Jane Goodall

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Dame Jane Goodall
DBE
Jane Goodall HK.jpg
Goodall at the University of Hong Kong in 2006
Born (1934-04-03) 3 April 1934 (age 80)
London, United Kingdom
Alma mater Newnham College, Cambridge
Darwin College, Cambridge
Doctoral advisor Robert Hinde
Known for Study of chimpanzees, conservation, animal welfare
Notable awards Kyoto Prize (1990)
Hubbard Medal (1995)
Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement (1997)
DBE (2004)
from the BBC programme Woman's Hour, 26 January 2010[1]

Dame Jane Morris Goodall, DBE (/ˈɡʊdˌɔːl/; born Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall on 3 April 1934)[2] is an English primatologist, ethologist, anthropologist, and UN Messenger of Peace.[3] Considered to be the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees, Goodall is best known for her 55-year study of social and family interactions of wild chimpanzees in Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania.[4] She is the founder of the Jane Goodall Institute and the Roots & Shoots program, and she has worked extensively on conservation and animal welfare issues. She has served on the board of the Nonhuman Rights Project since its founding in 1996.[5][6]

Early years

Jane Goodall was born in London, England, in 1934 to Mortimer Herbert Morris-Goodall, a businessman, and Margaret Myfanwe Joseph, a novelist who wrote under the name Vanne Morris-Goodall.[2] As a child, she was given a lifelike chimpanzee toy named Jubilee by her father; her fondness for the toy started her early love of animals. Today, the toy still sits on her dresser in London. As she writes in her book, Reason for Hope: "My mother's friends were horrified by this toy, thinking it would frighten me and give me nightmares."[7] Goodall has a sister, Judith, who shares the same birthday, though the two were born four years apart.

Africa

Goodall had always been passionate about animals and Africa, which brought her to the farm of a friend in the Kenya highlands in 1957.[8] From there, she obtained work as a secretary, and acting on her friend's advice, she telephoned Louis Leakey, a Kenyan archaeologist and palaeontologist, with no other thought than to make an appointment to discuss animals. Leakey, believing that the study of existing great apes could provide indications of the behaviour of early hominids,[9] was looking for a chimpanzee researcher, though he kept the idea to himself. Instead, he proposed that Goodall work for him as a secretary. After obtaining his wife Mary Leakey's approval, Louis sent Goodall to Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, where he laid out his plans.

In 1958, Leakey sent Goodall to London to study primate behaviour with Osman Hill and primate anatomy with John Napier.[10] Leakey raised funds, and on 14 July 1960, Goodall went to Gombe Stream National Park, becoming the first of what would come to be called The Trimates.[11] She was accompanied by her mother, whose presence was necessary to satisfy the requirements of David Anstey, chief warden, who was concerned for their safety; Tanzania was "Tanganyika" at that time and a British protectorate.[8]

Leakey arranged funding and in 1962, he sent Goodall, who had no degree, to Cambridge University where she obtained a PhD degree in Ethology.[8][12] She became only the eighth person to be allowed to study for a PhD there without first obtaining a BA or BSc.[2] Her thesis was completed in 1965 under the tutorship of Robert Hinde, former master of St. John's College, Cambridge, titled "Behaviour of the Free-Ranging Chimpanzee," detailing her first five years of study at the Gombe Reserve.[2][12]

Personal life

Goodall has been married twice. On 28 March 1964, she married a Dutch nobleman, wildlife photographer Baron Hugo van Lawick, at Chelsea Old Church, London, and she became known during their marriage as Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall. The couple had a son, Hugo Eric Louis (born 1967); they divorced in 1974. The following year, she married Derek Bryceson (a member of Tanzania's parliament and the director of that country's national parks); he died of cancer in October 1980.[13] With his position in the Tanzanian government as head of the country's national park system, Bryceson was able to protect Goodall's research project and implement an embargo on tourism at Gombe while he was alive.[13]

Goodall has on different occasions expressed belief in, or at least fascination with, Sasquatch, Yeti, or Bigfoot.[14]

When asked if she believed in God, Goodall said in September 2010: "I don't have any idea of who or what God is. But I do believe in some great spiritual power. I feel it particularly when I'm out in nature. It's just something that's bigger and stronger than what I am or what anybody is. I feel it. And it's enough for me."[15]

Work

Research at Gombe Stream National Park

Jane in conversation with Silver Donald Cameron discussing her work.

