Vilímek was born on 1 January 1860 in Žamberk, Bohemia. He created many portraits of famous personalities from Bohemia and other Slavonic nations. During the 1880s, these portraits were regularly published in magazines such as Humoristické Listy, Zlatá Praha and Světozor. In the 1890s, some of these illustrations were assembled into a book, České album. He died on 15 April 1938 in Vienna.