Janet Jackson

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For her self-titled album, see Janet Jackson (album).
Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson 4.jpg
Jackson performing on her Rock Witchu Tour in 2008
Background information
Birth name Janet Damita Jo Jackson
Born (1966-05-16) May 16, 1966 (age 48)
Gary, Indiana, U.S.
Genres
Occupation(s)
  • Singer
  • songwriter
  • dancer
  • actress
  • record producer
  • film producer
  • author
Instruments
  • Vocals
  • keyboards
Years active 1973–present
Labels
Website janetjackson.com

Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16, 1966) is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. Known for a series of sonically innovative, socially conscious and sexually provocative records, as well as elaborate stage shows, television roles, and film roles, she has been a prominent figure in popular culture for over 25 years. The youngest child of the Jackson family, she began her career with the variety television series The Jacksons in 1976 and went on to appear in other television shows throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, including Good Times and Fame.

After signing a recording contract with A&M in 1982, she became a pop icon following the release of her third studio album Control (1986). Her collaborations with record producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis incorporated elements of rhythm and blues, funk, disco, rap, and industrial beats, which led to crossover appeal in popular music. In addition to receiving recognition for the innovation in her records, choreography, music videos, and prominence on radio airplay and MTV, she was acknowledged as a role model for her socially conscious lyrics.

In 1991, she signed the first of two record-breaking, multi-million dollar contracts with Virgin Records, establishing her as one of the highest paid artists in the industry. Her debut album under the label, Janet (1993), saw her develop a public image as a sex symbol as she began to explore sexuality in her work. That same year, she appeared in her first starring film role in Poetic Justice; since then she has continued to act in feature films. By the end of the 1990s, she was named the second most successful recording artist of the decade. She has amassed an extensive catalog of hits, with singles such as "Nasty", "Rhythm Nation", "That's the Way Love Goes", "Together Again" and "All for You" among her most iconic.

Having sold over 140 million records, she is ranked as one of the best-selling artists in the history of contemporary music.[1][2] The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) lists her as the eleventh best-selling female artist in the United States, with 26 million certified albums.[3] In 2008, Billboard magazine released its list of the Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists, placing her at number seven, while in 2010, ranking her fifth among the "Top 50 R&B / Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years." One of the world's most awarded artists, her longevity, records and achievements reflect her influence in shaping and redefining the scope of popular music. She has been cited as an inspiration among numerous performers.

Life and career[edit]

1966–82: Early life and career beginnings[edit]

Jackson (bottom row) in a 1976 CBS photo on the set of The Jacksons

Janet Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana, the youngest of ten children, to Katherine Esther (née Scruse) and Joseph Walter Jackson.[4] The Jacksons were lower-middle class and devout Jehovah's Witnesses, although Jackson would later refrain from organized religion.[5] At a young age, her brothers began performing as The Jackson 5. In March 1969, the group signed a record deal with Motown, and soon had their first number-one hit. The family then moved to the Encino neighborhood of Los Angeles.[4] Jackson had initially desired to become a horse racing jockey or entertainment lawyer, with plans to support herself through acting. Despite this, she was anticipated to pursue a career in entertainment, and considered the idea after recording herself in the studio.[4] At age seven, Jackson performed at the Las Vegas Strip at the MGM Casino.[4] A biography revealed her father, Joseph Jackson, was emotionally withdrawn, and told her to address him solely by his first name as a child.[4] She began acting in the variety show The Jacksons in 1976.[4] In 1977, she was selected to have a starring role as Penny Gordon Woods in the sitcom Good Times.[4] She later starred in A New Kind of Family before joining the cast of Diff'rent Strokes, portraying Charlene Duprey for two years.[4] Jackson also played the recurring role of Cleo Hewitt during the fourth season of Fame, but expressed indifference towards the series.[6][7]

1982–85: Early recordings[edit]

When Jackson was sixteen, she was arranged a contract with A&M Records.[4] Her debut album, Janet Jackson, was released in 1982. It was produced by Angela Winbush, René Moore and Leon F. Sylvers III, and overseen by her father Joseph.[4] It peaked at number sixty-three on Billboard, and number six on the publication's R&B albums chart, receiving little promotion.[8] Jackson's second album, Dream Street, was released two years later.[4] Dream Street reached one-hundred forty-seven on the Billboard 200, and number nineteen on the R&B albums chart.[8] The lead single "Don't Stand Another Chance" peaked at number nine on Billboard '​s R&B singles chart.[9] Both albums consisted primarily of bubblegum pop music.[10] Jackson eloped with singer James DeBarge in 1984, divorcing shortly afterwards, with the marriage annulled the following year.[11]

1986–88: Control[edit]

"Nasty" was written as a response to an incident of sexual harassment Jackson faced during the recording of Control. The song features a triplet swing beat.