Goodall is best known for her study of chimpanzee social and family life. She began studying the Kasakela chimpanzee community in Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania, in 1960.[16] Without collegiate training directing her research, Goodall observed things that strict scientific doctrines may have overlooked.[17] Instead of numbering the chimpanzees she observed, she gave them names such as Fifi and David Greybeard, and observed them to have unique and individual personalities, an unconventional idea at the time.[17] She found that, "it isn't only human beings who have personality, who are capable of rational thought [and] emotions like joy and sorrow."[17] She also observed behaviours such as hugs, kisses, pats on the back, and even tickling, what we consider "human" actions.[17] Goodall insists that these gestures are evidence of "the close, supportive, affectionate bonds that develop between family members and other individuals within a community, which can persist throughout a life span of more than 50 years."[17] These findings suggest that similarities between humans and chimpanzees exist in more than genes alone, but can be seen in emotion, intelligence, and family and social relationships.

Goodall's research at Gombe Stream is best known to the scientific community for challenging two long-standing beliefs of the day: that only humans could construct and use tools, and that chimpanzees were vegetarians.[17] While observing one chimpanzee feeding at a termite mound, she watched him repeatedly place stalks of grass into termite holes, then remove them from the hole covered with clinging termites, effectively “fishing” for termites.[18] The chimps would also take twigs from trees and strip off the leaves to make the twig more effective, a form of object modification which is the rudimentary beginnings of toolmaking.[18] Humans had long distinguished ourselves from the rest of the animal kingdom as "Man the Toolmaker". In response to Goodall's revolutionary findings, Louis Leakey wrote, "We must now redefine man, redefine tool, or accept chimpanzees as human!".[18][19][20]

In contrast to the peaceful and affectionate behaviours she observed, Goodall also found an aggressive side of chimpanzee nature at Gombe Stream. She discovered that chimps will systematically hunt and eat smaller primates such as colobus monkeys.[17] Goodall watched a hunting group isolate a colobus monkey high in a tree, block all possible exits, then one chimpanzee climbed up and captured and killed the colobus.[20] The others then each took parts of the carcass, sharing with other members of the troop in response to begging behaviours.[20] The chimps at Gombe kill and eat as much as one-third of the colobus population in the park each year.[17] This alone was a major scientific find which challenged previous conceptions of chimpanzee diet and behaviour.

But perhaps more startling, and disturbing, was the tendency for aggression and violence within chimpanzee troops. Goodall observed dominant females deliberately killing the young of other females in the troop to maintain their dominance,[17] sometimes going as far as cannibalism.[18] She says of this revelation, "During the first ten years of the study I had believed […] that the Gombe chimpanzees were, for the most part, rather nicer than human beings. […] Then suddenly we found that chimpanzees could be brutal—that they, like us, had a darker side to their nature."[18] She described the 1974–1978 Gombe Chimpanzee War in her memoir, Through a Window: My Thirty Years with the Chimpanzees of Gombe. Her findings revolutionised contemporary knowledge of chimpanzee behaviour, and were further evidence of the social similarities between humans and chimpanzees, albeit in a much darker manner.

Goodall also set herself apart from the traditional conventions of the time by naming the animals in her studies of primates, instead of assigning each a number. Numbering was a nearly universal practice at the time, and thought to be important in the removal of one's self from the potential for emotional attachment to the subject being studied. Setting herself apart from other researchers also led her to develop a close bond with the chimpanzees and to become, to this day, the only human ever accepted into chimpanzee society. She was the lowest ranking member of a troop for a period of 22 months. Among those that Goodall named during her years in Gombe were:[21]

  • David Greybeard, a grey-chinned male who first warmed up to Goodall;[22]
  • Goliath, a friend of David Greybeard, originally the alpha male named for his bold nature;
  • Mike, who through his cunning and improvisation displaced Goliath as the alpha male;
  • Humphrey, a big, strong, bullysome male;
  • Gigi, a large, sterile female who delighted in being the "aunt" of any young chimps or humans;
  • Mr. McGregor, a belligerent older male;
  • Flo, a motherly, high-ranking female with a bulbous nose and ragged ears, and her children; Figan, Faben, Freud, Fifi, and Flint;[23][24]
  • Frodo, Fifi's second oldest child, an aggressive male who would frequently attack Jane, and ultimately forced her to leave the troop when he became alpha male.[25]

Jane Goodall Institute

Jane Goodall in 2009 with Hungarian Roots & Shoots group members.

