Jana Gana Mana
|English: Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People|
|Jôno Gôno Mono; Jana Gaṇa Mana|
Sheet music for "Jana Gana Mana".
National anthem of
|Lyrics||Rabindranath Tagore, 1911|
|Music||Rabindranath Tagore, 1911|
|Adopted||24 January 1950|
|Music of India|
A Lady Playing the Tanpura, ca. 1735 (Rajasthan)
|Media and performance|
|Nationalistic and patriotic songs|
|National anthem||Jana Gana Mana|
"Jana Gana Mana"[α] (Bengali: জন গণ মন, Sanskrit: जन गण मन) is the national anthem of India. Written in highly Sanskritised (Tatsama) Bengali, it is the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn composed and scored by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung in  Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress on 27 December 1911. "Jana Gana Mana" was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on 24 January 1950. 27 December 2011 marked the completion of 100 years of Jana Gana Mana since it was sung for the first time.
The original poem written by Rabindranath Tagore was translated into Hindi by Abid Ali. The original Hindi version of the song Jana Gana Mana, translated by Ali and based on the poem by Tagore, was a little different. It was "Sukh Chain Ki Barkha Barase, Bharat Bhagya Hai Jaga....". Jana Gana Mana was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on 24 January 1950. 
A formal rendition of the national anthem takes fifty-two seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally. Tagore wrote down the English translation of the song and along with Margaret Cousins (an expert in European music and wife of Irish poet James Cousins), set down the notation at Madanapalle in Andhra Pradesh, which is followed only when the song is sung in the original slow rendition style of singing. However, when the National Anthem version of the song is sung, it is done in the traditional grandiose Martial Style of music.
The text, though Bengali, is highly sanskritised (written in a literary register called Sadhu bhasa). The song has been written almost entirely using nouns that also can function as verbs. Most of the nouns of the song are in use in all major languages in India. Therefore, the original song is quite clearly understandable, and in fact, remains almost unchanged in several widely different Indian languages. Also as quasi-Sanskrit text, it is acceptable in many modern Indic languages, but the pronunciation varies considerably across India. This is primarily because most Indic languages are abugidas in that certain unmarked consonants are assumed to have an inherent vowel, but conventions for this differ among the languages of India. The transcription below reflects the Bengali pronunciation, in both the Bengali script and romanization. The following are officially recognized versions of the national anthem by the Indian government, in some of the officially recognized languages.
|জন গণ মন (Bengali)||Bengali romanization||NLK transliteration||जन गण मन (Devanagari)|
জনগণমন-অধিনায়ক জয় হে.
Jônogônomono-odhinaeoko jôeô he
Jana-gaṇa-mana adhināyaka jaya he
जनगणमन अधिनायक जय हे
|ਜਨ ਗਣ ਮਨ (Punjabi)||ജന ഗണ മന (Malayalam)||జనగణ మన (Telugu)||જન ગણ મન (Gujarati)||جن گن من (Urdu)|
ਜਨ ਗਣ ਮਨ ਅਧਿਨਾਅਕ ਜਯ ਹੇ
ജന ഗണ മന അധിനായക ജയ ഹേ
జన గణ మన అధినాయక జయహే
જન ગણ મન અધિનાયક જય હે
جن گن من ادھینایک جے ہے
|சன கன மன (Tamil)||ಜನ ಗಣ ಮನ (Kannada)|
சன கன மன அதிநாயக செயகே
ಜನ ಗಣ ಮನ ಅಧಿನಾಯಕ ಜಯ ಹೇ
English translation 
The following translation (edited in 1950 to replace Sindh with Sindhu as Sindh after partition was allocated to Pakistan), attributed to Tagore, is provided by the Government of India's national portal:
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindhu,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Odisha and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganga and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Ocean.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India's destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee.
Musical composition and English translation 
Rabindranath Tagore translated "Jana Gana Mana" from Bengali to English and also set it to music in Madanapalle, a town located in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Though the Bengali song had been written in 1911, it was largely unknown except to the readers of the Brahmo Samaj journal, Tatva Bodha Prakasika, of which Tagore was the editor.