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After her second album, Jackson terminated business affairs with her family, commenting "I just wanted to get out of the house, get out from under my father, which was one of the most difficult things that I had to do."[7] Attempting a third album, Jackson teamed with producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis. They set out to achieve crossover pop appeal, while also creating a strong foundation within the urban market.[12] Within six weeks, Jackson and the duo crafted her third studio album, Control, released in February 1986.[13] The album peaked at number one on Billboard, and was certified fivefold platinum by the RIAA, selling over fourteen million copies worldwide.[8][14]

Control was declared "remarkably nervy and mature" for a teenage act, also considered "an alternative to the sentimental balladry" which permeated radio, likening Jackson to Donna Summer's position of "unwilling to accept novelty status and taking her own steps to rise above it."[15][16][17] The album spawned five top five singles, "What Have You Done for Me Lately", "Nasty", "When I Think of You", "Control", and "Let's Wait Awhile", and a top fifteen hit with "The Pleasure Principle". "When I Think of You" became her first number one hit on the Hot 100. Control received six Billboard Awards, including "Top Pop Singles Artist", and three Grammy nominations, most notably "Album of the Year".[18] It also won four American Music Awards from twelve nominations, an unbroken record.[19][20][21] At this point, Jackson was successfully "shaking off the experience of being a shadow Jackson child", becoming "an artist in her own right".[22]

The album's lyrical content included several themes of empowerment, inspired by an incident of sexual harassment, with Jackson recalling "the danger hit home when a couple of guys started stalking me on the street ... Instead of running to Jimmy or Terry for protection, I took a stand. I backed them down. That's how songs like 'Nasty' and 'What Have You Done for Me Lately' were born, out of a sense of self-defense."[23] Its innovative fusion of dance pop and industrial music with hip-hop and R&B undertones influenced the development of the new jack swing genre by bridging the gap between the latter two styles.[24] The album's music videos became infamous on MTV, also obtaining a then-unknown Paula Adbul a recording contract for her choreography work with Jackson.[25] Billboard stated "[Jackson's] accessible sound and spectacularly choreographed videos were irresistible to MTV, and helped the channel evolve from rock programming to a broader, beat-driven musical mix."[13]

1989–92: Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814[edit]

"Rhythm Nation" incorporates elements of dance pop and industrial music with the full range of new jack swing genre.

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Jackson released her fourth album, Rhythm Nation 1814, in September 1989. Although her record label desired a direct sequel to Control, Jackson chose to include a socially conscious theme among various musical styles.[26] She stated, "I know an album or a song can't change the world. I just want my music and my dance to catch the audience's attention, and to hold it long enough for them to listen to the lyrics."[27] The album's central theme of unity was developed in response to various crimes and tragedies reported in the media.[28]

Peaking at number one on the Billboard 200, the album was certified sixfold platinum by the RIAA and sold over fourteen million copies internationally.[8][14] Rolling Stone observed Jackson's artistic growth shifted from "personal freedom to more universal concerns—injustice, illiteracy, crime, drugs—without missing a beat."[29] The album was also considered "the exclamation point on her career", consisting of a "diverse collection of songs flowing with the natural talent Jackson possesses", which effectively "expanded Janet's range in every conceivable direction", being "more credibly feminine, more crucially masculine, more viably adult, more believably childlike."[30] With singles "Miss You Much", "Rhythm Nation", "Escapade", "Alright", "Come Back to Me", "Black Cat" and "Love Will Never Do (Without You)", it became the only album in history to produce number one hits in three separate calendar years, as well as the only album to achieve seven top five singles on the Hot 100.[31] Famous for its choreography and warehouse setting, the "Rhythm Nation" video is considered one of the most iconic and popular in history, with Jackson's military ensemble also making her a fashion icon.[32] The video for Love Will Never Do (Without You) is notable for being the first instance of Jackson's transition into sexual imagery and midriff-baring style, becoming her trademark. Rhythm Nation 1814 became the highest selling album of 1990, winning a record fifteen Billboard Awards.[33][34][35] The long-form "Rhythm Nation" music video won a Grammy Award, with Jackson also awarded "Songwriter for the Year" from BMI.[36]

Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814 World Tour became the most successful debut tour in history and set a record for the fastest sell-out of Japan's Tokyo Dome.[37] She established the "Rhythm Nation Scholarship," donating funds from the tour to various educational programs.[38][39] Jackson became increasingly acknowledged for her cultural impact, called "a fixture on MTV and a major role model to teenage girls across the country", as well as a social leader, praised for the album's message "having positive effects" among youth.[40][41] The massive success experienced by Jackson placed her in league with Michael Jackson, Madonna, and Tina Turner for her achievements and influence.[42] A publication reported, "No individual or group has impacted the world of entertainment as have Michael and Janet Jackson," saying despite many imitators, few could surpass Jackson's "stunning style and dexterity."[43] In 1992, Jackson provided guest vocals on Luther Vandross's "The Best Things in Life Are Free", becoming a top ten Billboard hit and reaching the top ten internationally.[44]

1993–96: Janet, Poetic Justice, and Design of a Decade[edit]

Janet Jackson featured on an iconic cover of Rolling Stone with the hands of her then-unknown husband René Elizondo, Jr. cupping her breasts.

Jackson fulfilled her contract with A&M Records, signing a multi-million dollar contract with Virgin Records estimated between thirty-two to fifty million dollars, making her the highest paid recording artist at the time.[43][45] The recording contract also established her reputation as the "Queen of Pop."[46] Jackson's fifth studio album Janet, stylized as janet. and read "Janet, period", was released in May 1993. The record opened at number one on the Billboard 200, making Jackson the first female artist in the Nielsen SoundScan era to do so.[8][47] Certified sixfold platinum by the RIAA, it sold over 20 million copies worldwide.[14][48] Janet spawned five singles and four promotional singles, receiving various certifications worldwide. Lead single "That's the Way Love Goes" won the Grammy Award for Best R&B Song and topped the Billboard Hot 100 for eight consecutive weeks.[49] "Again" reached number one for three weeks, while "If" and "Any Time, Any Place" peaked in the top four. "Because of Love" and "You Want This" charted within the top ten.

The album experimented with a diverse number of genres, including deep house, swing jazz, hip-hop, rock, and contemporary R&B blended with pop, with Billboard describing each as being "delivered with consummate skill and passion."[50] Jackson took a larger role in songwriting and production than she did on her previous albums, explaining she found it necessary "to write all the lyrics and half of the melodies" while also speaking candidly about incorporating her sexuality into the album's content.[23] Rolling Stone wrote "[a]s princess of America's black royal family, everything Janet Jackson does is important. Whether proclaiming herself in charge of her life, as she did on Control (1986), or commander in chief of a rhythm army dancing to fight society's problems (Rhythm Nation 1814, from 1989), she's influential. And when she announces her sexual maturity, as she does on her new album, Janet., it's a cultural moment."[51]

In July 1993, Jackson made her film debut in Poetic Justice. While the film was critically panned, her performance was described as "beguiling" and "believably eccentric."[52][53] Jackson's ballad "Again", which was written for the film, received Golden Globe and Academy Award nominations for "Best Original Song."[54][55] In September 1993, Jackson appeared topless on the cover of Rolling Stone, with her breasts covered by former husband René Elizondo, Jr. The photograph is the original version of the cropped image used on the Janet album cover, shot by Patrick Demarchelier.[56] The Vancouver Sun reported, "Jackson, 27, remains clearly established as both role model and sex symbol; the Rolling Stone photo of Jackson ... became one of the most recognizable, and most lampooned, magazine covers."[57] The Janet World Tour launched in support of the studio album garnered criticism for Jackson's lack of vocal proficiency and spontaneity, but earned critical acclaim for her showmanship. It was described as erasing the line between "stadium-size pop music concerts and full-scale theatrical extravaganzas."[58]

During this time, her brother Michael was immersed in a child sex abuse scandal, of which he denied any wrongdoing.[59] She provided moral support, defending her brother, and denied abuse allegations regarding her parents made by her sister La Toya.[60] She collaborated with Michael Jackson on "Scream", the lead single from his album HIStory, released 1995. The song was written by both siblings as a response to media scrutiny.[61] It debuted at number five on the Hot 100 singles chart, becoming the first song ever to debut within the top five. "Scream" is listed in Guinness World Records as the "Most Expensive Music Video Ever Made", costing $7 million. The clip won the 1995 Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video.[36]