In 1977, Goodall established the Jane Goodall Institute (JGI), which supports the Gombe research, and she is a global leader in the effort to protect chimpanzees and their habitats. With nineteen offices around the world, the JGI is widely recognised for innovative, community-centred conservation and development programs in Africa. Its global youth program, Roots & Shoots began in 1991 when a group of 16 local teenagers met with Goodall on her back porch in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. They were eager to discuss a range of problems they knew about from first-hand experience that caused them deep concern. The organisation now has over 10,000 groups in over 100 countries.[26]

Goodall in 2009 with Lou Perrotti, who contributed to her book, Hope for Animals and Their World.

Due to an overflow of handwritten notes, photographs, and data piling up at Jane's home in Dar es Salaam in the mid-1990s, the Jane Goodall Institute's Center for Primate Studies was created at the University of Minnesota to house and organise this data. Currently all of the original Jane Goodall archives reside there and have been digitised and analysed and placed in an online database.[27] On 17 March 2011, Duke University spokesman Karl Bates announced that the archives will move to Duke, with Anne E. Pusey, Duke's chairman of evolutionary anthropology, overseeing the collection. Pusey, who managed the archives in Minnesota and worked with Goodall in Tanzania, had worked at Duke for a year.[28]

Today, Goodall devotes virtually all of her time to advocacy on behalf of chimpanzees and the environment, travelling nearly 300 days a year.[29] Goodall is also a board member for the world's largest chimpanzee sanctuary outside of Africa, Save the Chimps in Fort Pierce, Florida.

Activism

Goodall with Allyson Reed of Skulls Unlimited International, at the Association of Zoos and Aquariums annual conference, 9, 2009.

Goodall is the former president of Advocates for Animals, an organisation based in Edinburgh, Scotland, that campaigns against the use of animals in medical research, zoos, farming and sport.

Goodall is a devoted vegetarian and advocates the diet for ethical, environmental, and health reasons. In The Inner World of Farm Animals, Goodall writes that farm animals are "far more aware and intelligent than we ever imagined and, despite having been bred as domestic slaves, they are individual beings in their own right. As such, they deserve our respect. And our help. Who will plead for them if we are silent?"[30] Goodall has also said, "Thousands of people who say they 'love' animals sit down once or twice a day to enjoy the flesh of creatures who have been treated so with little respect and kindness just to make more meat."

In April 2008, Goodall gave a lecture entitled "Reason for Hope" at the University of San Diego's Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace & Justice Distinguished Lecture Series.

In May 2008, Goodall controversially described Edinburgh Zoo's new primate enclosure as a "wonderful facility" where monkeys "are probably better off [than those] living in the wild in an area like Budongo, where one in six gets caught in a wire snare, and countries like Congo, where chimpanzees, monkeys and gorillas are shot for food commercially."[31] This was in conflict with Advocates for Animals' position on captive animals.[32] In June 2008 Goodall confirmed that she had resigned the presidency of the organisation which she had held since 1998, citing her busy schedule and explaining, "I just don't have time for them."[33]

Goodall is a patron of population concern charity Population Matters,[34] and is currently an ambassador for Disneynature.[35]

In 2011, Goodall became a patron of Australian animal protection group Voiceless, the animal protection institute. "I have for decades been concerned about factory farming, in part because of the tremendous harm inflicted on the environment, but also because of the shocking ongoing cruelty perpetuated on millions of sentient beings."[36]

In 2012 Goodall took on the role of challenger for the Engage in Conservation Challenge with the DO School, formerly known as the D&F Academy.[37] She worked with a group of aspiring social entrepreneurs to create a workshop to engage young people in conserving biodiversity, and to tackle a perceived global lack of awareness of the issue.[38]

Criticism

Goodall at TEDGlobal 2007

Some primatologists have suggested flaws in Goodall's methodology which may call into question the validity of her observations. Goodall used unconventional practices in her study, for example, naming individuals instead of numbering them. At the time numbering was used to prevent emotional attachment and loss of objectivity. Claiming to see individuality and emotion in chimpanzees, she was accused of "that worst of ethological sins,"[39] anthropomorphism.

