Ján Vilček

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Ján Vilček
Born (1933-06-17) June 17, 1933 (age 81)
Bratislava, Slovakia (formerly Czechoslovakia)
Residence New York City
Fields microbiology, immunology
Institutions Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, New York University School of Medicine
Alma mater Comenius University in Bratislava
Notable awards National Medal of Technology and Innovation (2012)
Spouse Marica Vilcek

Jan T. Vilček M.D., Ph.D. (born June 17, 1933) is a biomedical scientist, educator, inventor and philanthropist. He is a professor in the Department of Microbiology at the New York University School of Medicine[1] and President of The Vilcek Foundation.[2] Vilček, a native of Bratislava, Slovakia, (formerly Czechoslovakia) received his M.D. degree from Comenius University Medical School, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia in 1957; and his Ph.D. in Virology from the Institute of Virology, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia in 1962. In 1964, Jan Vilček, with his wife Marica, defected from Communist Czechoslovakia during a three-day visit to Vienna. In 1965, the Vilčeks immigrated to the United States, and have since lived in New York City. Vilček devoted his scientific career to studies of soluble mediators that regulate the immune system (cytokine)s, including interferon and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).

Early years[edit]

Vilcek was born in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia to a middle class secular Jewish family. His mother, Friderika Fischer, was born to a German-speaking family in Budapest, Hungary. She moved with her family to Bratislava where she finished medical school, married Jan’s father, Julius Vilcek, and became an ophthalmologist. Jan Vilcek grew up speaking three languages (Slovak, German and Hungarian). During the Second World War, his family was persecuted because of their Jewish heritage. To protect him from deportation to a concentration camp, in 1942 his parents placed Vilcek in an orphanage run by Catholic nuns. From mid-1944 through the end of the war in 1945, Jan Vilcek and his mother were hidden by a brave Slovak family in a remote village, while his father joined an uprising against the Nazis. After the defeat of the Nazi Germany the family was reunited and moved back to Bratislava.

Career and scientific contributions[edit]

Vilček became interested in research in microbiology and immunology during his medical studies. Upon completing medical school in 1957, Vilček joined the Institute of Virology, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava as a research scientist. There, in 1959, he embarked on studies of interferon, a protein made in response to infection with viruses and other pathogens.[3] At the time, interferon was still a poorly defined protein studied by only a handful of scientists across the world. In 1964, Vilček organized the first international conference on interferon that was attended by many scientists active in the field at the time.[4] Upon emigrating to the United States in 1965, Vilček joined the faculty of NYU School of Medicine as an Assistant Professor of Microbiology. At NYU, Vilček continued research on interferon. He helped to develop methods for the production of human fibroblast (beta) interferon that enabled its clinical utilization and molecular characterization.[5] He and his colleagues showed that human leukocyte (alpha) and beta interferon are antigenically distinct,[6] laying the groundwork for the later demonstration that these interferons are encoded by distinct genes that belong to the same gene family. He and his coworkers also contributed to the characterization of human immune (gamma) interferon.[7] In the 1980s Vilček became interested in the study of another cytokine, termed tumor necrosis factor (TNF). His work helped to elucidate novel biological actions of TNF,[8][9][10] led to the discovery of novel genes and proteins,[11] and helped to identify signaling pathways.[9][10]

Over the span of his career, Vilček published over 350 papers in scientific journals. Vilček is an Institute for Scientific Information highly cited researcher in the Immunology category. He is listed as an inventor on over 40 US patents.

Contributions to drug development[edit]

In the 1970s Vilček and colleagues developed methods for the production of human interferon-beta in cultures of human diploid fibroblasts.[5] These methods made it possible to produce natural human interferon-beta for clinical trials. Interferon-beta produced by these methods was licensed for clinical use in multiple sclerosis and some other diseases in Germany and in Japan, but eventually the production of natural interferon has been replaced by more efficient methods utilizing recombinant DNA technology.

In 1989 Vilček and NYU colleague, Junming Le, created a monoclonal antibody against TNF-alpha, a powerful promoter of inflammation. TNF-alpha is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Collaborating with the biotechnology company Centocor, founded by Michael Wall and Hubert Schoemaker (later acquired by Johnson & Johnson and recently renamed Janssen Biotech, Inc.), Vilček and Le helped to develop the biologic drug initially termed cA2, which is now known commercially as infliximab, or Remicade. Remicade is a potent anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, plaque psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases.