Jackson's first compilation album, Design of a Decade 1986/1996, was released in 1995. It peaked at number three on the Billboard 200.[8] The lead single, "Runaway", became the first song by a female artist to debut within the top ten of the Hot 100, reaching number three.[62][63] Design of a Decade 1986/1996 was certified double platinum by the RIAA and sold ten million copies worldwide.[14] Jackson's influence in pop music continued to garner acclaim, as The Boston Globe remarked "If you're talking about the female power elite in pop, you can't get much higher than Janet Jackson, Bonnie Raitt, Madonna and Yoko Ono. Their collective influence ... is beyond measure. And who could dispute that Janet Jackson now has more credibility than brother Michael?"[64] Jackson renewed her contract with Virgin Records for a reported $80 million the following year.[65] The contract established her as the then-highest paid recording artist in history, surpassing the recording industry's then-unparalleled $60 million contracts earned by Michael Jackson and Madonna.[66][67][68]

1997–99: The Velvet Rope[edit]

Jackson began suffering from severe depression and anxiety, leading her to chronicle the experience in her sixth album, The Velvet Rope, released October 1997. Jackson returned with a dramatic change in image, boasting vibrant red hair, nasal piercings, and tattoos.[69] The album is primarily centered on the idea that everyone has an intrinsic need to belong. Aside from encompassing lyrics relating to social issues such as same-sex relationships, homophobia and domestic violence, it also contains themes of sadomasochism and is considered far more sexually explicit in nature than her previous release, Janet.[7] The record was hailed as "her most daring, elaborate and accomplished album" by The New York Times, while Billboard ranked it as "the best American album of the year and the most empowering of her last five."[70][71] The album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and was certified triple platinum, selling over ten million worldwide.[14]

Lead single "Got 'til It's Gone" was released in August 1997, featuring guest vocals from folk singer Joni Mitchell and rapper Q-Tip. The song's music video, depicting a pre-Apartheid celebration, won the Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video.[36] "Together Again" became Jackson's eighth number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100, placing her on par with Elton John, Diana Ross, and The Rolling Stones.[49] It spent a record forty-six weeks on the Hot 100 and nineteen weeks on the United Kingdom's singles chart.[49] It sold six million copies worldwide, becoming one of the best-selling singles of all time. "I Get Lonely" peaked at number three on the Hot 100, and received a Grammy nomination for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance.[72] As Jackson's eighteenth consecutive top ten hit, it made her the only female artist to garner that achievement, surpassed only by Elvis Presley and The Beatles.[73] Several other singles were released, including "Go Deep" and ballad "Every Time", which was controversial for the nudity displayed in its music video.[74]

The album fully established Jackson as a gay icon for its themes regarding homosexuality and protesting homophobia. "Together Again", a "post-Aids pop song", and "Free Xone", considered "a paean to homosexuality" and an "anti-homophobia track", were praised for their lyrical context, in addition to Jackson's lesbian reinterpretation of Rod Stewart's "Tonight's the Night".[75][76] The Velvet Rope received an award for "Outstanding Music Album" at the 9th Annual GLAAD Media Awards and was honored by the National Black Lesbian and Gay Leadership Forum.[77] A portion of the proceeds from "Together Again" were donated to the American Foundation for AIDS Research.[49]

Jackson embarked on The Velvet Rope World Tour, traveling to Europe, North America, Asia, Africa, New Zealand, and Australia. The tour received praise for its theatrics, choreography, and Jackson's vocal performance.[78] It was likened to "the ambition and glamour of a Broadway musical", and exclaimed as "only fitting that the concert program credits her as the show's 'creator and director'."[78] The tour's HBO special, The Velvet Rope: Live in Madison Square Garden, garnered more than fifteen million viewers. It surpassed the ratings of all four major networks among viewers subscribed to the channel.[79] The concert won an Emmy Award from a total of four nominations.[80] Jackson donated a portion of the tour's sales to America's Promise, an organization founded by Colin Powell to assist disenfranchised youth.[81]

As the tour concluded, Jackson lent guest vocals to several collaborations, including Shaggy's "Luv Me, Luv Me", used for the film How Stella Got Her Groove Back, as well as "Girlfriend/Boyfriend" with Teddy Riley's group Blackstreet, and "What's It Gonna Be?!" with Busta Rhymes. The latter two music videos are both among the most expensive music videos ever produced, with "What's It Gonna Be?!" becoming a number-one hit on the Billboard Hip-Hop Singles and Hot Rap Tracks charts, reaching the top three of the Hot 100. Jackson also contributed the ballad "God's Stepchild" to the Down in the Delta soundtrack. Jackson recorded a duet with Elton John titled "I Know the Truth," included on the soundtrack to Elton John and Tim Rice's Aida. At the 1999 World Music Awards, Jackson received the Legend Award for "outstanding contribution to the pop industry".[82] Billboard ranked Jackson as the second most successful artist of the decade, behind Mariah Carey.[83]

