Jackson at Hollywood Awards, October 2007.
|Birth name||Janet Damita Jo Jackson|
May 16, 1966 |
Gary, Indiana, United States
Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16, 1966) is an American recording artist and actress. Known for a series of sonically innovative, socially conscious and sexually provocative records, as well as elaborate stage shows, television appearances, and film roles, she is a prominent figure in popular culture.
After signing a recording contract with A&M, she came to prominence following the release of her third studio album, Control (1986). Her collaborations with record producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis incorporated pop with elements of rhythm and blues, dance, funk, rock, and industrial overtones, leading to appeal in popular music. Her fourth album, Rhythm Nation 1814 (1989), focused on socially conscious themes and various musical styles, and made Jackson the only artist in history to garner seven top five singles from the same album. In addition to receiving recognition for the innovation of her records, choreography, music videos, and prominence on radio and music channels, she was acknowledged as a role model for her lyrical substance.
Jackson signed the first of two record-breaking, multimillion dollar contracts with Virgin Records, establishing her as one of the industry's highest paid artists. Her debut album under the label, janet. (1993), saw her develop a public image as a sex symbol as she began to explore carnality in her work. Upon its release, she played the starring role in the film Poetic Justice; and has continued to act in feature films, including The Nutty Professor II: The Klumps and the Why Did I Get Married? franchise. Her following album, The Velvet Rope (1997), discussed themes of depression and sadomasochism, spawning the biggest hit of her career, "Together Again". By the end of the nineties, Billboard named her the second most successful recording artist of the decade, following Mariah Carey. Jackson's seventh album, All for You (2001), returned to an upbeat, optimistic sound. It was succeeded by Damita Jo (2004), 20 Y.O. (2006), and Discipline (2008).
Having sold over 140 million records, she is ranked as one of the best-selling artists in the history of contemporary music. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) lists her as the eleventh best-selling female artist in the United States, with 26 million certified albums. In 2012, Billboard declared Jackson the seventh most successful female artist of the past twenty years, the ninth most successful overall, and was previously ranked second during the mid-decade. In 2010, the publication declared her as the fifth most successful R&B artist of the past twenty-five years. She is currently the third most successful artist on the Hot Dance Club Songs chart. Jackson has a total of five albums among the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's "Definitive 200 Albums", Rolling Stone's "500 Greatest Albums of All Time", and The Telegraph's "120 Essential Pop Albums", considered among the most influential in popular music. She has amassed an extensive catalog of hits, with singles such as "Nasty", "Rhythm Nation", "That's the Way Love Goes", "Together Again", and "All for You" her most iconic.
One of the world's most awarded artists, her longevity, records and achievements reflect her influence in shaping and redefining the scope of popular music. Her influence is thought to rival that of Madonna and Michael Jackson. Jackson's accolades include six Grammy Awards, an Emmy Award, MTV's Video Vanguard Award, and Academy Award and Golden Globe Award nominations. She has been awarded the Radio Music Award's "Legend Award", Recording Academy's "Governor's Award", Billboard Award's "Artistic Achievement Award", MTV's inaugural Icon tribute, American Music Award's "Award of Merit", MTV Japan's "Inspiration Award", and was also the recipient of the "Legend Award" at the World Music Awards. Her film career has garnered industry recognition, receiving MTV Movie Awards and Image Awards. Jackson holds a record of over thirty Billboard Awards, and is the only artist in history to receive Grammy nominations spanning five different genres.
- 1 Life and career
- 1.1 1966–82: Early life and career beginnings
- 1.2 1982–92: Early recordings, Control, and Rhythm Nation 1814
- 1.3 1993–96: janet., Poetic Justice, and Design of a Decade
- 1.4 1997–03: The Velvet Rope, Nutty Professor II: The Klumps and All for You
- 1.5 2004–05: Super Bowl XXXVIII controversy and Damita Jo
- 1.6 2006–10: 20 Y.O., Why Did I Get Married?, Discipline, and Number Ones
- 1.7 2010–present: Film projects and philanthropy
- 2 Artistry
- 3 Legacy
- 4 Influence and recognition
- 5 Discography
- 6 Tours
- 7 Filmography
- 8 Books
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Life and career
1966–82: Early life and career beginnings
Janet Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana, the youngest of ten children, to Katherine Esther (née Scruse) and Joseph Walter Jackson. The Jacksons were lower-middle class and devout Jehovah's Witnesses, although Jackson would later refrain from organized religion. At a young age, her brothers began performing as The Jackson 5. In March 1969, the group signed a record deal with Motown, and soon had their first number one hit. The family then moved to the Encino neighborhood of Los Angeles. Jackson had initially desired to become a horse racing jockey or entertainment lawyer, with plans to support herself through acting. Despite this, she was anticipated to pursue a career in entertainment, and considered the idea after recording herself in the studio. At age seven, Jackson performed at the Las Vegas Strip at the MGM Casino. A biography revealed her father, Joseph Jackson, was emotionally withdrawn, and told her to address him solely by his first name as a child. She began acting in the variety show The Jacksons in 1976. In 1977, she was selected to have a starring role as Penny Gordon Woods in the sitcom Good Times. She later starred in A New Kind of Family before joining the cast of Diff'rent Strokes, portraying Charlene Duprey for two years. Jackson also played the recurring role of Cleo Hewitt during the fourth season of Fame, but expressed indifference towards the series.
1982–92: Early recordings, Control, and Rhythm Nation 1814
When Jackson was sixteen, she was arranged a contract with A&M Records. Her debut album, Janet Jackson, was released in 1982. It was produced by Angela Winbush, René Moore and Leon F. Sylvers III, and overseen by her father Joseph. It peaked at number sixty-three on Billboard, and number six on the publication's R&B albums chart, receiving little promotion. Jackson's second album, Dream Street, was released two years later. Dream Street reached one-hundred forty-seven on the Billboard 200, and number nineteen on the R&B albums chart. The lead single "Don't Stand Another Chance" peaked at number nine on Billboard's R&B singles chart. Both albums consisted primarily of bubblegum pop music. Jackson eloped with singer James DeBarge in 1984, divorcing shortly afterwards, with the marriage annulled the following year.
"Nasty" was written as a response to an incident of sexual harassment Jackson faced during the recording of Control. The song features a triplet swing beat.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
After her sophomore album, Jackson terminated business affairs with her family, commenting "I just wanted to get out of the house, get out from under my father, which was one of the most difficult things that I had to do." Attempting a third album, Jackson recruited producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis to collaborate. Jackson set to achieve crossover pop appeal, while also creating a strong foundation within the urban market. Within six weeks, Jackson and the duo crafted her third studio album, Control, released in February 1986. The album peaked at number one on Billboard, and was certified fivefold platinum, selling over fourteen million copies worldwide.
It received six Billboard Awards, including "Top Pop Singles Artist", and three Grammy nominations, most notably "Album of the Year". It also won four American Music Awards from twelve nominations, an unbroken record. Control was declared "remarkably nervy and mature" for a teenage act, also considered "an alternative to the sentimental balladry" which permeated radio, likening Jackson to Donna Summer's position of "unwilling to accept novelty status and taking her own steps to rise above it." At this point, Jackson was successfully "shaking off the experience of being a shadow Jackson child", becoming "an artist in her own right". Control spawned five top five singles, "What Have You Done for Me Lately", "Nasty", "When I Think of You", "Control", and "Let's Wait Awhile", and a top fifteen hit with "The Pleasure Principle". "When I Think of You" becoming her first number one. The album's lyrical content included several themes of empowerment, inspired by an incident of sexual harassment, with Jackson recalling "the danger hit home when a couple of guys started stalking me on the street ... Instead of running to Jimmy or Terry for protection, I took a stand. I backed them down. That's how songs like 'Nasty' and 'What Have You Done for Me Lately' were born, out of a sense of self-defense." Its innovative fusion of dance pop and industrial music with hip-hop and R&B undertones influenced the development of the new jack swing genre by bridging the gap between the latter two styles. The album's music videos became infamous on MTV, also obtaining a then-unknown Paula Adbul a recording contract for her choreography work with Jackson. Billboard stated "[Jackson's] accessible sound and spectacularly choreographed videos were irresistible to MTV, and helped the channel evolve from rock programming to a broader, beat-driven musical mix."
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Jackson released her fourth album, Rhythm Nation 1814, in September 1989. Although her record label desired a direct sequel to Control, Jackson chose to include a socially conscious theme among various musical styles. She stated, "I know an album or a song can't change the world. I just want my music and my dance to catch the audience's attention, and to hold it long enough for them to listen to the lyrics." The album's central theme of unity was developed in response to various crimes and tragedies reported in the media.
Peaking at number one on the Billboard 200, the album was certified sixfold platinum and sold over fourteen million copies internationally. The release became the only album in history to produce number one hits in three separate calendar years, as well as the only album to achieve seven top five singles. The album spawned seven singles; "Miss You Much", "Rhythm Nation", "Escapade", "Alright", "Come Back to Me", the metal-influenced "Black Cat", and "Love Will Never Do (Without You)". The latter's music video began Jackson's transition into a sexual image and midriff-baring style, becoming her trademark. Famous for its choreography and warehouse setting, the "Rhythm Nation" video is considered one of the most iconic and popular in history, with Jackson's military ensemble also making her a fashion icon. Rhythm Nation 1814 became the highest selling album of 1990, winning a record fifteen Billboard Awards. The long-form "Rhythm Nation" music video won a Grammy Award, with Jackson also awarded "Songwriter for the Year" from BMI. Rolling Stone observed Jackson's artistic growth, shifting from "personal freedom to more universal concerns—injustice, illiteracy, crime, drugs—without missing a beat." The album was also considered "the exclamation point on her career", consisting of a "diverse collection of songs flowing with the natural talent Jackson possesses", which effectively "expanded Janet's range in every conceivable direction", being "more credibly feminine, more crucially masculine, more viably adult, more believably childlike." Jackson was also commended as she "assumed the role of mouthpiece for a nationless, multicultural utopia."
Jackson's premiere tour, the Rhythm Nation World Tour, became the most successful debut tour in history, and set a record for the fastest sell-out of Japan's Tokyo Dome. She established the "Rhythm Nation Scholarship", donating funds from the tour to various educational programs. Jackson became increasingly acknowledged for her cultural impact, called "a fixture on MTV and a major role model to teenage girls across the country", as well as a social leader, praised for the album's message "having positive effects" among youth. The massive success experienced by Jackson placed her among Michael Jackson, Madonna, and Tina Turner for her achievements and influence. A publication reported, "No individual or group has impacted the world of entertainment as have Michael and Janet Jackson," saying despite many imitators, few could surpass Jackson's "stunning style and dexterity." In 1992, Jackson provided guest vocals on Luther Vandross's "The Best Things in Life Are Free", becoming a top ten Billboard hit and reaching the top ten internationally.
1993–96: janet., Poetic Justice, and Design of a Decade
Jackson fulfilled her contract with A&M Records, signing a multi-million dollar contract with Virgin Records estimated between thirty-two to fifty million dollars, making her the highest paid recording artist at the time. Prior to starting work on her fifth album, Jackson filmed Poetic Justice with director John Singleton, opposite Tupac Shakur.
Jackson's fifth studio album janet., read "Janet, period", was released in May 1993. The record opened at number one on the Billboard 200, making Jackson the first female artist in the Soundscan era to do so. It was also the highest first-week sales for a female artist at the time, selling 350,000 units. It peaked within the top five of nine countries, with sales exceeding twenty million copies in total. The album experimented with diverse genres, including deep house, swing jazz, hip-hop, rock, and contemporary R&B with pop. Its content and imagery saw Jackson developing a sexual image as an adult, in particular her videos for "That's the Way Love Goes" and "If", the latter depicting Jackson performing at an Asian brothel. Jackson's transition to a sultrier image was considered a shocking contrast and iconic, establishing her as a sex symbol. Jackson declared "sex has become a celebration, a joyful part of the creative process." It is the best-selling pop album by a female solo artist in SoundScan history, selling over seven million units in the United States, and the fourth best selling R&B album.
The album spawned five singles and four promotional singles, receiving various certifications worldwide. Lead single "That's the Way Love Goes" won a Grammy Award and topped the Billboard Hot 100 for eight consecutive weeks, longer than any singles by Madonna or Michael Jackson. "Again" reached number one for three weeks, while "If" and "Any Time, Any Place" peaked in the top four. "Because of Love" and "You Want This" charted within the top ten. Rolling Stone wrote, "everything Janet Jackson does is important. [...] she's influential. And when she announces her sexual maturity, as she does on her new album, Janet., it's a cultural moment." The album's material was thought to display "grown-up desires", considered "enough to make her the Queen of Pop".
In July 1993, Jackson made her film debut in Poetic Justice. Her performance was described as "beguiling" and "believably eccentric", receiving positive acclaim. Jackson's ballad "Again" was used in the film, receiving Golden Globe and Academy Award nominations for "Best Original Song." In September 1993, Jackson appeared topless on the cover of Rolling Stone, with her breasts covered by former husband René Elizondo, Jr. The photograph is the original version of the cropped image used on the janet. album cover, shot by Patrick Demarchelier. The Vancouver Sun reported, "Jackson, 27, remains clearly established as both role model and sex symbol; the Rolling Stone photo of Jackson ... became one of the most recognizable, and most lampooned, magazine covers." Her second world tour, the janet. World Tour, garnered critical acclaim. The spectacle was described as erasing the line between "stadium-size pop music concerts and full-scale theatrical extravaganzas."
During this time, her brother Michael was immersed in a child sex abuse scandal, of which he denied any wrongdoing. She provided moral support, defending her brother, and denied abuse allegations regarding her parents made by her sister La Toya. She collaborated with Michael Jackson on "Scream", the lead single from his album HIStory, released 1995. The song was written by both as a response to media scrutiny. It debuted at number five on the Hot 100 singles chart, becoming the first song ever to debut within the top five. "Scream" is listed in Guinness World Records as the "Most Expensive Music Video Ever Made", costing $7 million. The clip won the 1995 Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video.
Jackson's first compilation album, Design of a Decade 1986/1996, was released in 1995. It peaked at number three on the Billboard 200. The lead single, "Runaway", became the first song by a female artist to debut within the top ten of the Hot 100, reaching number three. Design of a Decade 1986/1996 was certified double platinum by the RIAA and sold ten million copies worldwide. Jackson's influence in pop music continued to garner acclaim, as The Boston Globe remarked "If you're talking about the female power elite in pop, you can't get much higher than Janet Jackson, Bonnie Raitt, Madonna and Yoko Ono. Their collective influence ... is beyond measure. And who could dispute that Janet Jackson now has more credibility than brother Michael?" Jackson renewed her contract with Virgin Records for a reported $80 million the following year. The contract established her as the then-highest paid recording artist in history, surpassing the recording industry's then-unparalleled $60 million contracts earned by Michael Jackson and Madonna.
1997–03: The Velvet Rope, Nutty Professor II: The Klumps and All for You
Jackson began suffering from severe depression and anxiety, leading her to chronicle the experience in her sixth album, The Velvet Rope, released October 1997. The album also encompassed themes of sadomasochism and same-sex relationships, as well as addressing social issues such as homophobia and domestic violence. Jackson returned with a dramatic change in image, boasting vibrant red hair, nasal piercings, and tattoos. The record was hailed as an introspective glimpse into Jackson's struggle, described as a "critical self-examination and an audio journal of a woman's road to self-discovery." It was also praised as a "richly dark masterwork", illustrating "amid the whips and chains, there is nothing sexier than emotional nakedness." Rolling Stone included it among the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time", and Billboard ranked it as "the best American album of the year and the most empowering of her last five." The album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and was certified triple platinum, selling over ten million worldwide.
Lead single "Got 'til It's Gone" was released in August 1997, featuring guest vocals from folk singer Joni Mitchell and rapper Q-Tip. The song was considered a stark contrast from Jackson's prior upbeat dance pop style, and peaked at number twelve on the Billboard Rhythmic Airplay Chart. The song's music video, depicting a pre-Apartheid celebration, won a Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video. Following single "Together Again" became Jackson's eighth number one hit on the Billboard Hot 100, placing her on par with Elton John, Diana Ross, and The Rolling Stones. It spent a record forty-six weeks on the Hot 100 and nineteen weeks on the United Kingdom's singles chart. It sold six million copies worldwide, becoming one of the best-selling singles of all time. "I Get Lonely" peaked at number three on the Hot 100, and received a Grammy nomination for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance. The song was Jackson's eighteenth consecutive top ten hit, which made her the only female artist to garner the achievement, surpassed only by Elvis Presley and The Beatles. Several other singles were released, including "Go Deep" and ballad "Every Time", which was controversial for the nudity displayed in its music video.
The album fully established Jackson as a gay icon for its themes regarding homosexuality and protesting homophobia. "Together Again", a "post-Aids pop song", and "Free Xone", considered "a paean to homosexuality" and an "anti-homophobia track", were praised for their lyrical context, in addition to Jackson's lesbian reinterpretation of Rod Stewart's "Tonight's the Night". The Velvet Rope received an award for "Outstanding Music Album" at the 9th Annual GLAAD Media Awards and was honored by the National Black Lesbian and Gay Leadership Forum. A portion of the proceeds from "Together Again" were donated to the American Foundation for AIDS Research.