During 1919, Tagore accepted an invitation from friend and controversial Irish poet James H. Cousins to spend a few days at the Besant Theosophical College situated at Madanapalle of which Cousins was the principal. On the evening of 28 February 1919 he joined a gathering of students and upon Cousins' request, sang the Jana Gana Mana in Bengali. The college authorities, greatly impressed by the lofty ideals of the song and the praise to God, selected it as their prayer song. In the days that followed, enchanted by the dreamy hills of Madanapalle, Tagore wrote down the English translation of the song and along with Cousins' wife, Margaret (an expert in Western music), set down the notation which is followed till this day. The song was carried beyond the borders of India by the college students and became The Morning Song of India and subsequently the national anthem.
Today, in the library of Besant Theosophical College in Madanapalle, the framed original English translation of Jana gana Mana, titled as The Morning Song of India in Tagore's handwriting, is displayed.
Code of conduct 
The National Anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions. Instructions have been issued from time to time about the correct versions of the Anthem, the occasions on which these are to be played or sung, and about the need for paying respect to the anthem by observance of proper decorum on such occasions. The substance of these instructions has been embodied in the information sheet issued by the government of India for general information and guidance.
Controversy shadowed Jana Gana Mana from the day of its first rendition in 1911 at the Congress session in Calcutta. King George V was scheduled to arrive in the city on 30 December and a section of the Anglo-Indian English press in Calcutta thought – and duly reported – that Tagore's anthem was a homage to the emperor.
The poet rebutted such claims in a letter written in 1939: "I should only insult myself if I cared to answer those who consider me capable of such unbounded stupidity." In another letter to Pulin Behari Sen, Tagore later wrote, "A certain high official in His Majesty's service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Vidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India's chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense."
In July 1985, in the state of Kerala, some of the Jehovah's Witnesses children were expelled from school under the instructions of Deputy Inspector of Schools for having refused to sing the national anthem, Jana Gana Mana. A parent, V. J. Emmanuel, appealed to the Supreme Court of India for legal remedy. On August 11, 1986, the Supreme Court overruled the Kerala High Court, and directed the respondent authorities to re-admit the children into the school. The decision went on to add, "Our tradition teaches tolerance, our philosophy teaches tolerance, our Constitution practices tolerance, let us not dilute it".
See also 
- Jana Gana Mana (the complete song) for lyrics of all 5 stanzas and controversies in detail
- The Morning Song of India. Wikisource.English Interpretation of Full "Jana Gana Mana" in Tagore's handwriting anthem of Bangladesh.
- Bengali: জন গণ মন, Jôno Gôno Mono
- Monish R. Chatterjee (13). "Tagore and Jana Gana Mana". http://www.countercurrents.org.
- Bhatt, P.C, ed. (1999). Constituent Assembly Debates XII. Lok Sabha Secret.
- Volume XII. Tuesday, the 24th January 1950. Online Transcript, Constituent Assembly Debates
- National Anthem – Know India. Nation Portal of India. Government of India.
- Ganpuley's Memoirs.1983. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.p204
- Rajendra Rajan (4 May 2002). "A tribute to the legendary composer of National Anthem". The Tribune.
- "Controversy over Jana Gana Mana takes a new turn". Rediff. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
- "Who composed the score for Jana Gana Mana? Gurudev or the Gorkha?". Rediff. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
- National Anthem – National Symbols – Know India. Nation Portal of Government of India.
- "The Morning Song of India". K. Ramanraj. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- Vani Doraisamy (19 March 2006). "India beats: A Song for the Nation". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2007-07-25.
- "English Translation of Janaganamana". Manjula Bose. Retrieved 2011-08-15.
- "BBC News – Indian anthem Jana Gana Mana turns 100". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Jana Gana Mana|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- India: Jana Gana Mana – Audio of the national anthem of India, with information and lyrics
- My India My Pride – Know India. National Portal of India. Government of India. (Also contains the official version of the Indian National Anthem in audio format as well as in video format)
- Indian Anthem in MIDI Format.
- A rendition of Indian Anthem in MP3 format from the Indian embassy in Lisbon, Portugal.
- Genesis of Jana Gana Mana
- Jana Gana Mana (India's National Anthem) – An Inferential Linguistic Analysis from The Hamilton Institute
with The Complete English Translation
- 100 years since 'Jana Gana Mana' was born detail history.