2000–03: Nutty Professor II: The Klumps and All for You[edit]

In July 2000, Jackson appeared in her second film, The Nutty Professor II: The Klumps, as the role of Professor Denise Gaines, opposite Eddie Murphy. Director Peter Segal stated "Janet Jackson was a natural fit, and an obvious choice."[84] The film became her second to open at number one, grossing an estimated total of nearly $170 million worldwide.[85][86] Jackson's single "Doesn't Really Matter", used for the film's soundtrack, became her ninth number-one single on the Hot 100. The same year, Jackson's husband Rene Elizondo Jr. filed for divorce, revealing their private marriage to the public. Entertainment Weekly reported for eight of the thirteen years she and Elizondo had been acquainted, "[they] were married—a fact they managed to hide not only from the international press but from Jackson's own father."[87] Elizondo filed a multi-million dollar lawsuit against her, estimated between $10–25 million, which did not reach a settlement for three years.[87][88]

Preceding the release of her seventh album, MTV honored Jackson with the network's inaugural "MTV Icon" ceremony, honoring her "significant contributions to music, music video and pop culture while tremendously impacting the MTV generation." The event paid tribute to Jackson's career and influence, including commentary from Britney Spears, Jennifer Lopez, Aaliyah, and Jessica Simpson, and performances by 'N Sync, Pink, Destiny's Child, Usher, Buckcherry, and Outkast.[89] The American Music Awards also honored Jackson with the Award of Merit for "her finely crafted, critically acclaimed and socially conscious, multi-platinum albums."[90] Jackson's seventh album, All for You, was released in April 2001. It opened at number one on the Billboard 200 with 605,000 copies sold, the highest first-week sales of her career, and among the highest first-week sales by a female artist in history.[8][91] The album was a return to an upbeat dance style, receiving generally positive reception. Jackson received praise for indulging in "textures as dizzying as a new infatuation", in contrast to other artists attempting to "match the angularity of hip-hop" and following trends.[92] All for You was certified double platinum by the RIAA and sold nine million copies worldwide.[14][93]

Jackson's "All for You" peaked atop the Billboard Hot 100 for seven weeks.

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The album's lead single, "All for You", debuted on the Hot 100 at number fourteen, setting a record for the highest debut by a single that was not commercially available.[94] Jackson was titled "Queen of Radio" by MTV as the single made airplay history, being "added to every pop, rhythmic and urban radio station" within its first week.[94] The song broke the overall airplay debut record with a first week audience of seventy million, debuting at number nine on the Radio Songs chart.[95] It topped the Hot 100 for seven weeks, also reaching the top ten in eleven countries.[96] The song received a Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording.[36] "Someone to Call My Lover" peaked at number three on the Hot 100.[97] Built around a sample of the iconic 1972 hit "You're So Vain" by Carly Simon, "Son of a Gun (I Betcha Think This Song Is About You)" featured Simon herself, along with Missy Elliott on remixes of the single.

In July 2001, Jackson embarked on the All for You Tour, which was also broadcast on a concert special for HBO watched by twelve million viewers.[98] The tour traveled throughout the United States and Japan, although European and Asian dates were required to be canceled following the September 11 terrorist attacks. The Los Angeles Times complimented Jackson's showmanship.[99] Richard Harrington of the Washington Post said Jackson's performance surpassed her contemporaries,[100] but Bob Massy of Spin thought her dancers "threw crisper moves" and her supporting singers were mixed nearly as high, though declared "Janet cast herself as the real entertainment."[101] Jackson donated a portion of the tour's proceeds to the Boys & Girls Clubs of America.[102]

The following year, Jackson began receiving media attention for her rumored relationships with Justin Timberlake, actor Matthew McConaughey, and record producer Jermaine Dupri.[103][104][105] Upon the release of Timberlake's debut solo album Justified, Jackson provided vocals on "(And She Said) Take Me Now" per Timberlake's request, with the song initially planned as a single. Jackson collaborated with reggae artist Beenie Man for the song "Feel It Boy", produced by The Neptunes.