Many standard methods aim to avoid interference by observers, and in particular some believe that the use of feeding stations to attract Gombe chimpanzees has altered normal foraging and feeding patterns and social relationships. This argument is the focus of a book published by Margaret Power in 1991.[40] It has been suggested that higher levels of aggression and conflict with other chimpanzee groups in the area were due to the feeding, which could have created the "wars" between chimpanzee social groups described by Goodall, aspects of which she did not witness in the years before artificial feeding began at Gombe. Thus, some regard Goodall's observations as distortions of normal chimpanzee behaviour.[41] Goodall herself acknowledged that feeding contributed to aggression within and between groups, but maintained that the effect was limited to alteration of the intensity and not the nature of chimpanzee conflict, and further suggested that feeding was necessary for the study to be effective at all. Craig Stanford of the Jane Goodall Research Institute at the University of Southern California asserts that researchers conducting studies with no artificial provisioning have a difficult time viewing any social behaviour of chimpanzees, especially those related to intergroup conflict.[42]

Some recent studies such as those by Crickette Sanz in the Goualougo Triangle (Congo) and Christophe Boesch in the Taï National Park (Côte d'Ivoire) have not shown the aggression observed in the Gombe studies.[43] However, not all primatologists agree that the studies are flawed; for example, Jim Moore provides a critique of Margaret Powers' assertions[44] and some studies of other chimpanzee groups have shown similar aggression to Gombe even in the absence of feeding.[45]

On 22 March 2013, Hachette Book Group announced that Goodall's and co-author Gail Hudson's new book, Seeds of Hope, would not be released on 2 April as planned due to the discovery of plagiarised portions.[46] A reviewer for the Washington Post found unattributed sections lifted from websites about organic tea, tobacco, and "an amateurish astrology site", as well as from Wikipedia.[47] Goodall apologised and stated, "It is important to me that the proper sources are credited, and I will be working diligently with my team to address all areas of concern. My goal is to ensure that when this book is released it is not only up to the highest of standards, but also that the focus be on the crucial messages it conveys."[48]

In popular culture

David Greybeard Sculpture at Disney's Animal Kingdom
  • In The Simpsons episode "Simpson Safari", Dr. Joan Bushwell, a character loosely based on Goodall,[49] is a research scientist in charge of a chimpanzee refuge who is secretly forcing her chimps to mine diamonds for her benefit.
  • On her album Street Angel, Stevie Nicks pays tribute to Goodall with the track "Jane".
  • A parody of Goodall appears in the webcomic, Irregular Webcomic![50] as a foil to Steve, himself a parody of Steve Irwin. She would later appear as herself interacting with the comic's writer, David Morgan-Mar.[51]
  • She is included in the Symphony of Science video The Unbroken Thread.[52]
  • She was featured in Apple's "Think Different" campaign.
  • Goodall voiced herself in an episode of The Wild Thornberrys in which she and Eliza save animals from poachers.

Gary Larson cartoon incident

One of cartoonist Gary Larson's more famous cartoons shows two chimpanzees grooming. One finds a blonde human hair on the other and inquires, "Conducting a little more 'research' with that Jane Goodall tramp?" Goodall herself was in Africa at the time, and the Jane Goodall Institute thought this was in bad taste, and had their lawyers draft a letter to Larson and his distribution syndicate, in which they described the cartoon as an "atrocity." They were stymied by Goodall herself when she returned and saw the cartoon, as she stated that she found the cartoon amusing.[53] Since then, all profits from sales of a shirt featuring this cartoon go to the Jane Goodall Institute. Goodall wrote a preface to The Far Side Gallery 5, detailing her version of the controversy, and the Institute's letter was included next to the cartoon in the complete Far Side collection.[54] She praised Larson's creative ideas, which often compare and contrast the behaviour of humans and animals. In 1988, Larson visited Gombe.[53]

