime minister Władysław Sikorski in London. Karski was to contact Sikorski as well as various other Polish politicians and inform them about Nazi atrocities in occupied Poland. In order to gather evidence, Karski met Bund activist Leon Feiner and was twice smuggled by Jewish underground leaders into the Warsaw Ghetto for the purpose of directly observing what was happening to Polish Jews. Also, disguised as an Estonian camp guard, he visited what he thought was Bełżec death camp. In actuality, it seems that Karski only managed to get close enough to witness a Durchgangslager ("sorting and transit point") for Bełżec in the town of Izbica Lubelska, located midway between Lublin and Bełżec.[7] Many historians have accepted this theory, as did Karski himself.[8]

Reporting Nazi atrocities to the Western Allies[edit]

From 1942 Karski reported to the Polish, British and U.S. governments on the situation in Poland, especially on the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto and the Holocaust of Polish Jews. He had also carried out of Poland a microfilm with further information from the underground movement on the extermination of European Jews in German-occupied Poland. The Polish Foreign Minister Count Edward Raczyński provided the Allies on this basis one of the earliest and most accurate accounts of the Holocaust. A note by Raczynski entitled The mass extermination of Jews in German occupied Poland, addressed to the governments of the United Nations on 10 December 1942, would later be published along with other documents in a widely distributed leaflet.[9]

Karski met with Polish politicians in exile including the Prime Minister, as well as members of political parties such as the Socialist Party, National Party, Labor Party, People's Party, Jewish Bund and Poalei Zion. He also spoke to the British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, giving a detailed statement on what he had seen in Warsaw and Bełżec. In 1943 in London he met journalist Arthur Koestler, author of Darkness at Noon. He then traveled to the United States, and on 28 July 1943 Karski personally met with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the Oval Office, telling him about the situation in Poland and becoming the first eyewitness to tell him about the Jewish Holocaust.[10] During their meeting Roosevelt asked about the condition of horses in Poland.[11] Roosevelt did not ask one question about the Jews.[12] Karski went on to meet with many other government and civic leaders in the United States, including Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, Cordell Hull, William Joseph Donovan, and Rabbi Stephen Wise. Frankfurter, skeptical of Karski's report, said later "I did not say that he was lying, I said that I could not believe him. There is a difference."[13] Karski presented his report to media, bishops of various denominations (including Cardinal Samuel Stritch), members of the Hollywood film industry and artists, but without much result. His warning about the Yalta solution and the plight of stateless peoples became an inspiration for the formation of the Office of High Commissioner for Refugees after the war.[14]

In 1944 Karski published Courier from Poland: The Story of a Secret State (with a selection featured in Collier's six weeks before the book's publication),[15][16] in which he related his experiences in wartime Poland. The book was a major success (a film of it was planned but never realized) with more than 400,000 copies sold alone in the United States up to the end of World War II.[citation needed]

My Report to the World: The Story of a Secret State was re-published by Georgetown University Press and released on 18 March 2013. A Tribute to Jan Karski panel discussion was held at the University in conjunction with the book release, and featured a discussion of Karski's legacy by School of Foreign Service Dean Carol Lancaster, Georgetown University Chair of the Board of Directors Paul Tagliabue, Former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, Former National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, Polish Ambassador Ryszard Schnepf and Rabbi Harold S. White.[17]

Life in the United States[edit]

After the war Karski entered the United States and began his studies at Georgetown University, receiving a Ph.D from the institution in 1952.[18] In 1954, Karski became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He taught at Georgetown University for 40 years in the areas of East European affairs, comparative government and international affairs. Among his students was Bill Clinton (Class of 1968). In 1985, he published the academic study The Great Powers and Poland based on research on a Fulbright fellowship in 1974 to his native Poland.

Karski's 1942 report on the Holocaust and the London Polish government's appeal to the United Nations were briefly narrated by Walter Laqueur in The Terrible Secret (1980). Karski became a public figure thanks to Elie Wiesel who made him a keynote speaker at the Concentration Camps Liberators Conference (1981) and French film-maker Claude Lanzmann for Lanzmann's film Shoah made with Karski's testimony. The film was released in 1985 and, in spite of earlier promises,[citation needed] didn't include mention of Karski's role in informing the world about the Holocaust. In their book on Karski, Wood and Jankowski state that Karski then wrote an article[19] (which was published in English, French and Polish) called "Shoah, a Biased Vision of the Holocaust", in which he pleaded for the production of another documentary showing the missing part of his testimony and the help given to Jews by Polish Righteous among the Nations.