2004–05: Super Bowl XXXVIII controversy and Damita Jo[edit]

Jackson was chosen by the National Football League and MTV to perform at the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show in February 2004. Jackson performed a medley of "All for You", "Rhythm Nation", and an excerpt of "The Knowledge" before performing "Rock Your Body" alongside surprise guest Justin Timberlake. As Timberlake sang the lyric "I'm gonna have you naked by the end of this song", he tore open her costume, exposing her right breast to 140 million viewers. Jackson issued an apology after the performance, saying the incident was accidental and unintended, explaining that Timberlake was only meant to pull away a bustier and leave the red-lace bra intact.[106] She commented, "I am really sorry if I offended anyone. That was truly not my intention ... MTV, CBS, the NFL had no knowledge of this whatsoever, and unfortunately, the whole thing went wrong in the end."[107] Timberlake also issued an apology, calling the accident a "wardrobe malfunction."[106] The incident became the most recorded and replayed moment in TiVo history, enticing an estimated 35,000 new subscribers.[108][109] Regarded as one of the most controversial television events in history, Jackson was later listed in Guinness World Records as the "Most Searched in Internet History" and the "Most Searched for News Item".[110] CBS, the NFL, and MTV (CBS's sister network, which produced the halftime show), denied any knowledge of, and all responsibility for, the incident. The Federal Communications Commission heavily fined all companies involved, and continued an investigation for eight years, ultimately losing its appeal for a $550,000 fine against CBS.[111]

Jackson and Timberlake photographed after the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show incident.

Following the incident, CBS permitted Timberlake to appear at the 46th Grammy Awards ceremony but did not allow Jackson to attend, forcing her to withdraw after being scheduled as a presenter.[112] People Magazine revealed Jackson "had been slated to speak before the accolade but was being pressured to bow out gracefully – or face being uninvited," before being completely barred from attending.[113] The controversy halted plans for Jackson to star in the biographical film of singer and activist Lena Horne, which was to be produced by American Broadcasting Company. Although Horne was reportedly displeased by the incident, Jackson's representatives stated she withdrew from the project willingly.[114] A Mickey Mouse statue wearing Jackson's iconic "Rhythm Nation" outfit was mantled at Walt Disney World theme park the previous year to honor Jackson's legacy, but was removed following Jackson's controversial performance.[115]

Jackson's eighth studio album Damita Jo, titled after Jackson's middle name, was released in March 2004. It debuted at number two on the Billboard 200.[8][116] Jackson worked with a variety of producers, including Dallas Austin, Télépopmusik, Cathy Dennis, BAG & Arnthor, and Scott Storch. The album received mixed to positive reviews, praising the sonic innovation of selected songs and Jackson's vocal harmonies, while others criticized its frequent themes of carnality.[117] However, several critics observed many reviews focusing on the Super Bowl incident, rather than critiquing the album itself.[118] Blender declared it "Artfully structured, unapologetically explicit" and "erotica at its friendliest and most well-balanced."[119] The New York Times also commented "the album is even sleeker and sexier than its predecessor, All for You, and in saner times, that would be enough to ensure its success."[120] It was certified platinum by the RIAA within a month, and sold over three million copies worldwide.[14][121]

The album's performance was largely affected by public backlash and the blacklisting from radio and music channels. Conglomerates involved in the boycott include Viacom and CBS, subsidiaries MTV, Clear Channel Communications, and Infinity Broadcasting, the latter two among the largest radio broadcasters.[122][123] The blacklist was placed into effect preceding the release of Damita Jo and continued throughout the course of Jackson's following two albums. A senior executive for entertainment conglomerate Viacom, which owns MTV, VH1, and many radio formats, commented they were "absolutely bailing on the record. The pressure is so great, they can't align with anything related to Janet. The high-ups are still pissed at her, and this is a punitive measure."[124] Prior to the incident, Damita Jo was expected to outsell prior release All for You.[125] Its three singles received positive reviews, but failed to achieve high chart positions, although each were predicted to perform extremely well under different circumstances.[126] Its lead single, the rock-influenced "Just a Little While", became the most-added song on radio upon its release, increasing nearly five-hundred percent in airplay and garnering "sizeable" digital downloads.[127][128][129] However, it was quickly removed from airplay upon the blacklisting. Following single "I Want You" was certified platinum and received a Grammy nomination.[130] "All Nite (Don't Stop)" became the album's third release, fusing electropop, funk, and samba, and was declared "one of the biggest records this year in several different scenes" due to its popularity.[131] Billboard reported that Damita Jo "was largely overshadowed by the Super Bowl fiasco," saying "[t]he three singles it spawned were blacklisted by pop radio—they were also the album's biggest highlights—the electronic guitar studded "Just a Little While", Motown-influenced "I Want You" and the funky, heavily dance orientated "All Nite (Don't Stop)".[132]