Awards and recognition

Honours

Goodall teaching about wetlands in Martha's Vineyard, USA, 2006

Goodall has received many honours for her environmental and humanitarian work, as well as others. She was named a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in a ceremony held in Buckingham Palace in 2004.[55] In April 2002, Secretary-General Kofi Annan named Goodall a United Nations Messenger of Peace. Her other honours include the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement, the French Legion of Honor, Medal of Tanzania, Japan's prestigious Kyoto Prize, the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life Science, the Gandhi-King Award for Nonviolence and the Spanish Prince of Asturias Awards. She is also a member of the advisory board of BBC Wildlife magazine and a patron of Population Matters (formerly the Optimum Population Trust). She has received many tributes, honours, and awards from local governments, schools, institutions, and charities around the world. Goodall is honoured by The Walt Disney Company with a plaque on the Tree of Life at Walt Disney World's Animal Kingdom theme park, alongside a carving of her beloved David Greybeard, the original chimpanzee which approached Goodall during her first year at Gombe.[56] In 2010 Dave Matthews and Tim Reynolds held a benefit concert at DAR Constitution Hall in Washington DC to commemorate Gombe 50: a global celebration of Jane Goodall's pioneering chimpanzee research and inspiring vision for our future.[57]

Awards

  • 1980: Order of the Golden Ark, World Wildlife Award for Conservation
  • 1984: J. Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize
  • 1985: Living Legacy Award from the International Women's League
  • 1985:Society of the United States; Award for Humane Excellence, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
  • 1987: Ian Biggs' Prize
  • 1989: Encyclopædia Britannica Award for Excellence on the Dissemination of Learning for the Benefit of Mankind; Anthropologist of the Year Award
  • 1990: The AMES Award, American Anthropologist Association; Whooping Crane Conservation Award, Conoco, Inc.; Gold Medal of the Society of Women Geographers; Inamori Foundation Award; Washoe Award; The Kyoto Prize in Basic Science
  • 1991: The Edinburgh Medal
  • 1993: Rainforest Alliance Champion Award
  • 1994: Chester Zoo Diamond Jubilee Medal
  • 1995: Commander of the Order of the British Empire, presented by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II; The National Geographic Society Hubbard Medal for Distinction in Exploration, Discovery, and Research; Lifetime Achievement Award, In Defense of Animals; The Moody Gardens Environmental Award; Honorary Wardenship of Uganda National Parks
  • 1996: The Zoological Society of London Silver Medal; The Tanzanian Kilimanjaro Medal; The Primate Society of Great Britain Conservation Award; The Caring Institute Award; The Polar Bear Award; William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement
  • 1997: John & Alice Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement; David S. Ingells, Jr. Award for Excellence; Common Wealth Award for Public Service; The Field Museum's Award of Merit; Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement; Royal Geographical Society / Discovery Channel Europe Award for A Lifetime of Discovery
  • 1998: Disney's Animal Kingdom Eco Hero Award; National Science Board Public Service Award; The Orion Society's John Hay Award
  • 1999: International Peace Award; Botanical Research Institute of Texas International Award of Excellence in Conservation, Community of Christ International Peace Award
Tournament of Roses Parade Grand Marshal Dr. Jane Goodall, 11th female Grand Marshal, at Tournament House, 2012

Media

Books

  • 1969 My Friends the Wild Chimpanzees Washington, DC: National Geographic Society
  • 1971 Innocent Killers (with H. van Lawick). Boston: Houghton Mifflin; London: Collins.
  • 1971 In the Shadow of Man Boston: Houghton Mifflin; London: Collins. Published in 48 languages.
  • 1986 The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior Boston: Bellknap Press of the Harvard University Press. Published also in Japanese and Russian. R.R. Hawkins Award for the Outstanding Technical, Scientific or Medical book of 1986, to Bellknap Press of Harvard University Press, Boston. The Wildlife Society (USA) Award for "Outstanding Publication in Wildlife Ecology and Management".
  • 1990 Through a Window: 30 years observing the Gombe chimpanzees London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson; Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Translated into more than 15 languages. 1991 Penguin edition, UK. American Library Association "Best" list among Nine Notable Books (Nonfiction) for 1991.
  • 1991 Visions of Caliban (co-authored with Dale Peterson, PhD). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. New York Times "Notable Book" for 1993. Library Journal "Best Sci-Tech Book" for 1993.
  • 1999 Brutal Kinship (with Michael Nichols). New York: Aperture Foundation.
  • 1999 Reason For Hope; A Spiritual Journey (with Phillip Berman). New York: Warner Books, Inc. Translated into Japanese and Portuguese.
  • 2000 40 Years At Gombe New York: Stewart, Tabori, and Chang.
  • 2000 Africa In My Blood (edited by Dale Peterson). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • 2001 Beyond Innocence: An Autobiography in Letters, the later years (edited by Dale Peterson). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-12520-5 Online version
  • 2002 The Ten Trusts: What We Must Do To Care for the Animals We Love (with Marc Bekoff). San Francisco: Harper San Francisco
  • 2005 Harvest for Hope: A Guide to Mindful Eating New York: Warner Books, Inc. ISBN 0-446-53362-9
  • 2009 Hope for Animals and Their World: How Endangered Species Are Being Rescued from the Brink Grand Central Publishing ISBN 0-446-58177-1
  • 2013 Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder from the World of Plants (with Gail Hudson) Grand Central Publishing ISBN 1-455-51322-9