Jackson embarked on The Velvet Rope World Tour, traveling to Europe, North America, Asia, Africa, New Zealand, and Australia. The tour received praise for its theatrics, choreography, and Jackson's vocal performance. It was likened to "the ambition and glamour of a Broadway musical", and exclaimed as "only fitting that the concert program credits her as the show's 'creator and director'." The tour's HBO special, The Velvet Rope: Live in Madison Square Garden, garnered more than fifteen million viewers. It surpassed the ratings of all four major networks among viewers subscribed to the channel. The concert won an Emmy Award from a total of four nominations. Jackson donated a portion of the tour's sales to America's Promise, an organization founded by Colin Powell to assist disenfranchised youth.
As the tour concluded, Jackson lent guest vocals to several collaborations, including Shaggy's "Luv Me, Luv Me", used for the film How Stella Got Her Groove Back, as well as "Girlfriend/Boyfriend" with Teddy Riley's group Blackstreet, and "What's It Gonna Be?!" with Busta Rhymes. The latter two music videos are both among the most expensive music videos ever produced, with "What's It Gonna Be?!" becoming a number one hit on the Billboard Hip-Hop Singles and Hot Rap Tracks charts, reaching the top three of the Hot 100. Jackson also contributed the ballad "God's Stepchild" to the Down in the Delta soundtrack. Jackson recorded a duet with Elton John titled "I Know the Truth", included on the soundtrack to Elton John and Tim Rice's Aida. At the 1999 World Music Awards, Jackson received the Legend Award for "outstanding contribution to the pop industry". Billboard ranked Jackson as the second most successful artist of the decade, behind Mariah Carey.
In July 2000, Jackson appeared in her second film, The Nutty Professor II: The Klumps, as the role of Professor Denise Gaines, opposite Eddie Murphy. Director Peter Segal stated "Janet Jackson was a natural fit, and an obvious choice." Jackson's performance in the film was highly praised; her character considered "beautiful and intelligent" as well as "totally convincing and, at the end, even poignant." The Orlando Sentinel commented "With her doe eyes, soft voice and enough cleavage to make Jessica Rabbit jealous, she plays the role perfectly." The film became her second to open at number one, grossing an estimated total of nearly $170 million worldwide. Jackson's single "Doesn't Really Matter", used for the film's soundtrack, became her ninth number one single and reached the top five in the United Kingdom. It also made Jackson the first artist to have a number on hit in three separate decades. The song's music video reportedly cost $2.5 million, and is one of the most expensive of all time. The same year, Jackson's husband Rene Elizondo Jr. filed for divorce, revealing their private marriage to the public. Entertainment Weekly reported for eight of the thirteen years she and Elizondo had been acquainted, "[they] were married—a fact they managed to hide not only from the international press but from Jackson's own father." Elizondo filed a multi-million dollar lawsuit against her, estimated between $10–25 million, which did not reach a settlement for three years.
Preceding the release of her seventh album, MTV honored Jackson with the network's inaugural "MTV Icon" ceremony, in recognition of Jackson's "significant contributions to music, music video and pop culture while tremendously impacting the MTV generation." The event paid tribute to Jackson's career and influence, including commentary from Britney Spears, Jennifer Lopez, Aaliyah, and Jessica Simpson, and performances by 'N Sync, Pink, Destiny's Child, Usher, Buckcherry, and Outkast. The American Music Awards also awarded Jackson the Award of Merit for "her finely crafted, critically acclaimed and socially conscious, multi-platinum albums." Jackson's seventh album, All for You, was released in April 2001. It opened at number one on the Billboard 200 with 605,000 copies sold, the highest first-week sales of her career, and among the highest first-week sales by a female artist in history. Jackson began experimenting with other producers outside of Jam and Lewis, working with Rockwilder and The Neptunes, although songs recorded with the latter were not released. The album was a return to an upbeat dance style, and received generally positive reception. AllMusic declared the album "luxurious and sensual", with the capability of "luring you in even when you know better". Jackson also received praise for indulging in "textures as dizzying as a new infatuation", in contrast to other artists attempting to "match the angularity of hip-hop" and following trends. Following its release, Jackson also recorded the unreleased theme for the film Chicago.
Jackson's "All for You" peaked atop the Billboard Hot 100 for seven weeks.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
The album's lead single, "All for You", debuted on the Hot 100 at number fourteen, setting a record for the highest debut by a single that was not commercially available. Jackson was titled "Queen of Radio" by MTV as the single made airplay history, being "added to every pop, rhythmic and urban radio station" within its first week. The song broke the overall airplay debut record with a first week audience of seventy million, and debuted at number nine on the Radio Songs chart. It peaked and remained at number one for seven weeks, also reaching the top ten in eleven countries. The song received a Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording. The following single, "Someone to Call My Lover", fused soft rock and dance music. It peaked at number three on the Hot 100 and also achieved success internationally. Third single "Son of a Gun (I Betcha Think This Song Is About You)" featured Missy Elliott and incorporated themes of voodoo[disambiguation needed] and black magic in its music video. An additional promotional single, "Come On Get Up", was released in selected areas internationally. All for You was certified double platinum by the RIAA and sold nine million copies worldwide.
In July 2001, Jackson embarked on the "All for You Tour", which was also broadcast on a concert special for HBO watched by twelve million viewers. The tour traveled throughout the United States and Japan, although European and Asian dates were required to be canceled following the September 11 terrorist attacks. The Washington Post considered the show an elaborate "series of evolving tableaux built around costume changes, set designs and focused tempos, with little drop-off in energy", prasing Jackson as a "dancing dynamo". Jackson's "chiseled abs" and "willingness to work ensemble-style" were also commended, in addition to Jackson involving "jubilant entertainment over somber art" and having "embraced the past instead of avoiding it". The show was regarded as superior to Madonna's Drowned World Tour by several critics, described as "downright cold compared with Jackson's concerts." Additional commentary stated "Janet outdid the Material Girl by a mile", also citing Jackson's performance as a direct influence to Britney Spears. Similarly, The Los Angeles Times complimented Jackson's showmanship, stating Jackson "hasn't skipped a beat" and is "still the Queen of Pop". Jackson donated a portion of the tour's proceeds to the Boys & Girls Clubs of America.
The following year, Jackson began receiving media attention for her rumored relationships with Justin Timberlake, actor Matthew McConaughey, and record producer Jermaine Dupri. Upon the release of Timberlake's debut solo album Justified, Jackson provided vocals on "(And She Said) Take Me Now" per Timberlake's request, with the song initially planned as a single. Jackson collaborated with reggae artist Beenie Man for the song "Feel It Boy", produced by The Neptunes.
2004–05: Super Bowl XXXVIII controversy and Damita Jo
Jackson was chosen by the National Football League and MTV to perform at the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show in February 2004. Jackson performed a medley of "All for You", "Rhythm Nation", and an excerpt of "The Knowledge" before performing "Rock Your Body" alongside surprise guest Justin Timberlake. As Timberlake sang the lyric "I'm gonna have you naked by the end of this song", he tore open her costume, exposing her right breast to 140 million viewers. Jackson issued an apology after the performance, saying the incident was accidental and unintended, explaining that Timberlake was only meant to pull away a bustier and leave the red-lace bra intact. She commented, "I am really sorry if I offended anyone. That was truly not my intention ... MTV, CBS, the NFL had no knowledge of this whatsoever, and unfortunately, the whole thing went wrong in the end." Timberlake also issued an apology, calling the accident a "wardrobe malfunction", although he was not required to issue a video apology as Jackson was. The incident became the most recorded and replayed moment in TiVo history, enticing an estimated 35,000 new subscribers. A company representative stated "the audience measurement guys have never seen anything like it. The audience reaction charts looked like an electrocardiogram." Regarded as one of the most controversial television events in history, Jackson was later listed in Guinness World Records as the "Most Searched in Internet History" and the "Most Searched for News Item". Jackson's performance was the inspiration for YouTube, and the launch of Facebook commenced within three days of the incident to capitalize on its controversy through social networking. Following the incident, "Janet Jackson" became the most searched term, event, and image in Internet history, and also set the record for "most searched event over one day". "Janet Jackson" was also the most frequently searched term of 2004 and the following year. The event also coined the phrase "wardrobe malfunction", which was added to the dictionary. CBS, the NFL, and MTV (CBS's sister network, which produced the halftime show), denied any knowledge of, and all responsibility for, the incident. The Federal Communications Commission heavily fined all companies involved, and continued an investigation for eight years, ultimately losing its appeal for a $550,000 fine against CBS.
Following the incident, CBS permitted Timberlake to appear at the 46th Grammy Awards ceremony but did not allow Jackson to attend, forcing her to withdraw after being scheduled as a presenter. People Magazine revealed Jackson "had been slated to speak before the accolade but was being pressured to bow out gracefully – or face being uninvited," before being completely barred from attending. The controversy halted plans for Jackson to star in the biographical film of singer and activist Lena Horne, which was to be produced by ABC-TV. Although Horne was reportedly displeased by the incident, Jackson's representatives stated she withdrew from the project willingly. A Mickey Mouse statue wearing Jackson's iconic "Rhythm Nation" outfit was mantled at Walt Disney World theme park the previous year to honor Jackson's legacy, but was removed following Jackson's controversial performance. A spokesman for Disney said "Considering all the controversy it [the performance] drew, we talked it over for a couple of days and decided it would be best to replace hers with a new one." Andy Beta of The Wall Street Journal referred to Jackson's career run until the incident as "indomitable".
Following the incident, Jackson's singles and music videos were blacklisted on many radio formats and music channels worldwide, enforced by conglomerates involved with producing the Halftime show who were heavily fined by the FCC and taken to Supreme Court. Conglomerates involved in the boycott include Viacom and CBS, and subsidiaries MTV, Clear Channel Communications, and Infinity Broadcasting, the latter two among the largest radio broadcasters. The blacklist was placed into effect preceding the release of Jackson's eighth studio album Damita Jo, and continued throughout the course of Jackson's following two albums. Timberlake, who also performed with Jackson during the incident, did not receive the same treatment. Rolling Stone disclosed "CBS and MTV’s parent company Viacom, angered that an unannounced addition to the Super Bowl performance has now cost them all future halftime shows, hits back at Janet by essentially blacklisting her, keeping her music videos off their properties MTV, VH1, and radio stations under their umbrella. The blacklist spreads to include non-Viacom media entities as well", adding "Thanks to the radio and music television blacklist, the LP underperforms compared to Janet’s previous releases [...] Despite the backlash, the album eventually goes platinum several times over." Newsweek also commented, "Unfortunately, it's not clear whether these songs will get heard," saying after the incident, "Jackson has been put in the pop culture penalty box. The result is that despite some initial backing for "Just a Little While", radio and TV support for her music has withered, as the conglomerates worry about angering the FCC and Congress," in fear of receiving fines for supporting Jackson. Additionally, a senior executive for entertainment conglomerate Viacom, which owns MTV, VH1, and many radio formats, commented they were "absolutely bailing on the record. The pressure is so great, they can't align with anything related to Janet. The high-ups are still pissed at her, and this is a punitive measure." Several critics provided commentary on the boycott. Billboard reported Damita Jo "was largely overshadowed by the Super Bowl fiasco," saying "The three singles it spawned were blacklisted by pop radio—they were also the albums biggest highlights—the electronic guitar studded "Just a Little While", Motown-influenced "I Want You" and the funky, heavily dance orientated "All Nite (Don't Stop)". Langston Wertz Jr. of The Charlotte Observer said Jackson became one of the "most villified female artists of all time" in the media, stating due to the blacklist, "radio wouldn't play it and MTV wouldn't play her videos for "I Want You" and "All Nite", two songs that would've been out-of-the-park hits at any other point in Jackson's career."
Jackson's eighth studio album Damita Jo, titled after Jackson's middle name, was released in March 2004. It debuted at number two on the Billboard 200. Jackson worked with a variety of producers, including Dallas Austin, Télépopmusik, Cathy Dennis, BAG & Arnthor, and Scott Storch. The album received mixed to positive reviews, praising the sonic innovation of selected songs and Jackson's vocal harmonies, while others criticized its frequent themes of carnality. However, several critics observed many reviews biasedly focusing on Jackson's Super Bowl incident, rather than critiquing the album itself. Blender declared it "Artfully structured, unapologetically explicit" and "erotica at its friendliest and most well-balanced." The New York Times also commented "the album is even sleeker and sexier than its predecessor, All for You, and in saner times, that would be enough to ensure its success." By the end of the month it was certified platinum by the RIAA, and sold over three million copies worldwide. The album's performance was largely affected by public backlash and the blacklisting from radio and music channels. Prior to the incident, the album was expected to outsell prior release All for You. Its three singles received positive reviews, but failed to achieve high chart positions, although each were predicted to perform extremely well under different circumstances. Its lead single, the pop-rock "Just a Little While", became the most-added song on radio upon its release, increasing nearly five-hundred percent in airplay and garnering "sizeable" digital downloads. However, it was quickly removed from airplay upon the blacklisting. Following single "I Want You" was certified platinum and received a Grammy nomination. "All Nite (Don't Stop)" became the album's third release, fusing electropop, funk, and samba, and was declared "one of the biggest records this year in several different scenes" due to its popularity.
For the album's promotion, Jackson appeared as a host on Saturday Night Live, performing two songs, and was also a guest star on sitcom Will & Grace, portraying herself. Jackson received several career accodales upon the album's release, including the "Legend Award" at the Radio Music Awards, "Inspiration Award" from the Japan Video Music Awards, "Lifetime Acheivement Award" at the Soul Train Music Awards, and a Teen Choice Awards nomination for "Favorite Female". In November 2004, Jackson was honored as a role model by 100 Black Men of America, Inc., presented with the organization's Artistic Achievement Award saluting "a career that has gone from success to greater success'." In response to criticism, the organization responded "an individual's worth can't be judged by a single moment in that person's life." In June 2005, she was honored with a Humanitarian Award by the Human Rights Campaign and AIDS Project Los Angeles as recognition for her involvement in raising money for AIDS charities.
2006–10: 20 Y.O., Why Did I Get Married?, Discipline, and Number Ones
Jackson began recording her ninth studio album, 20 Y.O., in 2005. Jackson initially worked with various producers, including The Neptunes, Dr. Dre, Kwamé, and Polow Da Don, but the concept was changed when Jermaine Dupri was selected to manage the project after becoming a division president at Virgin Records. Jackson then recorded with Dupri and Jam and Lewis for several months during the following year. The album's title was a reference to the two decades since the release of her breakthrough album Control, representing the album's "celebration of the joyful liberation and history-making musical style." To promote the album, Jackson appeared in various magazines, and performed on the Today Show and Billboard Awards. Jackson's Us Weekly cover, revealing her slim figure after heavy media focus was placed on her fluctuations in weight, became the magazine's best-selling issue in history. 20 Y.O. was released in September 2006 and debuted at number two on the Billboard 200. The album received mixed reviews, with multiple critics chastising the production and involvement of Jermaine Dupri. Rolling Stone disagreed with the album's reference to Control, saying "If we were her, we wouldn't make the comparison." Following the album's release, a producer who worked on the original 20 Y.O. concept prior to Dupri's involvement stated, "the finished project we had before Jermaine took everything over is crazy. Ask Jimmy & Terry how they felt when Jermaine came in and changed almost everything."
Jackson's airplay and music channel blacklist remained persistent, massively affecting her chart performance and exposure. However, lead single "Call on Me", which featured rapper Nelly, peaked at number twenty-five on the Hot 100, number one on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, and number six in the United Kingdom. The video for the album's second single, "So Excited", was directed by Joseph Kahn and portrayed Jackson's clothes disappearing through a complex dance routine. 20 Y.O. was certified platinum by the RIAA and sold 1.2 million worldwide, also receiving a Grammy nomination for Best Contemporary R&B Album. After the album's release, Dupri was condemened for his production and misguidance of the album, and subsequently was removed from his position at Virgin Records. Slant Magazine stated, "After promising a return to Janet's dance-pop origins, [Dupri] opted to aim for urban audiences, a colossal mistake that cost Dupri his job and, probably, Janet her deal with Virgin."
Jackson was ranked the seventh richest woman in the entertainment industry by Forbes, having amassed a fortune of over $150 million. In 2007, she starred opposite Tyler Perry as a psychotherapist in the film Why Did I Get Married?. It became her third consecutive film to open at number one at the box office, grossing $60 million in total. Jackson's performance was prasied for its "soft authority", though also described as "charming, yet bland". In February 2008, Jackson won an Image Award for "Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture" for the role. Jackson was also approached to record the lead single for the film Rush Hour 3.
Jackson signed with Island Records after her contract with Virgin was fulfilled. She interrupted plans for touring and began recording with various producers, including Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins, Tricky Stewart, and Stargate. Her tenth studio album, Discipline, was released in February 2008, opening at number one. Despite radio blacklisting, the album's first single "Feedback" peaked at number nineteen on the Hot 100 and nine on Pop Songs, her highest charting single since "Someone to Call My Lover". The second single, "Rock With U", peaked at number four in the United Kingdom. Jackson was awarded the Vanguard Award at the 19th annual GLAAD Media Awards, honoring her contributions in promoting equal rights among the gay community. The organization's president commented, "Ms. Jackson has a tremendous following inside the LGBT community and out, and having her stand with us against the defamation that LGBT people still face in our country is extremely significant."