Jan Karski with General Colin Powell at the opening of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

In 1994, E. Thomas Wood and Stanisław M. Jankowski published Karski: How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust. In 2010, Lanzmann released a further documentary entitled The Karski Report consisting of the previously unreleased second half of his interview with Karski.[20] In 1997, the documentary film My Mission directed by Waldemar Piasecki and Michal Fajbusiewicz was released, presenting as never before all details of Karski’s war mission. In 1999, Tajne Panstwo book (Polish, re-edited and re-wrote by Waldemar Piascecki version of Story of A Secret State) got its premiere in King’s Place in Warsaw and became a bestseller. In same year, Jan Karski’s Room was opened in the Museum of Lodz City. The exposition grouped the most valuable memorabilia, documents and decorations organized under Karski's supervision.

Following the fall of communism in Poland in 1989, Karski's wartime role was officially acknowledged there. He received the Order of the White Eagle (the highest Polish civil decoration) and the Order Virtuti Militari (the highest military decoration awarded for bravery in combat). He was married in 1965 to the 54-year-old dancer and choreographer Pola Nireńska (pl), a Polish Jew, whose family (with the exception of her parents, who emigrated to Israel shortly before the Nazi invasion of Poland), died in the Holocaust. She committed suicide in 1992. A similar fate met Jan Karski's older brother Colonel Marian Kozielewski, also a war hero. The Kozielewski brothers were admirers of Jozef Pilsudski and members of the "forgotten army" that suffered many deeply personal wounds.

US stamp from 1943, a tribute to Polish Underground State

During an interview with Hannah Rosen in 1995, Karski said about the failure to rescue most of the Jews from mass murder,

Karski died of unspecified heart and kidney disease in Washington, D.C., in 2000. He died at Georgetown University Hospital.[22] He was interred at Mount Olivet Cemetery in Washington. He and Pola had no children.

Honors/Legacy[edit]

Jan Karski Statue in Tel Aviv University

On 2 June 1982, Yad Vashem recognised Jan Karski as Righteous Among the Nations.[23] A tree bearing a memorial plaque in his name was planted that same year at Yad Vashem's Avenue of the Righteous Among the Nations in Jerusalem.

In 1991, Karski was awarded the Wallenberg Medal of the University of Michigan. Statues honoring Karski have been placed in New York City at the corner of 37th Street and Madison Avenue (renamed as Jan Karski Corner)[24] and on the grounds of Georgetown University[25] in Washington, D.C.[26] Additional benches, which were made by the Kraków-based sculptor Karol Badyna, are located in Kielce, Łódź and Warsaw in Poland, and on campus of the University of Tel Aviv in Israel. The talking Karski bench in Warsaw near the Museum of the History of Polish Jews has a button where a short talk from Karski can be heard. Georgetown University, Oregon State University, Baltimore Hebrew College, Warsaw University, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, and the University of Łódź all awarded Karski honorary doctorates.

In 1994, Karski was made an honorary citizen of Israel in honor of his efforts on behalf of Polish Jews during the Holocaust (Shoah). Karski was nominated for the Nobel Prize and formally recognized by the UN General Assembly shortly before his death.

Shortly after his death, the Jan Karski Society was established, thanks to initiative of professor Karski's close friend, collaborator and biographer Waldemar Piasecki. The society preserves his legacy and administrates the prestigious Jan Karski Eagle Award established by himself in 2000. The list of laureates includes among them: Eli Wiesel, Shimon Peres, Lech Walesa, Aleksander Kwasniewski, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Bronislaw Geremek, Jacek Kuron, Adam Michnik, Karol Modzelewski, Oriana Fallaci, Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz, Tygodnik Powszechny magazine, Hoover Institution, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

In April 2011, the Jan Karski U.S. Centennial Campaign was created to increase interest in the life and legacy of the late Polish diplomat, as the Centennial year of his birth in 2014 approached. The U.S. Campaign, headed by Polish-American author Wanda Urbanska, worked in partnership with the International Legacy program at the Polish History Museum in Warsaw, Poland, under the direction of Ewa Wierzynska. Polish Consul General Ewa Junczyk-Ziomecka hosted a gala kickoff dinner in New York City on May 30, consisting of representatives from Georgetown University, Polish Catholic and Jewish groups which comprised the steering committee.

Grave of Jan Karski and Pola Nirenska at Mount Olivet Cemetery in Washington, D.C.