Children's books

  • 1972 Grub: The Bush Baby (with H. van Lawick). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • 1988 My Life with the Chimpanzees New York: Byron Preiss Visual Publications, Inc. Translated into French, Japanese and Chinese. Parenting's Reading-Magic Award for "Outstanding Book for Children," 1989.
  • 1989 The Chimpanzee Family Book Saxonville, MA: Picture Book Studio; Munich: Neugebauer Press; London: Picture Book Studio. Translated into more than 15 languages, including Japanese and Swahili. The UNICEF Award for the best children's book of 1989. Austrian state prize for best children's book of 1990.
  • 1989 Jane Goodall's Animal World: Chimps New York: Macmillan.
  • 1989 Animal Family Series: Chimpanzee Family; Lion Family; Elephant Family; Zebra Family; Giraffe Family; Baboon Family; Hyena Family; Wildebeest Family Toronto: Madison Marketing Ltd.
  • 1994 With Love New York / London: North-South Books. Translated into German, French, Italian, and Japanese.
  • 1999 Dr. White (illustrated by Julie Litty). New York: North-South Books.
  • 2000 The Eagle & the Wren (illustrated by Alexander Reichstein). New York: North-South Books.
  • 2001 Chimpanzees I Love: Saving Their World and Ours New York: Scholastic Press
  • 2002 (Foreword) "Slowly, Slowly, Slowly," Said the Sloth by Eric Carle. Philomel Books
  • 2004 Rickie and Henri: A True Story (with Alan Marks) Penguin Young Readers Group

Films

  • 1963 Miss Goodall and the Wild Chimpanzees National Geographic Society
  • 1975 Miss Goodall: The Hyena Story The World of Animal Behavior Series 16mm 1979 version for DiscoVision, not released for LaserDisc
  • 1984 Among the Wild Chimpanzees National Geographic Special
  • 1988 People of the Forest with Hugo van Lawick
  • 1990 Chimpanzee Alert in the Nature Watch Series, Central Television
  • 1990 The Life and Legend of Jane Goodall National Geographic Society.
  • 1990 The Gombe Chimpanzees Bavarian Television
  • 1995 Fifi's Boys for the Natural World series for the BBC
  • 1996 Chimpanzee Diary for BBC2 Animal Zone
  • 1997 Animal Minds for BBC
  • Goodall voiced herself in the animated TV series The Wild Thornberrys.
  • 2000 Jane Goodall: Reason For Hope PBS special produced by KTCA
  • 2001 Chimps R Us, on season 11 , episode 8 of Scientific American Frontiers.
  • 2002 Jane Goodall's Wild Chimpanzees (IMAX format), in collaboration with Science North
  • 2005 Jane Goodall's Return to Gombe for Animal Planet
  • 2006 Chimps, So Like Us HBO film nominated for 1990 Academy Award
  • 2007 When Animals Talk We Should Listen theatrical documentary feature co-produced by Animal Planet
  • 2010 Jane's Journey theatrical documentary feature co-produced by Animal Planet
  • 2012 Chimpanzee theatrical nature documentary feature co-produced by Disneynature