Jackson's fifth concert tour, the Rock Witchu Tour, began in September 2008. Jackson parted with Island Records through mutual agreement. Billboard disclosed Jackson was dissatisfied with LA Reid's handling of the album and its promotion, saying "the label agreed to dissolve their relationship with the artist at her request." Producer Rodney Jerkins expressed "I felt like it wasn't pushed correctly.... She just didn't get her just-do as an artist of that magnitude."
In June 2009, Jackson's brother Michael passed away at age fifty. She spoke publicly concerning his death at the 2009 BET Awards, stating "I'd just like to say, to you, Michael is an icon, to us, Michael is family. And he will forever live in all of our hearts. On behalf of my family and myself, thank you for all of your love, thank you for all of your support. We miss him so much." In an interview, she revealed she had first learned of his death while filming Why Did I Get Married Too?. Amidst mourning with her family, she focused on work to deal with the grief, avoiding any news coverage of her sibling's death. She commented, "it's still important to face reality, and not that I'm running, but sometimes you just need to get away for a second." During this time, she ended her seven-year relationship with Jermaine Dupri. Several months later, Jackson performed a tribute to Michael at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards, performing their duet "Scream". MTV stated "there was no one better than Janet to anchor it and send a really powerful message." The performance was lauded by critics, with Entertainment Weekly affirming the rendition "as energetic as it was heartfelt".
Jackson's second hits compilation, Number Ones, was released in November 2009. For promotion, she performed a medley of hits at the American Music Awards, Capital FM's Jingle Bell Ball at London's O2 arena, and The X-Factor. The album's promotional single "Make Me", produced with Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins, debuted in September. It became Jackson's nineteenth number one on the Hot Dance Club Songs chart, making her the first artist to have number one singles in four separate decades. Later that month, Jackson chaired the inaugural benefit of amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, held in Milan in conjunction with fashion week. The foundation's CEO stated "We are profoundly grateful to Janet Jackson for joining amfAR as a chair of its first event in Milan.... She brings incomparable grace and a history of dedication to the fight against AIDS." The event raised a total of $1.1 million for the nonprofit organization.
2010–present: Film projects and philanthropy
In April 2010, Jackson reprised her role in the sequel to Why Did I Get Married? titled Why Did I Get Married Too?. The film opened at number two, grossing sixty million in total. Jackson's performance was hailed as "invigorating and oddly funny", and praised for her "willingness to be seen at her most disheveled". Her performance earned an Image Award for "Outstanding Actress in a Motion Picture". Jackson recorded the film's theme, "Nothing", released as a promotional single. The song was performed on the ninth season finale of American Idol along with "Again" and "Nasty". In July, Jackson became a spokeswoman for fashion label Blackglama, following entertainers such as Elizabeth Taylor, Lena Horne, Lauren Bacall, and Diana Ross. The company described Jackson as "an icon in the world of music and entertainment, a true legend. She represents everything that this storied campaign embodies. Janet is to entertainment what Blackglama is to luxury." Jackson launched a line of clothing and accessories under Blackglama's Janet Jackson Blackglama Collection. Jackson was personally involved in the design process, with the line retailed at select Saks Fifth Avenue and Bloomingdales stores. Universal Music released the hits compilation Icon: Number Ones as the debut of the Icon compilation series.
In November 2010, Jackson starred as Joanna in the drama For Colored Girls, the film adaptation of Ntozake Shange's 1975 play For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow Is Enuf. The Wall Street Journal stated Jackson "recites verses written by Ntozake Shange, the author of the play that inspired the film ... But instead of offering up a mannered coffeehouse reading of the lines, Jackson makes the words sound like ordinary—though very eloquent—speech." Jackson's portrayal the film was likened to Meryl Streep as Miranda Priestly in The Devil Wears Prada. Her performance earned Black Reel Awards nominations in the categories of Outstanding Supporting Actress and Outstanding Ensemble.
Jackson announced plans to embark on her largest world tour in support of her second hits collection, Number Ones. The tour, entitled Number Ones, Up Close and Personal, held concerts in thirty-five global cities, selected by fans who submitted suggestions on her official website. During the tour, Jackson performed thirty-five number one hits and dedicated a song to each city. Mattel released a limited-edition Barbie of Jackson titled "Divinely Janet", auctioned for over $15,000, with proceeds donated to Project Angel Food. Jackson was offered a judging position on the second season of The X Factor USA, but declined due to prior commitments.
Jackson released the self-help book True You: A Journey to Finding and Loving Yourself in February 2011, co-written with David Ritz. It chronicled Jackson's struggle with weight and confidence, also publishing letters from fans. It topped The New York Times' Best Seller list the following month. Jackson signed a film production contract with Lions Gate Entertainment to "select, develop and produce a feature film for the independent studio." Lionsgate stated, "She is a powerful on-screen presence, with a vast audience, and we believe she will be an equally powerful presence behind the scenes ... We are honored to be able to provide a home for her ideas, passion and immense talent." Tim Palen, co-president of Lions Gate Entertainment, stated "A recording of Janet Jackson breathing for four minutes should be in the Smithsonian as far as I’m concerned." Jackson became the first female pop singer to perform at the I. M. Pei glass pyramid at the Louvre Museum, raising contributions for the restoration of iconic artwork. Louvre President-Director Henri Loyrette stated "Janet Jackson is one of the world’s greatest artistic treasures ... Accordingly, we are profoundly honored, and believe it most fitting, that her performance in the Louvre Museum will be yet another masterpiece captured under our glorious glass pyramid." Jackson was selected to endorse fashion line Blackglama for a second year, being the first celebrity in the line's history chosen to do so. The company exclaimed, "It became clear in our discussions of who the Legend should be this year, that continuing the momentum with Janet made complete sense ... She embodies glamour, luxury, and sophistication, everything that Blackglama stands for." Jackson partnered with the label to release a fifteen-piece collection of luxury products. In 2012, Jackson endorsed Nutrisystem, sponsoring their weight-loss program after struggling with weight fluctuations in the past. With the program, she donated ten million dollars in meals to the hungry. Jackson attended the amFAR Cinema Against AIDS ball in Cannes in a white Pucci gown, revealing her toned figure. Jackson was honored by amfAR for her contributions to AIDS research when chairing the Cinema Against AIDS gala during the Cannes Film Festival. Jackson also participated in a public service announcement for UNICEF to help starving children. In February 2013, Jackson announced she was married to her third husband, Qatari billionaire Wissam Al Mana, during a private ceremony the previous year.
Jackson confirmed she is recording a new album and "creating the concept and initial thoughts on the music". She has collaborated with producers including Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins, Jean Baptiste, and Bangladesh for the upcoming project.
Music and voice
Jackson has a mezzo-soprano vocal range. Her vocal tone has been praised as suitable for her style of music. Eric Henderson of Slant magazine claimed critics opposing her voice "somehow missed the explosive 'gimme a beat' vocal pyrotechnics she unleashes all over 'Nasty' ... Or that they completely dismissed how perfect her tremulous hesitance fits into the abstinence anthem 'Let's Wait Awhile'." Classical composer Louis Andriessen has praised Jackson for her "rubato, sense of rhythm, sensitivity, and the childlike quality of her strangely erotic voice." Several critics also consider her voice to often be enveloped within her music's production. Biographer David Ritz commented, "on Janet's albums—and in her videos and live performances, which revealed a crisp, athletic dance technique [...] singing wasn't the point," saying emphasis was placed on "her slamming beats, infectious hooks, and impeccable production values." Music critic J. D. Considine noted "on albums, Jackson's sound isn't defined by her voice so much as by the way her voice is framed by the lush, propulsive production." Wendy Robinson of PopMatters said "the power of Janet Jackson’s voice does not lie in her pipes. She doesn’t blow, she whispers, yet consistently delivers a musical message that hits home with her loyal fan base. ... Jackson’s confectionary vocals are masterfully complemented by gentle harmonies and balanced out by pulsing rhythms, so she’s never unpleasant to listen to." Matthew Perpetus of Fluxblog suggested Jackson's vocal techniques as a study for indie rock music, considering it to possess "a somewhat subliminal effect on the listener, guiding and emphasizing dynamic shifts without distracting attention from its primal hooks." Perpetus added, "her presence is essential to the success of the piece. Her voice effortlessly transitions from a rhythmic toughness to soulful emoting to a flirty softness without overselling any aspect of her performance, [...] a continuum of emotions and attitudes that add up to the impression that we're listening to the expression of a fully-formed human being with contradictions and complexities."
Written solely by Jackson, "Black Cat" was recorded using a mixture of Rockman and Marshall amplifier to give it a heavy metal sound. The song's lyrics convey a stance against substance abuse.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Jackson's music has encompassed a broad range of genres with contemporary pop, including R&B, dance, rock, hip-hop, soul, house, and industrial music. The diversity within Jackson's discography has influenced subsequent stylistic albums in contemporary pop. Qadree EI-Amin, Jackson's former personal manager, commented, "she's bigger than Barbra Streisand because Streisand can't appeal to the street crowd [in addition to the pop audience], as Janet does. But Streisand's rich, elite crowd loves Janet Jackson." Her records from the 1980s have been described as being influenced by Prince, as her producers are ex-members of The Time. Sal Cinquemani wrote that in addition to defining Top 40 radio, she "gave Prince's Minneapolis sound a distinctly feminine—and, with songs like 'What Have You Done for Me Lately?,' 'Nasty,' 'Control,' and 'Let's Wait Awhile,' a distinctly feminist—spin." On Control, Richard J. Ripani documented Jam and Lewis and Jackson collaborating to "crafted a new sound that fuses the rhythmic elements of funk and disco, along with heavy doses of synthesizers, percussion, sound effects, and a rap music sensibility." Author Rickey Vincent stated that she has often been credited for redefining the standard of popular music with the industrial-strength beats of the album. Jackson was considered a leader among pop balladry, with an excerpt stating "the black pop ballad of the mid-1980s had been dominated by the vocal and production style that was smooth and polished, led by singers Whitney Houston, Janet Jackson, and James Ingram." Jackson continued her musical development by blending contemporary pop and urban music with elements of hip-hop in the nineties. This included a softer representation, articulated by lush, soulful ballads and up-tempo dance beats. She has been described as "an artist who has reshaped the sound and image of rhythm and blues" within the first decade of her career. Critic Karla Peterson remarked that "she is a sharp dancer, an appealing performer, and as 'That's the Way Love Goes' proves—an ace pop-song writer." Selected material from the following decade has been viewed less favorably, as Sal Cinquemani comments "except for maybe R.E.M., no other former superstar act has been as prolific with such diminishing commercial and creative returns."
Jackson has changed her lyrical focus over the years, becoming the subject of analysis in musicology, African American studies, and gender studies. David Ritz compared Jackson's musical style to Marvin Gaye's, stating, "like Marvin, autobiography seemed the sole source of her music. Her art, also like Marvin's, floated over a reservoir of secret pain." Much of her success has been attributed to "a series of powerful, metallic grooves; her chirpy, multi-tracked vocals; and a lyrical philosophy built on pride and self-knowledge." Ritz also stated, "The mystery is the low flame that burns around the perimeters of Janet Jackson's soul. The flame feeds off the most highly combustible elements: survival and ambition, caution and creativity, supreme confidence and dark fear." During the 1980s, her lyrics embodied self-actualization, feminist principles, and politically driven ideology. Gillian G. Gaar, author of She's a Rebel: The History of Women in Rock & Roll (2002), described Control as "an autobiographical tale about her life with her parents, her first marriage, and breaking free." Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture (2010) author Jessie Carney Smith wrote "with that album, she asserted her independence, individuality, and personal power. She challenged audiences to see her as a transformed person, from an ingénue to a grow-up, multi-talented celebrity." Referring to Rhythm Nation 1814 as an embodiment of hope, Timothy E. Scheurer, author of Born in the USA: The Myth of America in Popular Music from Colonial Times to the Present (2007) wrote "It may remind some of Sly Stone prior to There's a Riot Going On and other African-American artists of the 1970s in its tacit assumption that the world imagined by Dr. King is still possible, that the American Dream is a dream for all people." On janet., Jackson began focusing on sexual themes. Shayne Lee, author of Erotic Revolutionaries: Black Women, Sexuality, and Popular Culture (2010), wrote that her music over the following decade "brand[ed] her as one of the most sexually stimulating vocalists of the 1990s." In You've Come A Long Way, Baby: Women, Politics, and Popular Culture (1996), Lilly J. Goren observed "Jackson's evolution from politically aware musician to sexy diva marked the direction that society and the music industry were encouraging the dance-rock divas to pursue." The Washington Post declared Jackson's public image over the course of her career had shifted "from innocence to experience, inspiring such carnal albums as 1993's 'Janet' and 1997's 'The Velvet Rope', the latter of which explored the bonds—figuratively and literally—of love and lust." The song "Free Xone" from The Velvet Rope, which portrays same-sex relationships in a positive light, is described by sociologist Shayne Lee as "a rare incident in which a popular black vocalist explores romantic or sensual energy outside the contours of heteronormativity, making it a significant song in black sexual politics." During promotion for janet., she stated "I love feeling deeply sexual—and don't mind letting the world know. For me, sex has become a celebration, a joyful part of the creative process." Upon the release of Damita Jo, Jackon stated "Beginning with the earlier albums, exploring - and liberating - my sexuality has been an ongoing discovery and theme," adding "As an artist, that's not only my passion, it's my obligation." The sexual explicit content of her latter albums have drawn mixed reactions—ranging from acclaim to abhorrence—often in juxtaposition to Madonna, who is known as her counterpart. Stephen Thomas Erlewine comments "while sex indisputably fuels much great pop music, it isn't an inherently fascinating topic for pop music—as with anything, it all depends on the artist."
Videos and stage
Jackson drew inspiration for her music videos and performances from musicals she watched in her youth, and was heavily influenced by the choreography of Fred Astaire and Michael Kidd, among others. Throughout her career, she has worked with and brought numerous professional choreographers to prominence, such as Tina Landon, Paula Abdul, and Michael Kidd. Janine Coveney of Billboard observed that "Jackson's musical declaration of independence [Control] launched a string of hits, an indelible production sound, and an enduring image cemented by groundbreaking video choreography and imagery that pop vocalists still emulate." Ben Hogwood of MusicOMH applauded the "huge influence she has become on younger pretenders to her throne", most notably Britney Spears, Jennifer Lopez and Christina Aguilera. Qadree EI-Amin remarked that many pop artists "pattern their performances after Janet's proven dance-diva persona."
Beretta E. Smith-Shomade, author of Shaded Lives: African-American Women and Television (2002), wrote that "Jackson's impact on the music video sphere came largely through music sales successes, which afforded her more visual liberties and control. This assuming of control directly impacted the look and content of her music videos, giving Jackson an agency not assumed by many other artists—male or female, Black or White." Parallel Lines: Media Representations of Dance (1993) documents that her videos have often been reminiscent of live concerts or elaborate musical theater. Many of her videos from Control, including "Nasty" and "When I Think of You", were choreographed using influences from Broadway theatre. Multiculturalism has also been a cornerstone of the imagery represented in Jackson's music videos. The militant iconography of her "Rhythm Nation" video signifies a need for both racial and gender equality, as she and her dancers perform in identical uniforms while Jackson "is performing asexually and almost anonymously in front of, but as one of the members of the group." In the nineties, her videos such as "If"—which "[exudes a] 'Last Emperor' lust and mystery"—and "Runaway" drew cultural influences from the orient. Others, such as "Got 'til It's Gone" and "Together Again", explore African roots and the serengeti. Jackson's music videos have also found rapport within the gay community; the dramatic imagery in "Rhythm Nation" led to reenactments of the video in gay clubs, while her video for "Love Will Never Do (Without You)" is said to explore the aesthetic of the male body from both the heterosexual female and gay male perspective. She received the MTV Video Vanguard Award for her contributions to the art form, and became the first recipient of the MTV Icon tribute, celebrating her impact on the music industry as a whole. In 2003, Slant Magazine named the videos for "Rhythm Nation" and "Got 'til It's Gone" among the 100 Greatest Music Videos of all time, ranked at number 87 and number 10, respectively. In 2011, the "Rhythm Nation" music video was voted the tenth best music video of the 1980s by Billboard.
Her music videos have contributed to a higher degree of sexual freedom among young women, as Jean M. Twenge, author of Generation Me: Why Today's Young Americans are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled—and More Miserable Than Ever Before (2007), wrote "In Alfred Kinsey's studies in the 1950s, only 3% of the young women had received oral sex from a man. By the mid-1990s, however, 75% of women aged 18-24 had experienced cunnilingus. Music videos by female artists have contributed to the trend," with Jackson "heavily implying male-on-female oral sex in music videos by pushing down on a man's head until he's in exactly the right position." Similarly, Paula Kamen in Her Way: Young Women Remake the Sexual Revolution (2000) states that "[i]n the early to mid-1990s, oral sex even reached mainstream music as politically charged demand of truly liberated women," citing Jackson as a prime example of a female artist simulating cunnilingus in her videos. However, accusations of cosmetic surgery, skin lightening, and increasingly hypersexual imagery have led to her being viewed as conforming to a white, male-dominated view of sexuality, rather than liberating herself or others.