For the album's promotion, Jackson appeared as a host on Saturday Night Live, performing two songs, and was also a guest star on sitcom Will & Grace, portraying herself.[133] Jackson received several career accodales upon the album's release, including the "Legend Award" at the Radio Music Awards, "Inspiration Award" from the Japan Video Music Awards, "Lifetime Achievement Award" at the Soul Train Music Awards, and a Teen Choice Awards nomination for "Favorite Female." In November 2004, Jackson was honored as a role model by 100 Black Men of America, Inc., presented with the organization's Artistic Achievement Award saluting "a career that has gone from success to greater success'."[134] In response to criticism for honoring Jackson in light of the Super Bowl incident, the organization responded "an individual's worth can't be judged by a single moment in that person's life."[135][136] In June 2005, she was honored with a Humanitarian Award by the Human Rights Campaign and AIDS Project Los Angeles as recognition for her involvement in raising money for AIDS charities.[137]

2006–07: 20 Y.O. and Why Did I Get Married?[edit]

Jackson with the winners of the "Design Me" contest held for her ninth studio album, 20 Y.O.

Jackson began recording her ninth studio album, 20 Y.O., in 2005. Jackson initially worked with various producers, including The Neptunes,[138] Dr. Dre,[139] Kwamé,[140] and Polow Da Don,[141] but the concept was changed when Jermaine Dupri was selected to manage the project after becoming a division president at Virgin Records. Jackson then recorded with Dupri and Jam and Lewis for several months during the following year. The album's title was a reference to the two decades since the release of her breakthrough album Control, representing the album's "celebration of the joyful liberation and history-making musical style."[142] To promote the album, Jackson appeared in various magazines, and performed on the Today Show and Billboard Awards. Jackson's Us Weekly cover, revealing her slim figure after heavy media focus was placed on her fluctuations in weight, became the magazine's best-selling issue in history.[143] 20 Y.O. was released in September 2006 and debuted at number two on the Billboard 200.[8] The album received mixed reviews, with multiple critics chastising the production and involvement of Jermaine Dupri.[144] Rolling Stone disagreed with the album's reference to Control, saying "If we were her, we wouldn't make the comparison."[144] Following the album's release, a producer who worked on the original 20 Y.O. concept prior to Dupri's involvement stated, "the finished project we had before Jermaine took everything over is crazy. Ask Jimmy & Terry how they felt when Jermaine came in and changed almost everything."[138]

Jackson's airplay and music channel blacklist remained persistent, massively affecting her chart performance and exposure.[122][145] However, lead single "Call on Me", which featured rapper Nelly, peaked at number twenty-five on the Hot 100, number one on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, and number six in the United Kingdom.[72] The video for the album's second single, "So Excited", was directed by Joseph Kahn and portrayed Jackson's clothes disappearing through a complex dance routine. 20 Y.O. was certified platinum by the RIAA and sold 1.2 million worldwide, also receiving a Grammy nomination for Best Contemporary R&B Album.[14][146][147] After the album's release, Dupri was condemened for his production and misguidance of the album, and subsequently was removed from his position at Virgin Records.[148] Slant Magazine stated, "After promising a return to Janet's dance-pop origins, [Dupri] opted to aim for urban audiences, a colossal mistake that cost Dupri his job and, probably, Janet her deal with Virgin."[149]

Jackson was ranked the seventh richest woman in the entertainment industry by Forbes, having amassed a fortune of over $150 million.[150] In 2007, she starred opposite Tyler Perry as a psychotherapist in the film Why Did I Get Married?. It became her third consecutive film to open at number one at the box office, grossing $60 million in total.[151] Jackson's performance was prasied for its "soft authority", though also described as "charming, yet bland".[152][153] In February 2008, Jackson won an Image Award for "Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture" for the role.[154] Jackson was also approached to record the lead single for the film Rush Hour 3.[155]

2008–09: Discipline and Number Ones[edit]

Jackson performing during the Rock Witchu Tour.