One goal of the Campaign group was to obtain the Presidential Medal of Freedom for Karski in advance of his Centennial, as well as to promote educational activities, including workshops, artistic performances and the revival of his 1944 book, "Story of a Secret State." In December 2011, the support of 68 U.S. Representatives and 12 U.S. Senators was obtained and a package for the Medal was submitted to the White House.[27] On 23 April 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama announced that Karski would receive the country's highest civilian honor, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.[28] The Medal was awarded by President Obama on 29 May 2012 and presented to Adam Daniel Rotfeld, the former Foreign Minister of Poland and himself a Jewish Holocaust survivor.[29] Jan Karski's family was omitted during the decoration procedure and not invited for the presentation ceremony. Such a fact generated strong family protest. The medal, along with Jan Karski's honors, is on display at "the Karski office" in Łódź Museum according to the wishes of his surviving family led by his niece and goddaughter Dr. Kozielewska-Trzaska.

In November 2012, having met its major goals, the Jan Karski U.S. Centennial Campaign was succeeded by the Jan Karski Educational Foundation, which continues to promote Karski's legacy and values, particularly to young people from middle school through college age. The President of the Foundation is Polish-American author Wanda Urbanska.[30] The Foundation is sponsoring three major conferences about Karski in his birth year, at Georgetown University in Washington, at Loyola University in Chicago, and in Warsaw.

A controversy began when a misspoken word in Barack Obama's Presidential Medal of Freedom speech came to be known as 'Gafa Obamy' or Obama's gaffe,[31] when the President referred to 'a Polish death camp' (instead of "death camp in Poland") when talking of the Nazi German transit death camp that Karski had visited. "Polish death camps" is a term often used to refer to Nazi concentration camps in Poland, as opposed to (as may be implied) Polish concentration camps. The terms "Polish death camp" or "Polish concentration camp" were reportedly promulgated by ex-Nazis working for the West German secret services. Historian Leszek Pietrzak explains the propaganda strategies from the 1950s.[32] President Obama later characterized his term as a mis-statement and it was accepted by Polish President Bronisław Komorowski.[33]

In early February 2014, Jan Karski Society and the Karski family appealed to President of Poland Bronisław Komorowski to posthumously promote Jan Karski to the rank of Brigadier General in recognition of his contribution to the war effort as well as all couriers and emissaries of Underground Polish State.

Remembering Karski's mission[edit]

The former Foreign Minister of Poland Władysław Bartoszewski in his speech at the ceremony of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau, 27 January 2005, said: "The Polish resistance movement kept informing and alerting the free world to the situation. In the last quarter of 1942, thanks to the Polish emissary Jan Karski and his mission, and also by other means, the Governments of the United Kingdom and of the United States were well informed about what was going on in Auschwitz-Birkenau."[34]

Awards and decorations[edit]