The Independent writer Nicholas Barber stated "Janet's concerts are the pop equivalent of a summer blockbuster movie, with all the explosions, special effects, ersatz sentimentality, gratuitous cleavage and emphasis on spectacle over coherence that the term implies." Jet magazine reported "Janet's innovative stage performances during her world tours have won her a reputation as a world-class performer." Chris Willman of Los Angeles Times stated the "enthralling" choreography of Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814 Tour "represents the pinnacle of what can be done in the popping 'n' locking style—a rapid-fire mixture of rigidly jerky and gracefully fluid movements." When Jackson was asked "do you understand it when people talk about [The Velvet Rope Tour] in terms of Broadway?", she responded, "I'm crazy about Broadway ... That's what I grew up on." Her "Number Ones: Up Close and Personal" tour deviated from the full-scale theatrics found in her previous concert arena settings in favor of smaller venues. Critics noted being scaled down did not affect the impact of her showmanship, and in some cases, enhanced it. Greg Kot of the Chicago Tribune wrote, "In past tours, Jackson's thin voice was often swallowed up by the sheer size of her production ... In the more scaled-down setting, Jackson brought a warmth and a passion that wasn't always evident in stadiums ... the best Janet Jackson performance I've covered in 20-plus years."
Thor Christensen of The Dallas Morning News considered Jackson to lip sync in concerts; writing "Janet Jackson—one of pop's most notorious onstage lip-syncers—conceded ... she uses 'some' taped vocals to augment her live vocals. But she refused to say what percentage of her concert 'voice' is taped and how much is live." Richard Harrington of The Washington Post observed, "[s]ince the advent of MTV and the proliferation of dance-oriented singers" such as Jackson, "audience expectations have been drastically redefined", noting that few entertainers are capable of recreating the spectacle of elaborately choreographed music videos while delivering studio precision vocals. Michael MacCambridge of the Austin American-Statesman, who reviewed Jackson's Rhythm Nation World Tour, described lip-syncing as a "moot point", stating "Jackson was frequently singing along with her own pre-recorded vocals, to achieve a sound closer to radio versions of singles." MacCambridge also observed "it seemed unlikely that anyone—even a prized member of the First Family of Soul Music—could dance like she did for 90 minutes and still provide the sort of powerful vocals that the '90s super concerts are expected to achieve." Similarly, Chris Willman commented, "even a classically trained vocalist would be hard-pressed to maintain any sort of level of volume—or, more appropriately, 'Control'—while bounding up and down stairs and whipping limbs in unnatural directions at impeccable, breakneck speed." Critics observed that in the smaller scale of her "Number Ones: Up Close and Personal" tour, she forewent lip-syncing. Chris Richards of The Washington Post stated "even at its breathiest, that delicate voice hasn’t lost the laserlike precision." He complemented her physically strenuous performance, stating "go on, Janet. Let ’em see you sweat. Because in a 21st-century popscape where concerts are driven by spectacle, we need to know that beneath all of the sci-fi costumes, strobe lights and Auto-Tune, we’re still witnessing a performance by the living, breathing, profusely sweating human being whose name is stamped on the tickets we just emptied our wallets for."
Jackson describes Lena Horne as a profound inspiration, for entertainers of several generations as well as herself. Upon Horne's death, she stated "[Horne] brought much joy into everyone's lives—even the younger generations, younger than myself. She was such a great talent. She opened up such doors for artists like myself." Similarly, she considers Dorothy Dandridge to be one of her idols. Jackson has declared herself "a very big Joni Mitchell fan", explaining "As a kid I was drawn to Joni Mitchell records [...] Joni's songs spoke to me in an intimate, personal way." She holds reverence for Tina Turner, stating "Tina has become a heroic figure for many people, especially women, because of her tremendous strength. Personally, Tina doesn't seem to have a beginning or an end in my life. I felt her music was always there, and I feel like it always will be." She has also named other socially conscious acts, such as Tracy Chapman, Sly and the Family Stone, U2, and Bob Dylan as sources of inspiration. In her early career, Jackson credited her brothers Michael and Jermaine as musical influences. According to Rolling Stone, other artists attributed as influences are The Ronettes, Dionne Warwick, Tammi Terrell, and Diana Ross.
Jackson has striven to distance her professional career from that of her older brother Michael and her family, standing on her own as an individual artist. Steve Dollar of Newsday stated "she projects that home girl-next-door quality that belies her place as the youngest sibling in a family whose inner and outer lives have been as poked at, gossiped about, docudramatized and hard-copied as the Kennedys." Phillip McCarthy of The Sydney Morning Herald noted that throughout her career, one of her common conditions for interviewers has been that there would be no mention of Michael. Joshua Klein wrote, "[f]or the first half of her recording career, Janet Jackson sounded like an artist with something to prove. Emerging in 1982 just as big brother Michael was casting his longest shadow, Jackson filled her albums not so much with songs as with declarations, from 'The Pleasure Principle' to the radical-sounding 'Rhythm Nation' to the telling statement of purpose, 'Control'." Steve Huey of Allmusic asserted that Jackson managed to emerge a "superstar" in her own right, rivaling not only Madonna and Whitney Houston, but also her brother, while "successfully [shifting] her image from a strong, independent young woman to a sexy, mature adult." By forging her own unique identity through her artistry and business ventures, she has been esteemed as the "Queen of Pop". Klein argued that "stardom was not too hard to predict, but few could have foreseen that Janet—Miss Jackson, if you're nasty—would one day replace Michael as true heir to the Jackson family legacy."
Her business savvy has been thought to rival Madonna's, gaining a level of autonomy which enables "creative latitude and access to financial resources and mass-market distribution." A model of reinvention, author Jessie Carney Smith wrote that "Janet has continued to test the limits of her transformative power," receiving accolades in music, film and concert tours throughout the course of her career. She has also been recognized for playing a pivotal role in crossing racial boundaries in the recording industry, where black artists were once considered substandard. In Right to Rock: The Black Rock Coalition and the Cultural Politics of Race (2004), author Maureen Mahon stated "In the 1980s, Whitney Houston, Michael Jackson, Janet Jackson, and Prince were among the African American artists who crossed over ... When black artists cross over into pop success they cease to be black in the industry sense of the word. They get promoted from racialized black music to universal pop music in an economically driven process of racial transcendence." Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge (2000) documented that Jackson, along with other prominent African-American women, had achieved financial breakthroughs in mainstream popular music, receiving "superstar status" in the process. Jackson, alongside her contemporaries, "offered viable creative, intellectual, and business paths for establishing and maintaining agency, lyrical potency, marketing and ownership." Musicologist Richard J. Ripani identified Jackson as a leader in the development of contemporary R&B, as album Control and its successor Rhythm Nation 1814 created a unique blend of genre and sound effects, which ushered in the usage of rap vocals into mainstream R&B and pop. Ripani also argues the popularity of Jackson's signature song "Nasty" influenced the new jack swing genre developed by Teddy Riley. Leon McDermott of the Sunday Herald wrote: "Her million-selling albums in the 1980s helped invent contemporary R&B through Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis's muscular, lean production; the sinuous grooves threaded through 1986's Control and 1989's Rhythm Nation 1814 are the foundation upon which today's hot shot producers and singers rely."
In Popular Culture in American History (2001), Jim Cullen observed that although Michael Jackson's Thriller originally synchronized music video with album sales, Janet Jackson was also among the first generation of artists that saw the visualization of their music elevate them to the status of a pop culture icon. In July 1999, she placed at number 77 on VH1's "100 Greatest Women of Rock and Roll". She also placed at number 134 on their list of the "200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons of All Time", number seven on the "100 Greatest Women in Music", and at number two on the "50 Greatest Women of the Video Era". In March 2008, Business Wire reported "Janet Jackson is one of the top ten selling artists in the history of contemporary music; ranked by Billboard magazine as the ninth most successful act in rock and roll history, and the second most successful female artist in pop music history." She is the only female artist in the history of the Hot 100 to have eighteen consecutive top ten hit singles, from "Miss You Much" (1989) to "I Get Lonely" (1998). The magazine ranked her at number seven on their Hot 100 50th Anniversary "Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists", making her the third most successful female artist in the history of the chart, following Madonna and Mariah Carey. In November 2010, Billboard released ranked her as the fifth most successful artist of the past twenty-five years on the R&B Songs chart. She ranks as the top artist on the chart with 15 number ones in the past twenty-five years, garnering 27 top ten hits between 1985 and 2001, and 33 consecutive top 40 hits from 1985 through 2004. The most awarded artist in the history of the Billboard Music Awards with 33 wins, she is among an elite group of musical acts, such as Madonna, Aerosmith, Garth Brooks and Eric Clapton, whom Billboard credits for "redefining the landscape of popular music".
Influence and recognition
MTV News asserted Jackson has "inspired a slew of singers in her career with her dance moves, seductive songs and turns at acting on the big screen." Music journalist Danny Alexander stated Jackson is one of the most prominent artists who "carved out a space for women to come close to dominating pop radio [...] — as not simply producers’ pawns ... but serious artists demanding artistic control and respect." Rakesh Satyal of Vulture stated Jackson's "definitive sexual statemenet" throughout her body of work to be "groundbreaking, indelible, and mesmerizing." Sherri Winston of The Sun Sentinel observed "No one can witness the militaristic precision of Rhythm Nation, [...] and not see how Janet's style has been sampled, borrowed and stolen over and over ... and over." Winston also noted the impact of Jackson's image and trademark midriff-baring style, writing "And if Janet forever touched a generation with her tight choreography, her tight abs touched wannabes in a whole other way. What was ground-breaking and au courant for Janet has become standard operating procedure. What self-respecting pop star today would dream of performing with a bellybutton unbared?" The New York Times wrote Jackson was "a mainstay of radio and MTV ... while her sharp, abstract choreography inspired subsequent generations of pop stars." PopMatters's Wendy Robinson commended Jackson as "an energetic and fearless entertainer who is unafraid to try new things, and she does it all with a dazzling smile." Ben Hogwood of Music OMH said "Jackson's influence can be clearly seen throughout - the one female singers still look up to," also called a "music industry juggernaut" who effectively "pushed musical boundaries" and "challenged sexual norms" by Rolling Stone. Ernest Hardy of LA Weekly heralded Jackson as "the unheralded mother-architect, for better or for worse, of the current pop world. [...] While it’s a conditioned reflex for mainstream critics to heap praise upon Madonna as the mold from which MTV’s pop brigade is stamped, the truth is a bit more complicated." Using Britney Spears as an example, Hardy stated "Britney’s career, like those of her countless clones, rather than being a youthful updating of Madonna’s blueprint, is actually the Clorox remix of Janet’s. Brit’s every head snap, pelvic thrust and shoulder jerk was first executed by Miss Jackson, with many of her videos being almost frame-for-frame replications of past Janet clips. Even the most successful of the boy-band wave [...] owe much of their performing style to Janet." Joe Zee of Elle declared Jackson's individual presentation of sexuality as "stratospherically different" from Madonna's. Veronica Chambers regarded her as "close to an equal footing" with Michael Jackson, and author Sean Smith considered her to surpass his influence. Additionally, Rolling Stone observed Janet to have "a greater long-term impact on the choreography of contemporary music videos." She has also been thought to surpass Whitney Houston in terms of performing influence and prominence. Life believes Jackson to be an essential candidate for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame; considering her present omission "shocking."
Britney Spears cites Jackson as her biggest influence, saying "I've always been majorly inspired by Janet and everything that she does," desiring to be "a legend like Janet". Rihanna regards Jackson as her "heroine" and relateable to herself, saying "Janet was one of the first female pop icons that I could relate to ... She was so vibrant, she had so much energy. She still has power... You have to love Janet." Lady Gaga said Jackson is "somebody that I have a tremendous amount of respect for," adding "she's just an unbelievable legend, and such a talent, somebody that I really, really look up to." Beyoncé cited Jackson among her biggest influences, also declaring her "one of Destiny's Child's role models." Justin Timberlake credited Jackson as his main influence, stating "that's what started me off learning to dance because I was so intrigued with how she worked the stage." His former group 'N Sync also credits her for teaching them how to develop their stage show into theatrical performance. Jennifer Lopez said Jackson "inspired me to get into this business", and "she is a big inspiration for all my dance and music videos." Miley Cyrus revealed admiring Jackson's music and has used her songs in promotional media videos. Pink considers Jackson among her biggest influences, calling her a "legendary" artist and one of her "gods". Katy Perry has referenced Jackson in a music video, also receiving comparisons for several of her performances, songs, and vocal stylings. Selena Gomez cited Jackson among her main inspirations, stating "She looks stunning because it's all about performing, so I kinda want to get more into that again." Christina Aguilera expressed desire to emulate Jackson, saying "Janet never stops giving you what you want. She's an artist that will always be regarded as one of the best. Like Madonna, she's reinvented herself a lot and kept a connection with her audience." Nicki Minaj cites Jackson among her "style icons." Cheryl Cole has cited Jackson as an influence, receiving comparisons for her music videos and performances. Adam Levine of Maroon 5 praised Jackson and has recreated her imagery. Usher credits Jackson for assising his career and learning to improve his performing style when selected to open for Jackson's Velvet Rope Tour. Usher later stated Jackson to be "a true entertainer. There’s no one like her. Some people compare her to Madonna, but I think Janet’s above that. [...] musically, Janet is still setting the bar." Kylie Minogue has drawn comparisons for using similar production and vocal techniques. Bruno Mars stated "She's just the pioneer in the music industry, and I'm sure those girls would say it too, we all looked up to her." Gwen Stefani, Fergie, Alicia Keys, Ke$ha, and Justin Bieber have also drawn comparisons to Jackson for their vocals, performances, or lyrical themes. Kelly Clarkson and Carrie Underwood have also declared fondness of Jackson. Nelly Furtado said "she was comfortable in her sexuality and womanhood, and that was inspiring to me." Kelly Rowland called Jackson her biggest influence, in addition to recreating her performances and choreography. Solange Knowles cites Jackson as one of her vocal inspirations. Jessica Simpson stated her music is inspired by Jackson's, adding she "took more of a Janet Jackson approach." Swedish singer Robyn has mentioned Jackson as an influence, and has performed live covers of her songs. Aaliyah credited Jackson as her main influence. Brandy revealed desire to emulate Jackson as a performer, with her selected musical output heralded as Jackson "at her best". Porcelain Black said "Janet is the entire package. She can sing, dance, is great on stage and commands your attention. I love everything she does." Aubrey O'Day calls Jackson her biggest influence and favorite artist. Nicole Scherzinger, JoJo, Ciara, Cassie, Keri Hilson, and Havana Brown also cite Jackson as a main inspiration.
Numerous British singers cite Jackson as a primary influence; including Jessie Ware, Jamie Lidell Eliza Doolittle, Sam Sparro, and Peter Andre, Various alternative rock and indie groups such as Sleigh Bells, Panic! At the Disco, Little Dragon, and How to Dress Well have also cited Jackson as a major influence. Her songs and vocals are frequently sampled in the hip-hop genre. Kendrick Lamar sampled Jackson's vocals in the hit "Poetic Justice", regarding himself as a "young boy that looked up to you for years", and Drake has referenced Jackson's lyrics, also thought to incorporate her vocal harmonies. Jay-Z has also likened the themes of his songs to hers. Jackson is a prominent influence among Japanese and Korean pop music. BoA, Namie Amuro, Meisa Kuroki, Crystal Kay, Double, Thelma Aoyama and producer Yoo Young-jin cite Jackson as their primary influence, also being a main influence to Utada Hikaru, Beni, Girls' Generation, After School, Kara, U-KISS, Tohoshinki, Hitomi Shimatani, Yuna Ito, and Chisato Moritaka. Jackson's contemporaries have also been observed to draw influence from her music, performance style, or vocals by entertainment critics. Several of Madonna's performances, songs, and music videos have been likened to Jackson's. Michael Jackson's albums released in the nineties were likened to drawing inspiration from Janet's musical style. Mariah Carey's breathier, restrained vocal style has been compared to Jackson's signature vocal technique. Whitney Houston had praised Jackson, and also covered her songs on tour. Prince has also covered Jackson's songs during live performances and based video concepts on Jackson's image. Elton John, Donna Summer, Bonnie Raitt, Robert Smith of The Cure, Anita Baker, Toni Braxton, TLC, and classical composer Louis Andriessen have also commended Jackson's artistry, showmanship, and influence.
Jackson notably pioneered the teen pop evolution; taking authority of her career, transitioning from a celibate image into an edgier, sensual persona in the public eye. Life declared Jackson's transition to be renowned as she "managed to shift her image from carefully managed child star to strong, independent, and sexually confident woman." Artists observed to follow in the mold of Jackson's transition include Britney Spears, Miley Cyrus, Rihanna, Namie Amuro, Usher, and Alanis Morissette. The headset microphone was notably brought to recognition by Jackson, who began using it for live performances during her early career. The microphone's usage in pop culture is frequently credited to Jackson by entertainment critics. Entertainers such as Will Ferrell, Jennifer Aniston, Alex Wagner, Pink, and Liz Phair have referred to it as the "Janet Jackson headset mic" or headpiece. Jackson has often been the first major artist to work with various choreographers and dancers, bringing them to notoriety within the entertainment industry, most notably Tina Landon, Jenna Dewan, Travis Payne, and Paula Abdul. She is also a large influence to Rino Nakasone Razalan and Wade Robson, who commented "There's no such thing as any dancer or artist who hasn't been influenced by Janet. It doesn't exist to me." Various actors have cited Jackson as an influence to their acting background, including Brit Marling, Elizabeth Mathis, Kate Hudson, Gabrielle Union, Michael K. Williams, Kathy Ireland, and Carmen Electra, who said "I wanted to be Janet Jackson."