See also

References

  1. ^ "Dame Jane Goodall". Woman's Hour. 26 January 2010. BBC Radio 4. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00tr6ks. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d The Biography Channel (2010). "Jane Goodall Biography". Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  3. ^ Holloway, M. (1997) Profile: Jane Goodall – Gombe's Famous Primate, Scientific American 277(4), 42–44.
  4. ^ "Jane in the Forest Again". National Geographic. April 2003. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  5. ^ "About Us". NhRP Website. Nonhuman Rights Project. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  6. ^ "2013 is here, and we are ready!". NhRP Website. Nonhuman Rights Project. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013. "The following year, I created the Center for the Expansion of Fundamental Rights, Inc. (CEFR), which is now the Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc., with Jane Goodall as a board member." 
  7. ^ Goodall, Jane; Phillip Berman (2000). Reason for Hope: a spiritual journey. New York: Warner Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-446-67613-7. 
  8. ^ a b c "Early Days". Jane Goodall Institute. 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  9. ^ Jane Goodall helps humans and animals live together. Arusha, Tanzania: TED. June 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  10. ^ Morell, Virginia (1995). Ancestral Passions: the Leakey family and the quest for humankind's beginnings. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 242. ISBN 0-684-80192-2. 
  11. ^ Goodall, Jane; Peterson, Dale (25 September 2002). Beyond Innocence: An Autobiography in Letters: The Later Years. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-618-25734-8. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  12. ^ a b "Curriculum Vitae, Jane Goodall, PhD, DBE" (PDF). Jane Goodall Institute. Retrieved 28 July 2010. [dead link]
  13. ^ a b Montgomery, Sy (1991). Walking With the Great Apes. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 125–126. ISBN 0-395-51597-1. 
  14. ^ "Chimp expert Jane Goodall says she is 'fascinated' by Bigfoot". NY Daily News. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  15. ^ Jane Goodall's Questions & Answers, Readers Digest, p. 128, September 2010
  16. ^ "Study Corner – Gombe Timeline". Jane Goodall Institute. 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Jane Goodall's Wild Chimpanzees". PBS. 1996. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Goodall, Jane. Reason for Hope: A Spiritual Journey. New York: Warner Books, 1999.
  19. ^ Tool Use
  20. ^ a b c The Jane Goodall Institute: "Chimpanzee Central", 2008.
  21. ^ see Kasakela chimpanzee community for a more complete list and details.
  22. ^ Gombe National Park, Chimpanzee Central, Janegoodall.org
  23. ^ Flo (approx. 1929 – 1972), Chimpanzee Central, Janegoodall.org
  24. ^ Fifi (1958–2004), Chimpanzee Central, Janegoodall.org
  25. ^ Fallow, A. (2003). "Frodo, the Alpha Male". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 4 March 2009. 
  26. ^ "Our History". Roots & Shoots. The Jane Goodall Institute. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  27. ^ "JGICPS". The Jane Goodall Institute. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  28. ^ "Goodall papers headed to Duke". Winston-Salem Journal. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011. 
  29. ^ Bender, Kristin (2 October 2009). "Goodall promotes peace, youth empowerment at talk in Berkeley". The Oakland Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2009. 
  30. ^ Hatkoff, Amy. 2009. The Inner World of Farm Animals, page 13.
  31. ^ Mike Wade, Zoos are best hope, says Jane Goodall. The Times, 20 May 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
  32. ^ Tim Walker, Is Jane Goodall about to lose her post?, The Daily Telegraph, 23 May 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008. "She's entitled to her opinion, but our position isn't going to change. We oppose the keeping of animals in captivity for entertainment."
  33. ^ Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, Defending captivity. Science, Vol. 320. no. 5881, p. 1269, 6 June 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
  34. ^ "Population Matters Patrons". www.populationmatters.org. 
  35. ^ "Bears: Production Notes". The Walt Disney Company. The Walt Disney Studios. p. 20. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  36. ^ "Voiceless, the animal protection institute". 
  37. ^ "Internationales Kooperationsprojekt "Engage in Conservation"". Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  38. ^ "Conservation Challenge". Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  39. ^ Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff; Susan McCarthy (1996). When Elephants Weep: Emotional Lives of Animals. Vintage. p. 9. ISBN 0-09-947891-9. 
  40. ^ Power, Margaret (1991). The Egalitarians – Human and Chimpanzee An Anthropological: View of Social Organization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40016-3.
  41. ^ Frans B. M. de Waal, Nature, Sept 2005, "skeptics attributed chimpanzee 'warfare' to competition over the food that researchers provided".
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