Remicade was the first TNF blocking agent successfully used in patients.[12] The success of Remicade spurred the development and regulatory approval of several other anti-TNF agents (TNF inhibitor), including adalimumab-Humira, etanercept-Enbrel, golimumab-Simponi, and certolizumab pegol-Cimzia, all of which are being used to treat numerous inflammatory autoimmune diseases. It is estimated that close to 3 million patients have been treated with Remicade, and more patients benefited from treatments with other anti-TNF agents.[13]

Philanthropy[edit]

With the royalties from the sales of Remicade, Vilček and his wife Marica established the Vilcek Foundation in 2000, devoted to increasing public awareness of the contribution of immigrants to professional, academic and artistic life in the United States. The Foundation fulfills its mission by awarding annual Vilcek Prizes in biomedical science and the arts, sponsoring cultural programs, and hosting immigrant artists in its gallery space in New York City.

In 2005, the Vilčeks made a donation to NYU School of Medicine valued at over 100 million dollars, for use towards basic research.[14] The funds have been used for the establishment of several endowed professorships, renovation of laboratories, establishment of research programs and endowment of fellowships for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows at NYU School of Medicine. In a separate donation announced in 2010, the Vilčeks contributed funds for the renovation of a dormitory for medical students and the establishment of endowed merit scholarships for medical students.[15] Vilček’s wife, Marica Vilcek, an art historian, endowed two curatorships in the American Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.[16] Jan Vilček is a member of the Board of Trustees of the NYU Langone Medical Center.

Awards and Honors[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jan T. Vilcek, M.D.". NYU Langone Medical Center. 
  2. ^ "Officers and Trustees". The Vilcek Foundation. 
  3. ^ Vilcek, J. (1960). "An interferon-like substance released from tick-borne encephalitis virus-infected chick embryo fibroblast cells". Nature (London) 187: 73–74. doi:10.1038/187073a0. 
  4. ^ "Jan Vilcek". Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue. Wellcome Library. 
  5. ^ a b Havell, E.A.; Vilcek, J. (December 1972). "Production of high-titered interferon in cultures of human diploid cells". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2 (6): 476–484. doi:10.1128/aac.2.6.476. PMC 444342. PMID 4670440. 
  6. ^ Havell, E. A.; Berman, B., Ogburn, C.A., Berg, K., Paucker, K. and Vilcek, J. (June 1975). "Two antigenically distinct species of human interferon". Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 72 (6): 2185–2187. doi:10.1073/pnas.72.6.2185. PMC 432721. PMID 49055. 
  7. ^ Yip, Y.K.; Barrowclough, B.S., Urban, C. and Vilcek, J. (1982). "Molecular weight of human gamma interferon is similar to that of other human interferons". Science 215: 411–413. doi:10.1126/science.6173921. 
  8. ^ Vilcek, J.; Palombella, V.J., Henriksen-DeStefano, D., Swenson, C., Feinman, R., Hirai, M. and Tsujimoto, M. (1986). "Fibroblast growth enhancing activity of tumor necrosis factor and its relationship to other polypeptide growth factors". Exp. Med. 163: 632–643. doi:10.1084/jem.163.3.632. 
  9. ^ a b Zhang, Y.; Lin, J.-X. and Vilcek, J. (1990). "Interleukin-6 induction by tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 in human fibroblasts involves activation of a nuclear factor binding to a kB-like sequence". Mol. Cell. Biol. 10 (7): 3818–3823. PMC 360846. PMID 2192263. 
  10. ^ a b Vietor, L.; Schwenger, P.; Li, W.; Schlessinger, J.; Vilcek, J. (1993). "Tumor necrosis factor-induced activation and increased tyrosine phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in human fibroblasts". J. Biol. Chem. 268: 18994–18999. 
  11. ^ Lee, T.H.; Wisniewski, H.-G. and Vilcek, J. (1992). "A novel secretory tumor necrosis factor-inducible protein (TSG-6) is a member of the family of hyaluronate binding proteins, closely related to the adhesion receptor CD44". J. Cell Biol. 116 (2): 545–557. doi:10.1083/jcb.116.2.545. PMC 2289279. PMID 1730767. 
  12. ^ Elliott, ML; Maini RN, Feldmann M, Long-Fox A, Charles P, Katsikis P, Brennan FM, Walker J, Bijl H, Ghrayeb J, et al. (1993). "Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with chimeric monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor alpha". Arthritis Rheum (36): 1681–1690. 
  13. ^ "REMICADE® Becomes First Anti-TNF Biologic Therapy to Treat One Million Patients Worldwide". Johnson & Johnson. 
  14. ^ Perez-Pena, Richard (12 August 2005). "Research Scientist Gives $105 Million to N.Y.U.". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  15. ^ Banjo, Shelly (5 January 2011). "Teacher Funds School's Dorms". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  16. ^ Peck, Amelia. "New Touch-Screen Labels for the American Wing Period Rooms". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  17. ^ Graduate Center, CUNY http://www.gc.cuny.edu/About-the-GC/President-s-Office/Commencement-2014 |url= missing title (help). 
  18. ^ Office of the Press Secretary. "President Obama Honors Nation’s Top Scientists and Innovators". The White House.