Jackson served as the inspiration for YouTube, and is the most-searched person in internet history. Considered a figure of allure, Jackson is recognized for her appearance and sex appeal, named the "Hottest Woman of the '90s" by Complex, eleventh sexiest female singer of all time in 2012, and among Elle's "Most Beautiful People" list in 2011. Known for her toned physique, The New York Times reported "women in gyms across the country have taken to lusting after what is known as the Janet Jackson six-pack." In media and pop culture, Jackson has been controversial for her relationships, family life, and sexuality. Her secret marriages, sexual orientation, fluctuations in weight, and speculations of rib removal surgery have received frequent media and tabloid attention. Rumors of Jackson having an illegitimate child have also persisted in the media, which she has denied.
Elysa Gardner of USA Today wrote: "Jackson claims not to be bothered by the brigade of barely post-adolescent baby divas who have been inspired by—and, in some cases, have flagrantly aped—the sharp, animated choreography and girlish but decidedly post-feminist feistiness that have long been hallmarks of her performance style." Those who are considered to have followed in her footsteps, including Spears, have been referred to as "Janet-come-lately's". Of those who have been measured against her, sociologist Shayne Lee commented that "[a]s Janet enters the twilight of her reign as erotic Queen of Pop, Beyoncé Knowles emerges as her likely successor." Hillary Crosley of Rolling Stone also regarded Jackson as "the woman who helped build the very throne that Beyoncé is surfboarding upon." Britney Spears has also been thought to be "the icon of the post-Janet Jackson generation", with Anders Christian Madsen of i-D Magazine saying "like Janet before her, the gilded birdcage became too much for Britney, who decided to take control and, well, lose control all at once." Joan Morgan of Essence magazine remarked: "Jackson's Control, Rhythm Nation 1814 and janet. established the singer-dancer imprimatur standard in pop culture we now take for granted. So when you're thinking of asking Miss Jackson, 'What have you done for me lately?' remember that Britney, Ciara and Beyoncé live in the house that Janet built."
- Janet Jackson (1982)
- Dream Street (1984)
- Control (1986)
- Rhythm Nation 1814 (1989)
- janet. (1993)
- The Velvet Rope (1997)
- All for You (2001)
- Damita Jo (2004)
- 20 Y.O. (2006)
- Discipline (2008)
- Rhythm Nation World Tour (1990)
- Janet World Tour (1993–95)
- The Velvet Rope World Tour (1998–99)
- All for You Tour (2001–02)
- Rock Witchu Tour (2008)
- Number Ones, Up Close and Personal (2011)
|1976—1977||The Jacksons||Herself||12 episodes|
|1977—1979||Good Times||Millicent "Penny" Gordon Woods||Main Role (48 episodes)|
|1979||A New Kind of Family||Jojo Ashton||3 episodes|
|1980—1984||Diff'rent Strokes||Charlene DuPrey||Recurring (10 episodes)|
|1984—1985||Fame||Cleo Hewitt||Main Role (24 episodes)|
|1985||The Love Boat||Delia Parks||2 episodes|
|1994||Saturday Night Live||Herself (Musical Guest)||Episode: "Heather Locklear/Janet Jackson"|
|2004||Will & Grace||Herself||Episode: "Back Up, Dancer"|
|2004||Saturday Night Live||Herself (Host/Musical Guest)||Episode: "Janet Jackson"|
- Honorific nicknames in popular music
- List of best-selling music artists
- List of best-selling music artists in the United States
- List of artists who reached number one in the United States
- "Janet Jackson's Accomplishments (Rock &Roll Hall Of Fame Request)". The Page with RoyalKev. 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2014-04-18.
- "Janet Jackson Estimated Worldwide Record Sales". Lipstickalley.com. 2011-03-29. Retrieved 2014-04-18.
- Top Selling Artists, Recording Industry Association of America, retrieved September 3, 2008
- "Rihanna named Billboard's top Pop Chart artist -". Corner, Lewis. Digital Spy. October 9, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- "Rock On The Net: The ARC Archive: Top Pop Artists of the Past 25 Years: 1-50". Rock on the Net. December 2004. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- Trust, Gray. "The Power Of Kristine W". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time: Janet Jackson, 'The Velvet Rope' - Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time: Janet Jackson, 'Rhythm Nation 1814' - Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "120 essential pop albums". The Telegraph. The Telegraph. January 13, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- "Fear of a Black Titty - Page 1 - Music - Los Angeles - LA Weekly". LA Weekly. Hardy, Ernest. May 6, 2004. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- "GRAMMY.com - Los Angeles Chapter". Grammy.com. May 20, 2002. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- "Global Pulse: Smith, Hill Top World Awards", Billboard, May 6, 1999, retrieved September 16, 2008
- "Janet Jackson - Awards IMDb". IMDb. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Billboard Music Awards Tout Janet Jackson - Zap2it". 04-12-06. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "JANET - Biography". JanetJackson.com. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- Cornwell, Jane (2002), Janet Jackson, Carlton Books, pp. 2, 10, 24, ISBN 1-84222-464-6
- Norment, Lynn (November 2001), "Janet: On her sexuality, spirituality, failed marriages, and lessons learned", Jet 57 (1): 104, ISSN 0012-9011
- Fox, Norman, Indian Summer, tv.com, retrieved September 3, 2008
- Saunders, Michael (October 3, 1996), "The 3 Divas Janet Jackson turns her focus inward", The Boston Globe: D13
- Janet Jackson, Allmusic, 2006, retrieved April 13, 2008
- 20, 1984 "Top Hip-Hop and R&B Songs & Singles Charts". Billboard. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- "allmusic (((Dream Street > Overview )))". Allmusic. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- Smith, Jessie Carney (1996), Notable Black American Women, Volume 2, Gale, p. 324, ISBN 978-0-8103-9177-2
- Gaar, Gillian G. (2002), She's a rebel: the history of women in rock & roll, Seal Press, pp. 323–325, ISBN 1-58005-078-6
- Cohen, Jonathan (December 15, 1999), "Billboard Feature: Janet Jackson: Still In Control", Billboard, retrieved September 6, 2010[dead link]
- Gold & Platinum, Recording Industry Association of America, 1958–2009, retrieved October 7, 2009
- "Billboard - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. 1986-12-27. Retrieved 2014-04-18.
- Smith, Kathleen (January 26, 1987), "American Music Awards tonight to honor Presley posthumously", St. Petersburg Times: 7.D
- "Travis tops music award winners", Houston Chronicle, January 26, 1988: 1, ISSN 1074-7109
- Hamlin, Jesse (February 25, 1987), "Graced With a Grammy / Paul Simon wins award for top album", San Francisco Chronicle: 48
- Johnson, Connie (February 23, 1986), "Jackson Jive", Los Angeles Times: 78, ISSN 0458-3035
- "Singer Janet Jackson", Newsweek 108 (3), July 21, 1986: 61, ISSN 0028-9604
- Hoerburger, Rob (April 24, 1986), "Janet Jackson: Control: Music Reviews: Rolling Stone", Rolling Stone, archived from the original on April 30, 2008, retrieved September 6, 2010
- Hilburn, Robert (January 11, 1987), "British Critics Turn All Ears To America", Los Angeles Times: 65, ISSN 0458-3035
- Ritz, David (September 16, 1993), "Sexual healing", Rolling Stone (665): 38, ISSN 0035-791X
- Ripani, Richard J. (2006), The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950–1999, University Press of Mississippi, pp. 130–153, ISBN 1-57806-862-2
- "Paula Abdul talks about Janet Jackson on Wendy Williams show - YouTube". YouTube. Retrieved 30-05-12.
- Cocks, Jay (May 28, 1990), "Dancing on the charts", TIME 135 (22): 87, ISSN 0040-781X
- Graham, Jefferson (December 15, 1989), "Janet in command; Jackson rules her own `Nation'; Highlights of a rhythmic life", USA Today: 01.D
- Morse, Steve (November 20, 1989), "Changing Her Tune Janet Jackson's New Conscience", The Boston Globe: 30
- "Janet Jackson's Greatest Hits Celebrated on Number Ones", Universal Music Enterprises: PR Newswire, 2009-10-14, retrieved 2009-10-14.
- VINTAGE VYBZ DOWNUNDER: Janet Jackson - Rhythm Nation 1814, djtoma.blogspot.com, January 12, 2009, retrieved September 6, 2010
- Dowell, Dowell; Kim Jones (2006), Heritage Signature Entertainment Memorabilia Auction #622, Heritage Capital Corporation, p. 139, ISBN 1-59967-036-4
- "The Biggest Brother-Sister Stars in Show Business History", Ebony 46 (10): 40, ISSN 0012-9011
- "Adele, LMFAO Top Billboard Music Awards - Today's News: Our Take". TVGuide.com. May 21, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Macdonald, Patrick (December 28, 1990), "Ringing In 1991: Northwest Top 10 Video Count-Down", The Seattle Times: 8
- Anderson, Susan (November 28, 1990), "Chronicle", The New York Times: 7, ISBN 0-8118-6207-0, ISSN 0362-4331
- Grammy Winners Search, The Recording Academy, 2008, retrieved July 27, 2008[dead link]
- Aletti, Vince (October 19, 1998), "Rhythm Nation 1814: Janet Jackson: Review: Rolling Stone", Rolling Stone, archived from the original on April 30, 2008, retrieved September 6, 2010
- Henderson, Eric (September 7, 2009), Janet Jackson: Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814: Music Review, Slant Magazine, retrieved November 11, 2009
- Jaynes, Gerald David (2005), Encyclopedia of African American Society, Sage Publications, p. 565, ISBN 0-7619-2764-6
- "Janet Jackson Announces Rock Witchu Tour", PR Newswire.
- "Janet Jackson Ends 'Rhythm Nation' Tour, Donates over $1/2 Million to Fund Education Projects", Jet 79 (13), January 14, 1991: 56, ISSN 0021-5996
- "Janet Combines Talent and Appeal for UNCF", Los Angeles Sentinel, March 3, 1994: B–3, ISSN 0890-4340
- Selvin, Joel (April 30, 1990), "Just Wholesome Glitz From Janet", San Francisco Chronicle: F1
- "Names In The News Janet Jackson Benefit Concert", Los Angeles Times, February 5, 1990: 9, ISSN 0458-3035
- Kramarae, Cheris; Dale Spender (2000), Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge, Routledge, p. 1408, ISBN 0-415-92091-4
- "The Biggest Brother-Sister Stars in Show Business History", Ebony 46 (10): 40, ISSN 0012-9011
- "Janet Jackson: Biography: Rolling Stone", Rolling Stone, retrieved April 9, 2008
- Goldberg, M. (May 2, 1991), "The Jacksons score big", Rolling Stone: 32, ISSN 0035-791X
- Mayfield, Geoff (August 5, 1995). Between The Bullets. Billboard. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
- "Janet - Janet Jackson - Billboard.com". Billboard. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
- Janet Jackson set for return to form, ABC News, January 22, 2008, retrieved May 5, 2009
- Flick, Larry (May 22, 1993), "Janet makes definitive statement", Billboard: 17
- Grein, Paul (July 4, 2012). "Week Ending July 1, 2012. Albums: Keeping Adam Humble | Chart Watch (NEW) - Yahoo! Music". Music.yahoo.com. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- That's the Way Love Goes"
- "Janet Jackson: Janet : Music Reviews", Rolling Stone, archived from the original on May 2, 2008, retrieved September 9, 2010
- Brackett, Nathan; Christian David Hoard, Christian Hoard (2004), The New Rolling Stone Album Guide, Simon and Schuster, p. 411, ISBN 0-7432-0169-8
- Robert Johnson (May 28, 1993), "Jackson delivers under pressure with 'janet.'", San Antonio Express-News: 1, ISSN 1065-7908
- "Poetic Justice", Rolling Stone, December 8, 2000, retrieved June 13, 2008
- Howe, Desson (July 23, 1993), "Poetic Justice", The Washington Post, retrieved June 13, 2008
- Biddle, Frederic M. (March 22, 1994), "Fashion and fame team on Oscar night", The Boston Globe: 61
- HFPA - Awards Search, Hollywood Foreign Press Association, 1993, retrieved September 18, 2010
- "Janet Jackson", Rolling Stone, September 30, 2004, retrieved July 23, 2008
- Murray, Sonia (February 3, 1994), "Janet: The Queen of Pop: Michael could lose his crown to his hot little sister", The Vancouver Sun: C1, ISSN 0832-1299
- Snyder, Michael (February 18, 1994), "Janet Jackson Makes All The Right Moves / Singer brings extravaganza to San Jose", San Francisco Chronicle: C1
- Corliss, Richard; Sachs, Andrea (September 6, 1993), "Society: Who's Bad? An age of innocence may be at an end as Michael Jackson, the Peter Pan of pop, confronts accusations that he sexually abused one of his young friends", TIME: 54
- Hilburn, Robert (June 27, 1994), "I Think I've Finally Grown Up", Newsday: 10
- Boepple, Leanne (November 1, 1995), "Scream: space odyssey Jackson-style.(video production; Michael and Janet Jackson video)", Theatre Crafts International 29: 52, ISSN 1063-9497
- Fred, Bronson (September 16, 1995), "Janet Jackson Has Done It Again", Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 96, retrieved April 17, 2010
- Design of a Decade 1986/1996 > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles, Allmusic, 2006, retrieved July 20, 2008
- Morse, Steve (November 3, 1995), "Pure pop for power women Janet Jackson, Bonnie Raitt, Yoko Ono and Madonna flex their musical muscle", The Boston Globe: 51, ISSN 0743-1791
- "Janet Jackson Hits Big; $80 Million Record Deal", Newsday, January 13, 1996: A02
- They don't call it jackpot for nothing. After much speculation, Janet Jackson, 29, clinched a reported four-album, $80 million deal with Virgin Records, making her the music industry's highest-paid performer (over brother Michael and Madonna, who each got $60 million deals in the early '90s) Davidson, Casey (January 26, 1996), "News & Notes", Entertainment Weekly: 15
- Farley, Christopher John; Thigpen, David E.; Ressner, Jeffrey (January 29, 1996), "Business: Are they worth all that cash? Janet Jackson's record-breaking $80 million contract could set off a new wave of pop-music megadeals", TIME: 54
- Rock band R.E.M. later signed an $80 million dollar recording contract with Warner Bros. Records in August 1996; sources compared the group's record deal with Jackson's contract. "R.E.M. Signs $80M Deal", Newsday, August 26, 1996
- "MY TOP 10: Janet Jackson Videos — 3. "Got ‘Til It’s Gone" - popolio". month20 10, 2008. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- Henderson, Eric (2006), "Slant Magazine Music Review: Janet Jackson: The Velvet Rope", Slant, retrieved July 20, 2008
- Flick, Larry (December 3, 1998), "The Year in Music", Billboard 109 (52): 16, ISSN 0006-2510
- "Reviews & Previews". Flick, Larry. Billboard. 13-09-97. Retrieved 21-11-13.