This article incorporates information from the Polish Wikipedia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jan Karski urodził się 24 czerwca 1914 roku. Nic tego nie zmieni - 27 listopada 2013". Dziennikwschodni.pl. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  2. ^ Jan Karski Photo-biography Fotobiografia by Maciej Sadowski, Veda, Warsaw, 2014, www.veda.com.pl
  3. ^ http://www.pap.pl/palio/html.run?_Instance=cms_www.pap.pl&_PageID=1&s=infopakiet&dz=swiat&idNewsComp=152195&filename=&idnews=155506&data=&status=biezace&_CheckSum=-331242185
  4. ^ "Encyklopedia PWN - Sprawdzić możesz wszędzie, zweryfikuj wiedzę w serwisie PWN - Karski Jan". Encyklopedia.pwn.pl. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  5. ^ "Self-identification by Karski at Yad Vashem website as "a Christian Jew" and "a practicing Catholic"". .yadvashem.org. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  6. ^ http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/301080/wwii-hero-wins-presidential-medal-freedom-deroy-murdock
  7. ^ Jakob Weiss, The Lemberg Mosaic (New York: Alderbrook Press 2011) fn 199, p.409
  8. ^ In his book published in the USA during the war, Karski identified the camp as Bełżec death camp even though he knew at the time that the camp could not have been in Bełżec. The descriptions he gave are incongruous with what is now known about Bełżec. His biographers Wood and Jankowski later proposed that rather Karski actually had been in the Izbica Lubelska "sorting camp". Many historians have accepted this theory, as did Karski himself.
  9. ^ "Mass extermination". Projectinposterum.org. 1942-12-10. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  10. ^ "Algemeiner 07/17/2013". Algemeiner.com. 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  11. ^ Nigel Jones (4 May 2011). "tory of a Secret State by Jan Karski: review". The daily telegraph. Karski reached London where he had an interview with the foreign secretary Anthony Eden, the first of many top officials to effectively ignore his account of the Nazis’ systematic effort to exterminate European Jewry. The very enormity of Karski’s report paradoxically worked against him being believed, and paralysed any action against the killings. Logistically unable to reach Poland, preoccupied with fighting the war on many fronts, and unwilling to believe even the Nazis capable of such bestiality, the Allies put the Holocaust on the back burner. When Karski took his tale across the Atlantic, the story was the same. President Roosevelt heard him out, then asked about the condition of horses in Poland." 
  12. ^ Claude Lanzmann (4 May 2011). "U.S Holocaust memorial Museum, Claude Lanzmann Interview with Jan Karski". Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive. Karski first told Roosevelt that the Polish nation was depending on him to deliver them from the Germans. Karski said to Roosevelt, "All hope, Mr. President, has been placed by the Polish nation in the hands of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Karski says that he told President Roosevelt about Belzec and the desperate situation of the Jews. Roosevelt concentrated his questions and remarks entirely on Poland and did not ask one question about the Jews ". Watch the video, or see the full transcript 
  13. ^ "The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation". Raoulwallenberg.net. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  14. ^ Szporer, Michael. "Jan Karski: The Man who Soldiered for Human Rights". University of Maryland. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. 
  15. ^ Karski, Jan. 1944. "Polish Death Camp." Collier's, 14 October, pp. 18–19, 60–61.
  16. ^ Abzug, Robert. H. 1999. America Views the Holocaust, 1933-1945: A Brief Documentary History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, p. 183.
  17. ^ "Georgetown University video of the event". Georgetown.edu. 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  18. ^ Karski, J. Material Towards A Documentary History of the Fall of Eastern Europe (1938-1948); Ph.D. dissertation 1952 for Georgetown University; publication number AAT 0183534
  19. ^ http://www.esprit.presse.fr/archive/review/article.php?code=3543
  20. ^ Jeffries, Stuart (9 June 2011). "Claude Lanzmann on why Holocaust documentary Shoah still matters". The Guardian (London). 
  21. ^ "Interview with Jan Karski". Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  22. ^ Kaufman, Michael T. "Jan Karski Dies at 86; Warned West About Holocaust." New York Times. July 15, 2000.
  23. ^ "Yad Vashem recognizes Karski". .yadvashem.org. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  24. ^ "Statue salutes Polish man who warned FDR of Nazi camps", New York Daily News, 12 November 2007
  25. ^ http://sfs.georgetown.edu/53301.html
  26. ^ "Monument to Honor Dr. Jan Karski", Polish-American Journal. 30 September 2002. vol 91; No. 9; page 8
  27. ^ Jan Karski. "Jan Karski Educational Foundation (home)". Jankarski.net. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  28. ^ "President Obama Announces Jan Karski as a Recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". whitehouse.gov. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  29. ^ "2012 Presidential Medal of Freedom Ceremony". Whitehouse.gov. 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  30. ^ Jan Karski. "The Foundation's website is http". //www.jankarski.net. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  31. ^ "Matthew Kaminski: 'Gafa Obamy'". The Wall Street Journal. 30 May 2012. 
  32. ^ "Jak Niemcy Polaków wrabiali w mordowanie Żydów - Leszek Pietrzak - NowyEkran.pl". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  33. ^ "President of the Republic of Poland / News / News / President on Barack Obama's letter". President.pl. 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  34. ^ Address by the former Foreign Minister of Poland Wladysław Bartoszewski at the ceremony of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau, 27 January 2005 see pp. 156-157

Bibliography[edit]

Publications by Karski
  • "Polish Death Camp." Collier's, 14 October 1944, pp. 18–19, 60–61.
  • Courier from Poland: The Story of a Secret State, Boston 1944 (Polish edition: Tajne państwo: opowieść o polskim Podziemiu, Warszawa 1999).
  • Wielkie mocarstwa wobec Polski: 1919-1945 od Wersalu do Jałty. wyd. I krajowe Warszawa 1992, Wyd. PIW ISBN 83-06-02162-2
  • Tajna dyplomacja Churchilla i Roosevelta w sprawie Polski: 1940-1945.
  • Polska powinna stać się pomostem między narodami Europy Zachodniej i jej wschodnimi sąsiadami, Łódź 1997.
  • Jan Karski (2001). Story of a Secret State. Simon Publications. p. 391. ISBN 1-931541-39-6. 
About Karski
  • E. Thomas Wood & Stanisław M. Jankowski (1994). Karski: How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust. John Wiley & Sons Inc. page 316; ISBN 0-471-01856-2
  • J. Korczak, Misja ostatniej nadziei, Warszawa 1992.
  • E. T. Wood, Karski: opowieść o emisariuszu, Kraków 1996.
  • J. Korczak, Karski, Warszawa 2001.
  • S. M. Jankowski, Karski: raporty tajnego emisariusza, Poznań 2009.
  • Henry R. Lew, Lion Hearts Hybrid Publishers, Melbourne, Australia 2012.

External links[edit]