- Janet Jackson: Charts & Awards: Billboard Singles, Allmusic, 1997, retrieved September 9, 2010
- Halstead, Craig; Craig Halstead, Chris Cadman (2003), Jacksons Number Ones, Authors On Line, pp. 28, 120, ISBN 0-7552-0098-5
- "Artist Chart History – Janet Jackson", Billboard, retrieved September 6, 2010
- Causing a Commotion, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, retrieved January 13, 2012
- "Naked Music Videos (Pg. 2)". Vibe. month25 03, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- McCormick, Neil (October 18, 1997), "The Arts: Give her enough rope ... Reviews Rock CDs", The Daily Telegraph: 11
- "Janet Jackson: The Velvet Rope: Music Reviews : Rolling Stone", Rolling Stone, archived from the original on May 3, 2008, retrieved September 9, 2010
- McCarthy, Marc (April 1, 2008), Janet Jackson to be Honored at 19th Annual GLAAD Media Awards in Los Angeles, GLAAD, archived from the original on June 8, 2008, retrieved June 10, 2008
- Hilburn, Robert (September 20, 1998), "Janet Jackson Learns The Ropes\ Singer Learns To Like Herself On The Way To Creating The Lavishly Staged Velvet Rope Tour", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: G3, ISSN 1068-624X
- HBO's Exclusive Live Concert Event Janet: The Velvet Rope, Time Warner, October 14, 1998, retrieved March 9, 2008
- Jet - Google Books, August 16, 1999, retrieved June 29, 2010
- Kim McAvoy, "HBO makes the most of music", Broadcasting & Cable 128 (36): 30
- Mayfield, Geoff (December 25, 1999), "Totally '90s: Diary of a decade", Billboard 111 (112), ISSN 0006-2510
- "The Daily Cougar". Singleton, Keenan. Daily Cougar. 2000. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- "Nutty Professor II: The Klumps Uncensored". Digital Bits. 2001. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- "The Nutty Professor Ii: The Klumps - Orlando Sentinel". Marschheuser, Melissa. Orlando Sentinel. August 4, 2000. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- LaSalle, Mick (July 31, 2000), "`Professor' Moves Out Smartly / Hollywood's summer better than expected", San Francisco Chronicle: D1
- "Box Office; Home Edition", Los Angeles Times, August 3, 2000: F–28
- "Biography of Janet Jackson". Celebrity9. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Asia Pacific Arts: APA Top Ten: Joseph Kahn music videos". Entertainment Weekly. Diehl, Matt. 10-07-00. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- Gordinier, Jeff (May 4, 2001), "Will the real Janet Jackson please stand up? Is the seductive superstar an enigma wrapped in a riddle? Or just your average nasty girl with a taste for pleasure and pain?", Entertainment Weekly: 36
- McElroy, Quindelda (April 21, 2007), "Ex-hubbies can cash in", The Atlanta Journal-Constitution: E.2
- Jeckell, Barry (January 10, 2001), "MTV To Honor Janet Jackson", Billboard, retrieved March 16, 2008
- "Billboard Bits: AMAs, They Might Be Giants, Ricky Scaggs", Billboard, January 4, 2001, retrieved May 3, 2008
- Martens, Todd (May 3, 2001), "Janet Reigns Supreme On Billboard Charts", Billboard, retrieved April 17, 2008
- "All Projects". Startrak. 2002. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2001), All for You > Review, Allmusic, retrieved July 20, 2008
- Pareles, Jon (May 4, 2001), "Album of the Week", The New York Times, retrieved July 20, 2008
- "Janet Jackson Sings For 'Chicago'". Billboard. 24-09-02. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- vanHorn, Teri (March 9, 2001), Janet Jackson Single Breaks Radio, Chart Records, MTV, retrieved May 23, 2008
- Trust, Gary (February 16, 2011). "Lady Gaga Claims 1,000th Hot 100 No. 1 with 'Born This Way'". Billboard (Prometheus Global Media). Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- Martens, Todd (May 17, 2001), "Seven And Counting For Janet At No. 1", Billboard, retrieved April 17, 2008
- "The five must-hear America tracks – Classic Rock". Barton, Geoff. Classic Rock. December 29, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Caulfield, Keith (December 24, 2006), "Ask Billboard", Billboard, retrieved April 17, 2008
- "Janet Jackson dévoile la vidéo de "Make Me"". Charts in France. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
- "Music DVD Review: Janet Jackson – Live in Hawaii (Re-Release)". Blog Critics. March 31, 2008. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- "Stufish - Mark Fisher Studio - Concerts - Janet Jackson - All for You - 2001". Washington Post. Harrington, Richard. 18-08-01. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
- Esparza, Rafael; Massey, David; Scalese, Rudy (October 6, 2001), "Let Jackson's Energetic Beat Go On", The Los Angeles Times: F–4
- Janet Jackson Announces 'All for You Tour 2001'; Alliance to Support Boys & Girls Clubs of America; Ticket Proceeds To Be Donated As Part Of Nationwide Campaign, Business Wire, May 30, 2001
- "Miss Jackson Gettin’ It On With Grammy Co-Presenter". Popdirt. 21-03-02. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Justin Timberlake Lets Music Ease Toll On His Heart". Orlando Sentinel. Abott, Jim. 13-07-02. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- Norment, Lynn (February 2008), "Janet & Jermaine", Ebony 63 (4): 82, ISSN 0012-9011
- Apologetic Jackson says 'costume reveal' went awry, CNN, February 3, 2004, retrieved May 20, 2006
- Jackson's apology can't stem mass anger, ESPN, retrieved March 9, 2008
- "Numbers", Time 163 (7), February 16, 2004: 19, ISSN 0040-781X
- Burke, Monte (March 1, 2004), "The Ripple Effect", Time 173 (4): 46, ISSN 0015-6914
- "Jackson's Super Bowl flash grabs TiVo users". CNET. February 4, 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Star-studded 2007 edition of Guinness World Records released, CBC News, September 29, 2006, retrieved March 19, 2012
- "Who Invented YouTube?". About. 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "Wardrobe Malfunction – In the Beginning, There Was a Nipple". ESPN. Cogin, Marin. 28-01-14. Retrieved 30-01-14.
- "Janet Jackson Tops Internet Search Terms". Search Engine Journal. February 5, 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "BBC NEWS - Janet's breast makes net history". BBC News. February 5, 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "A Brief History of the Super Bowl Halftime Show (2/24/04)". Ted Mandell. February 24, 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "WEB USERS HAVE SPOKEN: JANET JACKSON IS THE MOST-SEARCHED TERM FOR 2004". Lycos. December 15, 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "BBC NEWS". BBC News. December 22, 2005. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "AFP: 'Credit crunch', 'wardrobe malfunction' squeeze into dictionary". Google. August 14, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Davidson, Paul (July 22, 2008), "FCC loses appeal of 'wardrobe malfunction' fine", USA Today: 2b, ISSN 0734-7456
- "Jackson banned from Grammys for Super Bowl stunt". The Telegraph. May 4, 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "No, Janet Won't Be at Grammys, After All". People (Silverman, Stephen M.). February 10, 2004. Retrieved 04-02-04.
- Horne: Janet Jackson, don't play me (– Scholar search), CNN, Associated Press, February 4, 2004, archived from the original on February 20, 2005, retrieved April 3, 2008
- "Bust Stop". Entertainment Weekly. Susman, Gary. 03-03-04. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- Concerts This Week in the NYC Area: Janet Jackson, Röyksopp, New York Dolls and More - WSJ.com, 15-03-11, retrieved February 9, 2014
- "Nipple Ripples: 10 Years of Fallout From Janet Jackson's Halftime Show". Rolling Stone (Kreps, Daniel). 30-01-14. Retrieved 30-01-14.
- Blackballed - Panache Report, Panach Report, 2004, retrieved June 18, 2013
- "A "Sexploration": Janet Jackson's "Damita Jo" album gets lost in the lust". 29-03-04. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- Tannenbaum, Robert (2004). America's Most Wanted. Blender Magazine. p. 128.
- Hope, Clover (February 4, 2008), "Together Again: Janet Jackson", Billboard, retrieved March 23, 2008
- "The Billboard Files: Janet Jackson discography". Billboard. November 14, 2009. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- "Games N Gadgets: Near Wardrobe Malfunction, Great Music for Janet Jackson in "20 YO"". Charlotte Observer. Charlotte Observer. October 4, 2006. Retrieved 13-20-10.
- "No. 1 Usher Holds Janet To No. 2 Debut", Billboard, retrieved October 21, 2009
- "Burned: Usher's Confessions of Sexual Prowess Hovers Near The Charts' Tops, but the Naughty Janet Jackson Offers More Sexual Intimacy on Damita Jo - Baltimore City Paper". City Paper. Wood, Mikael. 09-06-04. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- Powers, Ann (March 3, 2004), "Janet Jackson: Damita Jo Review on Blender", Blender, retrieved February 8, 2009[dead link]
- Sanneh, Kelefa (March 28, 2004). "Two Lessons At the School For Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- "Janet Jackson Biography". People. Retrieved August 16, 2010.
- "Awaiting 'Damita Jo': SouthCoastToday.com". South Coast Today. March 29, 2004. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
- "CD: Janet Jackson, Damita Jo - Music - The Guardian". The Guardian. March 25, 2004. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- "Pop goes Janet - The Scotsman". The Scotsman. 2004. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- Billboard - "Charts". Billboard. February 14, 2004. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- "Sander Kleinenberg: Everybody Is Having Fun Again". About.com. Retrieved 20-10-13.
- Hay, Carla (August 28, 2004), "The Billboard Backbeat", Billboard 116 (35): 60–61
- "New York Chapter Of 100 Black Men Honors Janet Jackson, Hank Aaron, Johnnetta Cole, Willie Gary", Jet 106 (23), December 6, 2004: 28, ISSN 0021-5996
- Browne, J. Zamgba (November 18, 2004), "Janet Jackson stirs up controversy at annual gala of 100 Black Men", New York Amsterdam News 95 (47): 8, ISSN 0028-7121
- Berry, Steve (November 11, 2004), "Janet Jackson stirs up controversy at annual gala of 100 Black Men", The Columbus Dispatch 95 (47): 12.D, ISSN 1074-097X
- Janet Jackson Receives HRC Award - Towleroad, Towleroad.com, June 20, 2005, retrieved September 9, 2010
- Kwamé Holland, Hot 97 radio interview, October 26, 2006
- Jermaine Dupri: New Janet LP's 'Gonna Be Straight 'Control' - Music, Celebrity, Artist News - MTV.com, December 15, 2004, retrieved February 9, 2014
- "Vibe Awards 2005 - Uncensored", The Free Library, August 5, 2005, retrieved February 9, 2014
- "Rap-Up.com - Rap-Up TV: Polow Da Don Interview", Rap-Up, July 12, 2007, retrieved February 9, 2014
- Coveney, Janine (September 5, 2006), "Janet's Juggernaut", Billboard, retrieved September 13, 2010
- The best-selling issue in Us Weekly history was the Janet Jackson mag, which sold a record 1.4 million the week of May 26. Kelly, Keith (June 23, 2006), "MLad Mag's Coverup – Fhm Wraps Racy Glossy After Hudson News Complaint", New York Post: 36
- Serpick, Evan (October 3, 2006), Janet Jackson: 20 Y.O. : Music Reviews : Rolling Stone, archived from the original on May 3, 2008, retrieved July 19, 2010
- Janet Blacklist? - TMZ.com, TMZ, July 28, 2006, retrieved June 18, 2013
- "Ask Billboard". Billboard. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
- Ebony - April 2008, April 2008, retrieved June 5, 2010
- Mitchell, Gail; Garrity, Brian (November 4, 2006), "Dupri Exit Fuels Rumors", Billboard 118 (44): 10, ISSN 0006-2510
- "Post-Katrina Music...and an American Idol Dropout - Slant Magazine". Slant Magazine (Cinqueman, Sal). 11-09-06. Retrieved 14-12-04.
- Goldman, Lea; Kiri Blakeley (January 18, 2007), "The 20 Richest Women In Entertainment", Forbes, retrieved September 3, 2008
- Ryan, Joal (October 15, 2007), "Just Call It Tyler Perry's Box Office", E! News, retrieved September 17, 2010
- Scheib, Ronnie (October 2007), "Tyler Perry's Why Did I Get Married?", Variety 408 (10): 32, ISSN 0042-2738
- Morris, Wesley (October 13, 2007), "'Married' is involving, if not blissful", The Boston Globe, retrieved July 29, 2008
- Christian, Margena A (March 3, 2008), "NAACP Honors Showbiz Veterans, Newcomers At Image Awards", Jet 113 (8): 52
- "Jermaine Dupri Says Janet Will Switch Labels, Be On 'Rush Hour 3' LP - MTV.com". MTV News. Reid, Shaheem. 09-05-07. Retrieved -14-02-14.
- Janet Jackson Sets Sights On Fall Tour, Book - Billboard, Billboard, July 3, 2008, retrieved February 7, 2014
- "Janet - Chart history - Billboard". Billboard. Retrieved 24-03-13.
- Harrington, Jim (September 14, 2008), "Review: The hits kept coming at Janet Jackson's Oakland show", Oakland Tribune, ISSN 1068-5936
- Concepcion, Mariel, "Janet Jackson Parts Ways With Island Def Jam", Billboard, retrieved September 22, 2008
- "Week Ending April 11, 2010: Bieber Bounces Back". Yahoo.com. April 14, 2010. Retrieved May 16, 2010.
- "Janet Jackson splits with record label", NME, September 20, 2008, retrieved October 8, 2009
- Carter, Kelley (June 28, 2009), "An emotional Janet Jackson thanks fans at BET Awards", USA Today, retrieved June 28, 2009
- Brown, Laura (October 2009), "Janet Jackson Takes Control", Harper's Bazaar: 244, ISSN 0017-7873
- Kaufman, Gil (September 13, 2009), "VMAs Kick Off with Madonna and Janet's Tribute to Michael Jackson", MTV News, retrieved September 14, 2009
- Kinon, Cristina (September 11, 2009), "Janet Jackson to do dance tribute for Michael to kick off VMAs", Daily News (New York), retrieved September 19, 2009
- Slezak, Michael (September 13, 2009), "Janet Jackson single-handedly saves MTV VMA tribute to Michael Jackson", Entertainment Weekly, retrieved September 16, 2009
- Kaufman, Gil (November 22, 2009), Janet Jackson Kicks Off American Music Awards With Energetic Medley/Singer performed her new single, 'Make Me.', MTV, retrieved November 22, 2009
- Janet Jackson Capital FM, 95.8 Capital FM, October 20, 2009, retrieved October 20, 2009[dead link]
- Kaufman, Gil (September 14, 2009), Janet Jackson Releases New Single Following VMA Performance, MTV, retrieved September 14, 2009
- "Chart Highlights: Adult Contemporary, Pop, Jazz & More". Billboard. December 21, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
- Janet Jackson to Chair amfAR's Inaugural Milan Fashion Week Event, amfAR, August 24, 2009, retrieved September 28, 2009
- Flint, Joe (April 5, 2010), "Tyler Perry's impressive weekend", Los Angeles Times, retrieved April 6, 2010
- Hale, Mike (April 7, 2010), "Tyler Perry's Why Did I Get Married Too? (2010): At Couples’ Reunion, Laughs, Then Grief", The New York Times, retrieved April 7, 2010
- Cooper, Jackie (April 5, 2010), "Tyler Perry's Why Did I Get Married Too?": Why Did He Make a Two?, The Huffington Post, retrieved April 6, 2010
- "The 42nd NAACP Image Awards - Motion Picture", NAACP Image Awards, 2011-01-12, retrieved 2011-01-12.
- Rodriguez, Jayson (2010-02-18),"Jermaine Dupri Says New Janet Jackson Song Is 'A Good Record'", MTV, retrieved 2010-04-07.
- Downey, Ryan J. (May 27, 2010). "'American Idol' Finale Ratings the Lowest Since Season One". MTV News. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
- Ella Ngo (July 29, 2010), Poll: Are You Fur or Against Janet Jackson's New Ad, E!, retrieved July 29, 2010
- "Blackglama Announces Debut of Janet Jackson Blackglama Collection", PR Newswire, 11/21/2011.
- "Icon Series Launched by Universal Music Enterprises" PR Newswire, 2010-08-09, retrieved 2010-08-09.
- Christopher John Farley (November 2, 2010), "Janet Jackson Tackles Poetry in ‘For Colored Girls’", The Wall Street Journal, retrieved November 2, 2010
- Manohla Dargis (November 4, 2010), "A Powerful Chorus Harmonizing ‘Dark Phrases of Womanhood’", The New York Times, retrieved November 4, 2010
- Randy Myers (November 4, 2010), "Review: Cast elevates 'For Colored Girls' from soap opera territory", San Jose Mercury News, retrieved November 4, 2010
- Claudia Puig (November 4, 2010), "Tyler Perry turns poetic 'For Colored Girls' into a soap opera", USA Today, retrieved November 4, 2010
- 2011 Black Reel Awards Nominations, Black Reel Awards, December 15, 2010, retrieved December 17, 2010[dead link]
- "Janet Jackson Announces 2011 Plans, Asks Fans for Questions", The Boombox (AOL), November 19, 2010, retrieved November 19, 2010
- Amber Katz (December 10, 2010), This Janet Jackson Barbie Doll Is All We Want For Christmas!, MTV, retrieved April 8, 2011
- "Janet Jackson in talks to become 'X Factor' USA judge?". Digital Spy. February 16, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Steve Holden (2012-03-02), "Janet Jackson says no to judging spot on US X Factor", BBC, retrieved 2013-06-18.
- Schuessler, Jennifer (February 28, 2011), "Best Sellers - The New York Times", The New York Times, retrieved February 28, 2011
- Pamela McClintock (March 15, 2011), "Janet Jackson Signs Film Production Deal with Lionsgate (Exclusive)", The Hollywood Reporter, retrieved March 17, 2011
- "Tyler Perry’s New Image With ‘For Colored Girls’ - NYTimes.com", New York Times (Barnes, Brooks), 24-10-10, retrieved February 9, 2014
- "Janet Jackson to Perform at Paris’ Louvre Museum", The Hollywood Reporter, April 6, 2011, retrieved April 8, 2011
- Sonya E (April 8, 2011), "Janet Jackson To Make History In Paris", Sister 2 Sister, retrieved April 9, 2011
- "Janet Jackson Featured In New Blackglama Ad Campaign", RTTNews, 2011-08-25, retrieved 2011-08-26.
- Coleen Nika (November 23, 2011), "News Roundup: Lady Gaga's Barney's Workshop, Rihanna's Collection, Janet Jackson's New Line And More", Rolling Stone, retrieved November 29, 2011
- Elizabeth Olson (December 14, 2011), "Weight Loss, With Divas and Public Service", New York Times, retrieved January 3, 2012
- "Janet Jackson shows off slim shape in NutriSystem ad", CNN Entertainment: The Marquee Blog, 04/10/2012.
- Amelia Proud, "White hot! Janet Jackson shows off a bit too much cleavage alongside her dramatic weight loss in sexy plunging gown at amFAR event in Cannes", Daily Mail UK, 05/24/2012.
- Michelle Salemi (May 23, 2013), Janet Jackson’s AmfAR Advocacy Goes Beyond Galas, Variety, retrieved November 12, 2013
- Janet Jackson Teams Up with UNICEF to Fight Hunger, ETonline, February 25, 2013, retrieved December 11, 2013
- Zach Johnson (February 25, 2013), Janet Jackson Is Married to Wissam Al Mana!, Us Weekly, retrieved February 25, 2013
- Andrew Hampp (May 18, 2013), "Janet Jackson Talks 'janet.' 20th Anniversary", Billboard, retrieved February 25, 2013
- Janet Jackson Trying 'New Things' On Next LP, Rodney Jerkins Says - Music, Celebrity, Artist News - MTV.com, October 22, 2009, retrieved February 9, 2014
- friends of janet — imfreshmade: Producer Jean Baptiste Now Working..., July 15, 2013, retrieved February 9, 2014
- Janet Jackson Working with Bangladesh - Echodust.com, September 6, 2013, retrieved February 9, 2014
- Dean, Maury (2003), Rock-N-Roll Gold Rush, Algora Publishing, p. 34, ISBN 0-87586-207-1
- Henderson, Eric (2003), "Slant Magazine Music Review: Janet Jackson: Control", Slant, retrieved June 30, 2008
- Andriessen, Louis; Maja Trochimczyk (2002), The music of Louis Andriessen, Routledge, p. 61, ISBN 978-0-8153-3789-8
- J.D. Considine (July 11, 1998), "It's Her `Velvet Rope' Tour, but Janet Jackson Gets Lost in the Crowd; Music Review: Back-up Singers, Back-up Dancers Help Make the Show Lively", The Sun: 4.E
- "Janet Jackson: Rhythm Nation Compilation - PopMatters", PopMatters, 22-02-14, retrieved February 9, 2014
- "FLUXBLOG: New, Unusual, Trendy, and Zany", Fluxblog (Perpelus, Matthew), 02-07-08, retrieved 20-02-14
- Reeves, Mosi. "Janet: Janet Jackson: Rhapsody". Rhapsody. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- Cinqueman, Sal (17-02-08). "Janet Jackson: janet. - Music Review - Slant Magazine". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- Norment, Lynn (November 1, 2000), "Janet: At the crossroads", Ebony 56 (1): 180, ISSN 0012-9011
- Pareles, Jon (April 25, 1986), "Pop and Jazz Guide", The New York Times: C.23, ISSN 0362-4331
- Cinquemani, Sal (November 19, 2009), Janet Jackson: Number Ones, Slant Magazine, retrieved November 19, 2009
- Vincent, Rickey; George Clinton (1996), Funk: The Music, The People, and The Rhythm of The One, Macmillan, pp. 272, 284, ISBN 0-312-13499-1
- Richard Rischar (2004), "A Vision of Love: An Etiquette of Vocal Ornamentation in African-American Popular Ballads of the Early 1990s", American Music (University of Illinois Press) 22 (3): 408
- Miller, Michael (2008), The Complete Idiot's Guide to Music History, Penguin Group, p. 205, ISBN 978-1-59257-751-4
- Greg Kot (February 28, 1994), "Fighting Another Grammy Whammy 'Janet' Producers Defend Jackson's Role", Chicago Tribune: 5, ISSN 1085-6706
- Karla Peterson (February 26, 1994), "Pop goes Janet in concert full of programmed flash", U-T San Diego: E.6
- Smith, Jessie Carney (1996), Notable Black American Women, Volume 2, Gale, p. 324, ISBN 978-0-8103-9177-2
- Reynolds, Simon; Joy Press (1996), The Sex Revolts: Gender, Rebellion, and Rock 'n' Roll, Harvard University Press, p. 297, ISBN 978-0-674-80273-5
- Ritz, David (October 1, 1998), "Sex, sadness & the triumph of Janet Jackson", Rolling Stone, retrieved April 23, 2008
- MacCambridge, Michael (October 19, 1989), "Worth a note", Austin American-Statesman: G.2
- Goren, Lilly (2009), You've Come A Long Way, Baby: Women, Politics, and Popular Culture, University Press of Kentucky, p. 61, ISBN 978-0-8131-2544-2
- Jessie Carney Smith (2010), Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture, ABC-CLIO, pp. 738, 739, ISBN 9780313357978
- Timothy E. Scheurer (2007), Born in the USA: The Myth of America in Popular Music from Colonial Times to the Present, University Press of Mississippi, p. 224, ISBN 978-1-934110-56-0
- Shayne Lee (2010), Erotic Revolutionaries: Black Women, Sexuality, and Popular Culture, Government Institutes, pp. 12–16, ISBN 978-0-7618-5228-5
- Klein, Joshua (April 25, 2001), "Janet Jackson's Lighthearted Lament About Lost Love", The Washington Post: C01
- Ritz, David (2004). The Naked Truth. Upscale. p. 64.
- Jordan, Emma; Angela Harris (2006), When Markets Fail: Race And Economics : Cases And Materials, Foundation Press, p. 433, ISBN 978-1-58778-955-7
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2004), Damita Jo, Allmusic, retrieved February 8, 2009
- Mitoma, Judy; Judith Mitoma, Elizabeth Zimmer, Dale Ann Stieber, Nelli Heinonen, Norah Zuniga Shaw (2002), Envisioning dance on film and video, Routledge, p. 16, ISBN 0-415-94171-7
- Cutcher, Jenai (2003), Feel the Beat: Dancing in Music Videos, The Rosen Publishing Group, pp. 14–16, ISBN 0-8239-4558-8
- "Janet Jackson - From Janet. To Damita Jo: The Videos - music DVD reviews - musicOMH". MusicOMH. Hogwood, Ben. 2004. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- Beretta E. Smith-Shomade (2002), Shaded Lives: African-American Women and Television, Rutgers University Press, p. 86
- Stephanie Jordan, Dave Allen (1993), Parallel Lines: Media Representations of Dance, Indiana University Press, p. 68
- Sonnega, William (1995), "Morphing Borders: The Remanence of MTV", TDR 39 (1): 49
- Järviluoma, Helmi; Anni Vilkko, Pirkko Moisala (2003), Gender and Qualitative Methods, Sage, p. 92, ISBN 978-0-7619-6585-5
- Oonk, Gijsbert (2007), Global Indian Diasporas: Exploring Trajectories of Migration and Theory, Amsterdam University Press, p. 220, ISBN 978-90-5356-035-8
- Margo, Jefferson (October 27, 1993), "Books of The Times; The Minstrel Tradition: Not Just a Racist Relic", The New York Times: C13.18, ISBN 03624331 Check
- Kronick, Ilana (September 18, 1997), "Jackson's Got 'Til It's Gone is a Rich, Earthy Gem", The Gazette: C14, ISBN 03841294 Check
- Pond, Steve (January 1998), "Janet Jackson", Us: 50
- Lewin, Ellen (1996), Inventing lesbian cultures in America, Beacon Press, p. 152, ISBN 978-0-8070-7943-0
- DeCurtis, Anthony (1992), Present Tense: Rock & Roll and Culture, Duke University Press, p. 626, ISBN 978-0-8223-1265-9
- Sal Cinquemani and Ed Gonzalez (June 30, 2003), 100 Greatest Music Videos, Slant Magazine, retrieved March 9, 2012
- Sal Cinquemani and Ed Gonzalez (June 30, 2003), 100 Greatest Music Videos, Slant Magazine, retrieved March 9, 2012
- Letkemann, Jessica (August 1, 2011). "The 10 Best '80s Music Videos: Poll Results". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
- Jean M. Twenge (2007), Generation Me: Why Today's Young Americans are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled—and More Miserable Than Ever Before, Simon & Schuster, p. 167
- Paula Kamen (2000), Her Way: Young Women Remake the Sexual Revolution, NYU Press, p. 76
- Barber, Nicholas (June 7, 1998), "Rock music: Janet Jackson gets lost in her own limelight", The Independent: 6
- "Janet Jackson receives American Music Awards' Top Honor Highlighting Stellar Career", Jet 99 (7), January 29, 2001: 56, ISSN 0021-5996
- Willman, Chris (April 23, 1990), "Pop Music Review Janet Jackson's Dance of Community", Los Angeles Times: 1, ISSN 0458-3035
- Glenn Gamboa (March 18, 2011), "The magnificent 7 Our critic's take on Janet Jackson's top hits before her musical comeback", Newsday: B.15
- Christensen, Thor (September 15, 2001), "Loose Lips: Pop Singers' Lip-Syncing In Concert Is An Open Secret", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: B.8, ISSN 1068-624X
- Harrington, Richard (November 21, 1990), "Milli & the Reality Question", The Washington Post: D.07, ISSN 0190-8286
- MacCambridge, Michael (July 6, 1990), "A lesson in `Control' // Janet Jackson delivers precise, sparkling show", Austin American-Statesman: B.8
- Ratliff, Ben (March 20, 2011), "First-Person Reflections on a Pop Career", The New York Times, retrieved April 1, 2011
- Chris Richards (March 23, 2011), "Janet Jackson lets fans see her sweat with energized Constitution Hall show", The Washington Post, retrieved April 1, 2011
- "Sultry songstress Lena Horne dies", The Washington Times, May 10, 2010, retrieved July 12, 2010
- Liz Smith (June 4, 1993), "Janet Jackson as Dandridge?", Los Angeles Times: 2, ISSN 0458-3035
- Penn, Roberta (September 5, 1997), "Janet Jackson digs deep and gets personal in latest album", The Fresno Bee: E.4, ISSN 0889-6070
- Jet 92 (26), November 17, 1997: 60
- "The Immortals – The Greatest Artists of All Time: 61) Tina Turner", Rolling Stone, April 22, 2005, retrieved April 26, 2009
- Kevin Phinney (September 21, 1989), "Jackson takes control on latest album // Songstress instrumental in signing producers, writing lyrics for `Rhythm Nation'", Austin American-Statesman: F.2
- "Janet Jackson: Rolling Stone", Rolling Stone, 2008, archived from the original on April 19, 2008, retrieved April 23, 2008
- Steve Dollar (July 23, 2000), "A Little Help From Her Friends", Newsday: D.07
- McCarthy, Phillip (February 25, 2008), "The Sun Herald - Don't mention Michael", Sydney Morning Herald, retrieved October 22, 2010
- Huey, Steve (2008), Janet Jackson > Biography, Allmusic, retrieved June 7, 2008
- She confirmed her status as today's Queen of Pop when, not long ago, she signed a $35-$40 million recording contract with Virgin Records. James Robert Parish (1995), Today's black Hollywood, Pinnacle Books, p. 158, ISBN 978-0-8217-0104-1
- Janet Jackson is a big deal these days, the Queen of Pop, though we can still call her by her first name. So little is she trading off the fame of her brother, so completely has she become her own thing, she has all but abandoned the family name. Tour posters, tickets and recent album - all say, quite simply "Janet", and leave it at that. Smith, Giles (April 21, 1996), "Slow riffs, fast riffs, midriffs", The Independent: 26, ISSN 0951-9467
- Millner, Denene (January 12, 1996), "Dueling Divas Top Five Singers Slug It Out To See Who's The Real Queen Of Pop", Daily News (New York), retrieved October 15, 2009[dead link]
- DeCurtis, Anthony (1992), Present tense: rock & roll and culture, Duke University Press, p. 257, ISBN 978-0-8223-1265-9
- Over the next few years, a significant proportion of music industry revenues were generated by a handful of superstar artists; in addition to Michael Jackson, there were Lionel Richie, Madonna, Prince, Bruce Springsteen, Whitney Houston, Tina Turner, Wham!, Phil Collins, Steve Winwood, Huey Lewis and the News, the Pointer Sisters, Janet Jackson, Anita Baker, and a handful of others. A surprising number of the new superstars were black. This was perhaps the first hint that the greater cosmopolitanism of a world market might produce some changes in the complexion of popular music. Garofalo, Reebee (1999), "From Music Publishing to MP3: Music and Industry in the Twentieth Century", American Music 17 (3): 343
- Mahon, Maureen (2004), Right to Rock: The Black Rock Coalition and the Cultural Politics of Race, Duke University Press, p. 163, ISBN 978-0-8223-3317-3
- Smith-Shomade, Beretta E. (2002), Shaded lives: African-American women and television, Rutgers University Press, p. 181, ISBN 978-0-8135-3105-2
- McDermott, Leon (March 28, 2004), "Going bust?; Damita Jo ought to have been Janet Jackson's big comeback album, says Leon McDermott, but after that incident at the Super Bowl will America forgive her?", Sunday Herald: 3
- Cullen, Jim (2001), Popular Culture in American History, Blackwell Publishing, p. 280, ISBN 0-631-21958-7
- J.D. Considine (July 25, 1999), "Ranking the Women of 'Rock'", The Baltimore Sun: 2.F
- 200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons of All Time, VH1, retrieved February 28, 2011
- VH1's 100 Greatest Women In Music, VH1, February 13, 2012, retrieved February 22, 2012
- 50 Greatest Women of the Video Era, VH1, retrieved February 28, 2011
- UOMO Producer Helps Propel Janet Jackson to #1 in the US, Business Wire, March 10, 2008
- Melinda Newman (December 8, 2001), "Achievement Award is 'All' for Jackson", billboard 113 (49): 28, ISSN 0006-2510
- "Billboard Hot 100 Chart 50th Anniversary", Billboard, retrieved October 1, 2009
- Trust, Gary; Caulfield, Keith; Ramirez, Rauly (November 18, 2010), "The Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years - Billboard Underground", Billboard, retrieved November 18, 2010
- Nick Goumond (April 14, 2011), Rihanna, Eminem, Lady Gaga score double digit Billboard Music Awards noms, goldderby.com, retrieved April 16, 2011
- "Mary J. Blige, Santigold Talk Janet Jackson's VMA Appearance - MTV Video Music Awards", MTV News (Rodriguez, Jayson), 12-09-08, retrieved 20-02-14
- "Didn’t she almost have it all? - Salon.com", Salon (Traister, Rebecca date = 12-04-06), retrieved February 9, 2014
- "JRevisiting Janet Jackson's 'If' 20 Years Later – Vulture". Vulture. Satyal, Rakesh. 31-08-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Welcome To Planet Janet: It's Our World". The Sun Sentinel. Winston, Sherri. 18-03-01. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Pop and Rock Listings for August 5-11 - NYTimes.com", New York Times, 04-08-11, retrieved February 9, 2014
- "Janet Jackson - From Janet. To Damita Jo: The Videos - music DVD reviews - musicOMH". MusicOMH. Hogwood, Ben. 2004. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- "The Nipple and the Damage Done: Janet Jackson's Post-Super Bowl Fall - Music News - Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. Crosley, Hillary. 31-01-14. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Fear of a Black Titty - Page 1 - Music - Los Angeles - LA Weekly". LA Weekly. Hardy, Ernest. 06-05-04. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- "Joe Zee Styles Pussycat Doll Nicole Scherzinger - Sexy Style Tips - ELLE", Elle (Zee, Joe), 23-04-12, retrieved 20-02-14
- "She's Not Anybody's Baby Sister Anymore", New York Times (Chambers, Veronica), 07-09-97, retrieved February 9, 2014
- "Justin: The Unauthorized Biography - Sean Smith". Smith, Sean. Simon and Schuster. 01-11-05. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Rolling Stone Readers Pick Their 10 Favorite Dancing Musicians Pictures - 8. Janet Jackson - Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. 14-07-14. Retrieved -14-02-14.
- Greatest Hits by Arista, Whitney Houston - Barnes & Noble, 2000, retrieved 14-02-14
- "Janet Jackson - Janet Jackson Wails - Rock Hall of Fame: 10 Huge Snubs - Photo Gallery - LIFE". Life Magazine. 2010. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Britney Spears Wishes Janet Jackson "Happy Birthday"". May 16, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "Britney Spears - Interview". Hip Online. December 5, 2001. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "Britney Spears News". AOL. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "Rihanna's Mom Thinks She's Too Mature". Showbiz Spy. 09-10-11. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Rihanna Speaks On Janet Jackson & Simon Cowell". 02-12-09. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Lady Gaga talks about Janet". 30-12-09.
- "Beyonce: "Life is But a Dream" documentary". 16-02-13.
- "Beyonce On The Red Carpet At The Vmas 2009". 09-09-09. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Destiny's Child News - Yahoo! Music". 11-01-01. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Celebrities Talk Janet Jackson: Justin Timberlake". Retrieved 14-02-14.
- Valdéz, Mimi (August 2001), "Show and prove", Vibe 9 (8): 116, ISSN 1070-4701
- "India is on my mind: Jennifer Lopez". Billboard. August 25, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "Obsessions: Jennifer Lopez is back in a big, big way - CNN.com". 15-04-11. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Miley Cyrus backstage at kid KCA 2008". 25-05-08. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "Miley Cyrus Debuts YouTube Show, Dances to Janet". People. 26-02-08. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "The Miley And Mandy Show". 04-02-08. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "P!nk: The Billboard Woman Of The Year Q&A - Billboard". Billboard. Hampp, Andrew. 14-02-14. Retrieved 06-06-13.
- "Katy Perry spoofs Janet Jackson's boob-baring 'wardrobe malfunction' in new video - Mail Online". Daily Mail. 14-02-14. Retrieved 09-06-11.
- "Katy Perry: Prism (Review) - Krank.ie". Krank.ie. 14-02-14. Retrieved 21-10-13.
- "Selena Gomez Says Skrillex Inspired Her 'Baby Dubstep' Sound - Music, Celebrity, Artist News - MTV.com". MTV. Garibaldi, Christina. 10-05-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Christina Aguilera's life of chaos and pain - The Orange County Register". Orange County Register. Koltnow, Barry. 17-10-10. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- People Magazine. July 2004.
- "PAPERMAG: Hey Nicki, You're So Fine.". Doonan, Simon. 02-12. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Picks and Pans Review: Nicki Minaj's Top 5 Style Idols - People.com". People. 06-12-10. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Cheryl Cole/Black Eyed Peas at the O2 arena, SE10 - The Times". The Times. Verrico, Lisa. 08-05-10. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Cheryl - Dublin - State Magazine". State Magazine. Gannon, Jennifer. 08-10-12. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Twitter / adamlevine: Even for as huge as Janet Jackson ...". Twitter. Levine, Adam. 12-10-11. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Kimmel Shows Adam Levine's Nude Cancer Awareness Picture (VIDEO)". AOL. Hughes, Jason. 21-06-11. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- Chris Nickson (2005), Usher:The Godson of Soul, Simon and Schuster, p. 39, ISBN 978-1-4169-0922-4
- "Entertainers with Byron Allen interview". 23-06-04.
- "Important points regarding Kylie’s new single and album". Popjustice. 26-04-10. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Sarina Bellissimo interviews Bruno Mars - YouTube". YouTube. 01-06-13. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Stefani stumbles a bit - NUVO News - Indianapolis, IN". Nuvo.net. Hammer, Steve. 19-01-05. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "MTV Mobile News: William Hung Overshadows Backstreet Reunion, All-Star Lineup At Wango Tango". MTV. Moss, Corey. 17-05-04. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Review: Alicia Keys unlocks mixed bag in Oakland". Harrington, Jim. 04-11-10. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "The Girls Swoon Over Justin Bieber’s "Boyfriend" Performance On The Voice". VH1. Viera, Bene. 09-05-12. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Kelly Covers Janet Jackson’s "If"". Kellyclarkson.com. July 28, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- "Janet Jackson Kicks Off American Music Awards With Energetic Medley - Music, Celebrity, Artist News - MTV.com". Kaufan, Gil. 23-11-09. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Chris Martin Covers Jay-Z — And Other Scenes From Nelly Furtado's Loose - Music, Celebrity, Artist News - MTV.com". MTV News (Vineyard, Jennifer). 20-06-06. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Jimmy Jam Talks Janet Jackson, Kelly Rowland, Soul Train, The Time & Childhood Dreams - YouTube". Nicole, Cherise. 18-11-12. Retrieved 24-08-13.
- "Twitter / Kelly Rowland". Twitter. June 18, 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- "Exclusive Interview: Kelly Rowland Says Switching Up Team Was Toughest Decision - Yahoo! Music". Yahoo! Music. July 25, 2011. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- "Twitter / solangeknowles: Diana Ross, D'Angelo, Selena, ...". Twitter. Solange. 16-07-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- Maariv La'Noar Magazine. 2001. "..."Janet Jackson. I am the new generation of this style.""
- "Laughing, Acting Or Singing, Jessica Simpson Aims To Entertain And Inspire - Music, Celebrity, Artist News - MTV.com". MTV News. Jacobson, Colin. 29-06-06. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Jessica Simpson Covers Song That Convinced Her To Let Nick Go - Music, Celebrity, Artist News - MTV.com". MTV News. Moss, Corey. 02-04-06. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Interview: Singer Robyn earns her Swede revenge". Star Tribune. 13-11-10. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Robyn - When I Think of You (Janet Jackson cover)". YouTube. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- Rodman, Sarah (August 24, 2001), "Music; Has Janet Jackson earned her diva wings?; Two FleetCenter shows are just one criterion", Boston Herald: S03
- "Bitchie ThrowBack: Which Celebrity Did Brandy Want To Marry?". 21-01-11. Retrieved 24-08-13.
- Kellman, Andy. "(((Afrodisiac > Overview)))". Allmusic. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- "Pop Diva Porcelain Black's Summer Party Playlist! - Us Weekly". Diep, Eric. 23-05-11. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Twitter / AubreyODay: Parked on the 405 going so ..". Twitter. O'Day, Aubrey. 10-01-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Nicole Scherzinger: I wouldn’t replace Dannii on X Factor". Metro UK. 29-11-09. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Gimme Five: JoJo's Essential Pop Albums - Billboard". Billboard. May 2, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- "Ciara - Biography - Billboard". Billboard. 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Bobbin, Jay (August 9, 2006), "Imitation nation; World of pop music filled with copycats", Chicago Tribune: 54, ISSN 1085-6706
- Keri Hilson - Keri Hilson Respects TLC's Image, Contactmusic.com, June 6, 2011, retrieved June 6, 2011
- Lauren Alpe (June 13, 2011), Interview - Havana Brown, MTV News, retrieved June 13, 2011
- "Jessie Ware "Devotion" Channels Wildest Moments". LOAR. 14-04-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Jessie Ware Channels A Little Janet Jackson, A Little Madonna For "Imagine It Was Us"". VH1. Viera, Bene. 09-04-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Jamie Lidell: soul man turns the page". The Independent. Bray, Elisa. 25-01-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Eliza Doolittle: Another Soulful British Voice - Speakeasy - WSJ". Wall Street Journal. 24-02-11. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Twitter / samsparro: Vocal production all day! I'm ...". Twitter. Sparro, Sam. 24-01-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Peter Andre’s Defender by Peter Falloon - Promo News". Promo News. Falloon, Peter. 08-03-10. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Alexis Krauss of Sleigh Bells Chats With Glamour About New Album Bitter Rivals and Her Pop-Culture Obsessions". Glamour. Woods, Mickey. 08-10-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Exclusive: Panic! At The Disco Talk Dark, Decadent Too Rare To Die! - Music, Celebrity, Artist News - MTV.com". MTV. 16-07-13. Retrieved 18-08-13.
- "Little Dragon Return With New Album 'Nabuma Rubberband,' Drop First Single "Klapp Klapp" - Video - Rolling Stone". Newman, Jason. Rolling Stone. 14-02-14. Retrieved 18-08-13.
- "The Influence of Janet Jackson’s The Velvet Rope on The Album — Who is How To Dress Well? - Complex". Diep, Eric. 18-09-12. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Janet Jackson Music Sampled by Others - WhoSampled". WhoSampled. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Drake – Come Thru Lyrics - Rap Genius". Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "The Revisit: Janet Jackson’s ‘The Velvet Rope’ - Saint Heron". Saint Heron. Hardy, Alexander. 29-11-11. Retrieved 07-03-14.
- "Fact-Checking Jay-Z: Ten Instances in Which Decoded Doesn’t Tell the Whole Story". Vulture. Vulture. 17-11-10. Retrieved 21-11-13.
- "The Singers 2 - Learning Ace - 12". Japan Times. 13-02-05. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
- Kishin Shinoyama (October 2000), "Tokyo glamorama", Harper's Bazaar: 312
- "Meisa gets high fives all round - The Japan Times". Japan Times. Poole, Robert Michael. 03-06-10. Retrieved 22-02-14.
- "Metropolis - Star Struck - Play Girl". Metropolis. 28-08-09. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Crystal Kay is all yours - The Japan Times". Japan Times. Robson, Daniel. 06-07-07. Retrieved 22-02-14.
- "Now Hear This Yokohama-based teen pop singer among the promising", Asahi Evening News, January 1, 2003: 1, ISSN 0025-2816
- "Double adds jewel to crown - The Japan Times". Poole, Robert Michael. 16-05-08. Retrieved 22-02-14.
- "Profile of Thelma Aoyama". Thelma Archives. 09-08. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "[INTERVIEW] Record producer Yoo Young-jin - Part 1". Asiae.co.kr. 11-06-10. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "MercuryNews.com - 10/05/2004 - Crossover appeal". The Mercury Times. 05-10-04. Retrieved 20-02-14.
- (Japanese) "Arashiro Beni Special Interview". Hot Express. 2005. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
- Girls' Generation. HMI Magazine. 15-12-10. p. 09. "Dancing queen of the next generation, Hyoyeon had received many dancing training from stars like Justin, Janet Jackson."
- "SNSD Yuri - If @ Girls' Generation Tour Concert". YouTube. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "AFTER SCHOOL -?Rhythm Nation?". YouTube. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Kara Son of a gun KBS Gayo Daejun 2009 12 30". YouTube. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "U-Kiss Dance Up a Storm in "Standing Still" Music Video". Popdust. Peterson, Jacques. 08-03-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "BEST LIVE DVD -PREMIUM LIVE DREAM SELECTION". J-Ent Online. 20-03-08. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Hitomi Shimatani's bio - singer - jpop". JPopAsia. 2007. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Yuna Ito - singer/actress - jpop". J-Pop Asia. Retrieved 20-02-14.
- "Nippop - Chisato Moritaka". Nippop. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "As the world changes, Madonna remains the same - KansasCity.com". Kansas City Star. Finn, Timothy. 26-10-12. Retrieved 21-11-13.
- "Madonna Tribe meets Tony Shimkin". Madonna Tribe Interview. 2012. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "The Madonna video you can’t see on MTV". Salon.com. Havrilesky, Heather. 03-04=03. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Picks and Pans Review: Dangerous". People. 23-12-91. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Radio Listeners Slow To Warm To Jackson's Latest". The Sun Sentinel. Wilker, Deborah. 23-03-95. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- The Miami Herald - 12/08/2002 - Celebrity careers sink as lives play out on tabloid TV, 08-12-02, retrieved 14-02-14
- Whitney Houston Concert Setlist at Tampa Stadium, Tampa on July 4, 1987 - setlist.fm, Setlist.fm, retrieved February 22, 2009
- "Artist to Artist: Danielle Curiel". SoulTrain.com (Nicole, Rhonda). 02-12-13. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Prince Closes Out SXSW With Joyous, Funk-Heavy 3-Hour Set - On the Scene - Fuse". Fuse (Newman, Jason). 17-03-13. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Elton John and Janet Jackson". YouTube. Retrieved 04-02-14.
- "Donna Summer Interview host Jacob Dahlin Öppet arkiv SVT Play". YouTube. Retrieved 04-02-14.
- "Robert Smith Draws Blood - Music News - Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. Miller, Kirk. 30-06-04. Retrieved 21-11-13.
- "Twitter / IAMANITABAKER: Janet led by example ...". Twitter. Baker, Anita. 16-12-12. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- Vibe - Google Books. Vibe. June–July 1997. Retrieved 18-08-13.
- Sonia Murray (July 12, 1999), "TLC: Struggling in the Spotlightnot", Austin American-Statesman: E.1
- "TLC Showing Love To Janet Jackson - YouTube". YouTube. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- Sanneh, Kalefa (28-03-04). "Two Lessons At the School For Scandal - New York Times". Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Miley Cyrus Talks Transition To Honorary Twerk Team Member". Gibson, Dewan. 27-08-13. Retrieved 26-06-13.
- Reid, Shaheem (11-02-08). "L.A. Reid Says He's 'Loaded' With Music For Rihanna's Next Album - MTV.com". Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Sweet 19 Blues - Namie Amuro - Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards - AllMusic". AllMusic. Mills, Ted. Retrieved 07-03-14.
- "AlanisDirect". Spin Magazine. Hannaham, James. 11-95. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- Hit Me with Your Best Shot!: The Ultimate Guide to Karaoke Domination. Lee, Raina. 30-04-08. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Will Ferrell THE CAMPAIGN interview - Collider". Collider.com. 2012. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Jennifer Aniston - Jennifer Aniston Stays In Shape With Spinning - Contactmusic.com". 13-05-11. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Alex Wagner is wearing Janet Jackson Rhythm Nation headphones at the 2012 DNC". 06-09-12. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Pink Warns Music Industry Is Struggling". Sky News. Hargrave, Stevedate=10-12-09. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Mesmerizing - Headlines". 17-02-03. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- ""Steppin" with Jenna Dewan - TeenHollywood.com". Teen Hollywood. Barker, Tyrin. 17-02-06. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Extratv.com : Justin Timberlake". Extra. 09-04-02. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "DANCE; Reality-Show Pop Stars Need a Choreographer, Too". Gladstone, Valerie. 01-04-01. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "[Exclusive] Interview With Rino Nakasone (@RinOkinawa)". Soshified.com. 24-10-11. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Janet Jackson- Icon promo on TRL (HQ)". YouTube. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "Q&A: Indie Darling Brit Marling On SOUND OF MY VOICE & Eating Worms - New at the Movies - Articles". Cinemovie.tv. 28-04-12. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Initiation: 'Trons Elizabeth Mathis Is Our Wonder Woman". Vibe. Mathis, Elizabeth. Retrieved 16-12-10.
- "Kate Hudson Interview SOMETHING BORROWED". Collider. Radish, Christina. 2011. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Gabrielle Union's Janet Jackson Fixation - Contactmusic.com". Contact Music. WENN. 31-07-03. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Michael K. Williams on Playing Omar on ‘The Wire,’ Discovering Snoop, and How Janet Jackson Changed His Life". 02-01-08. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Twitter / kathyireland: @blackglama_girl @JanetJackson ...". Twitter. Ireland, Kathy. 21-09-11. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- "Blender". Blender. 02-02. Retrieved 07-02-14.
- "Janet Jackson - The 90 Hottest Women of the '90s - Complex". Complex. 17-11-10. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- "11. Janet Jackson - The 100 Hottest Female Singers of All Time - Complex". Complex. 10-10-12. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- Janet Jackson - America's Most Beautiful People - ELLE, 30-06-11, retrieved 14-02-14
- "Janet Talks Marriage, Broadway and Drag Queens - E! Online". E! Online. Malkin, Marc. 22-04-08. Retrieved 14-02-14.
- Janet Jackson reveals her private struggles in ‘True You’ - today > books - Biography Memoirs - TODAY.com, 10-02-11, retrieved 14-02-14
- USATODAY.com - BET honors its rich past, 10-27-05, retrieved 14-02-14
- Elysa Gardner (July 28, 2000), "Luscious Jackson", USA Today: 1.E, ISSN 0734-7456
- While her vocal skills are at least as decent as Britney Spears and the other Janet-come-latelys, it's Jackson's skills as an entertainer—and commanding stage presence—that make her so deserving of the spotlight. Gemma Tarlach (October 17, 2001), "Janet Jackson takes her place as Queen of Pop", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: 12.B
- Most disappointing was crunk princess Ciara. The Janet-come-lately and her octet of dance-floor acrobats moved with ferocious elegance to tracks like 'Goodies,' but the singer had glaring microphone problems when she spoke—tediously, about the 'importance' of her upcoming sophomore album. Sarah Rodman (October 31, 2006), "MonsterJam Lacks Star Power", Boston Globe: E.7, ISSN 0743-1791
- "Selena Gomez. 18.00 hrs. E8. - i-D Online". i-D Magazine. Madsen, Anders Christian. 05-08-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.
- Joan Morgan (August 2010), "Before Sunset", Essence: 106
- Brackett, Nathan. Hoard, Christian David. The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. Simon & Schuster, 2004. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8
- Cornwell, Jane. Janet Jackson. Carlton Books, 2002. ISBN 1-84222-464-6
- Cullen, Jim. Popular Culture in American History. Blackwell Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-631-21958-7
- Cutcher, Jenai. Feel the Beat: Dancing in Music Videos. The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003. ISBN 0-8239-4558-8
- Dean, Maury. Rock-N-Roll Gold Rush. Algora Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-87586-207-1
- DeCurtis, Anthony. Present tense: rock & roll and culture. Duke University Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-8223-1265-9
- Gaar, Gillian G. She's a rebel: the history of women in rock & roll. Seal Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58005-078-6
- Gates, Henry Louis. Appiah, Anthony. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American. Basic Civitas Books, 1999. ISBN 0-465-00071-1
- Goren, Lilly. You've Come A Long Way, Baby: Women, Politics, and Popular Culture. University Press of Kentucky, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8131-2544-2
- Halstead, Craig. Cadman, Chris. Jacksons Number Ones. Authors On Line, 2003. ISBN 0-7552-0098-5
- Jaynes, Gerald David. Encyclopedia of African American Society. Sage Publications, 2005. ISBN 0-7619-2764-6
- Jordan, Emma. Harris, Angela. When Markets Fail: Race And Economics: Cases And Materials. Foundation Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58778-955-7
- Kramarae, Cheris. Spender, Dale. Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-415-92091-4
- Mitoma, Judy. Mitoma, Judith. Zimmer, Elizabeth. Stieber, Dale Ann. Heinonen, Nelli. Shaw, Norah Zuniga. Envisioning dance on film and video. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-94171-7
- Reynolds, Simon. Press, Joy. The Sex Revolts: Gender, Rebellion, and Rock 'n' Roll. Harvard University Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-674-80273-5
- Ripani, Richard J. The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950–1999 University Press of Mississippi, 2006. ISBN 1-57806-862-2
- Smith, Jessie Carney. Notable Black American Women, Volume 2. Gale, 1996. ISBN 978-0-8103-9177-2
- Starr, Larry. Waterman, Christopher Alan. American Popular Music: The Rock Years. Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-19-530052-9
- Strong, Martin Charles. The Great Rock Discography: Complete Discographies Listing Every Track Recorded by More Than 1200 Artists. Canongate U.S., 2004. ISBN 1-84195-615-5
- Vincent, Rickey. Clinton, George. Funk: The Music, The People, and The Rhythm of The One. Macmillan, 1996. ISBN 0-312-13499-1
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Janet Jackson.|