Jackson signed with Island Records after her contract with Virgin was fulfilled. She interrupted plans for touring and began recording with various producers, including Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins, Tricky Stewart, and Stargate.[156] Her tenth studio album, Discipline, was released in February 2008, opening at number one.[8] Despite radio blacklisting, the album's first single "Feedback" peaked at number nineteen on the Hot 100 and nine on Pop Songs, her highest charting single since "Someone to Call My Lover".[72][157] The second single, "Rock With U", peaked at number four in the United Kingdom. Jackson was awarded the Vanguard Award at the 19th annual GLAAD Media Awards, honoring her contributions in promoting equal rights among the gay community.[77] The organization's president commented, "Ms. Jackson has a tremendous following inside the LGBT community and out, and having her stand with us against the defamation that LGBT people still face in our country is extremely significant."[77]

Jackson's fifth concert tour, the Rock Witchu Tour, began in September 2008.[158] Jackson parted with Island Records through mutual agreement. Billboard disclosed Jackson was dissatisfied with LA Reid's handling of the album and its promotion, saying "the label agreed to dissolve their relationship with the artist at her request."[159][160] Producer Rodney Jerkins expressed "I felt like it wasn't pushed correctly.... She just didn't get her just-do as an artist of that magnitude."[161]

In June 2009, Jackson's brother Michael passed away at age fifty. She spoke publicly concerning his death at the 2009 BET Awards, stating "I'd just like to say, to you, Michael is an icon, to us, Michael is family. And he will forever live in all of our hearts. On behalf of my family and myself, thank you for all of your love, thank you for all of your support. We miss him so much."[162] In an interview, she revealed she had first learned of his death while filming Why Did I Get Married Too?. Amidst mourning with her family, she focused on work to deal with the grief, avoiding any news coverage of her sibling's death. She commented, "it's still important to face reality, and not that I'm running, but sometimes you just need to get away for a second."[163] During this time, she ended her seven-year relationship with Jermaine Dupri.[163] Several months later, Jackson performed a tribute to Michael at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards, performing their duet "Scream".[164] MTV stated "there was no one better than Janet to anchor it and send a really powerful message."[165] The performance was lauded by critics, with Entertainment Weekly affirming the rendition "as energetic as it was heartfelt".[166]

Jackson's second hits compilation, Number Ones, was released in November 2009. For promotion, she performed a medley of hits at the American Music Awards, Capital FM's Jingle Bell Ball at London's O2 arena, and The X-Factor.[167][168] The album's promotional single "Make Me", produced with Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins, debuted in September.[169] It became Jackson's nineteenth number one on the Hot Dance Club Songs chart, making her the first artist to have number-one singles in four separate decades.[170] Later that month, Jackson chaired the inaugural benefit of amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, held in Milan in conjunction with fashion week. The foundation's CEO stated "We are profoundly grateful to Janet Jackson for joining amfAR as a chair of its first event in Milan.... She brings incomparable grace and a history of dedication to the fight against AIDS."[171] The event raised a total of $1.1 million for the nonprofit organization.

2010–present: Film projects, True You, concert tour, and philanthropy[edit]

In April 2010, Jackson reprised her role in the sequel to Why Did I Get Married? titled Why Did I Get Married Too?. The film opened at number two, grossing sixty million in total.[172] Jackson's performance was hailed as "invigorating and oddly funny", and praised for her "willingness to be seen at her most disheveled".[173][174] Her performance earned an Image Award for "Outstanding Actress in a Motion Picture".[175] Jackson recorded the film's theme, "Nothing", released as a promotional single.[176] The song was performed on the ninth season finale of American Idol along with "Again" and "Nasty".[177] In July, Jackson modeled for the Blackglama clothing line featuring mink fur.[178] Jackson then helped design a signature line of clothing and accessories for Blackglama, to be sold at Saks Fifth Avenue and Bloomingdales.[179] Universal Music released the hits compilation Icon: Number Ones as the debut of the Icon compilation series.

In November 2010, Jackson starred as Joanna in the drama For Colored Girls, the film adaptation of Ntozake Shange's 1975 play For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow Is Enuf. The Wall Street Journal stated Jackson "recites verses written by Ntozake Shange, the author of the play that inspired the film ... But instead of offering up a mannered coffeehouse reading of the lines, Jackson makes the words sound like ordinary—though very eloquent—speech."[180] Jackson's portrayal the film was likened to Meryl Streep as Miranda Priestly in The Devil Wears Prada.[181][182] Her performance earned Black Reel Awards nominations in the categories of Outstanding Supporting Actress and Outstanding Ensemble.[183]

Jackson performing during the Number Ones, Up Close and Personal tour.

Jackson announced plans to embark on her largest world tour in support of her second hits collection, Number Ones.[184] The tour, entitled Number Ones, Up Close and Personal, held concerts in thirty-five global cities, selected by fans who submitted suggestions on her official website.[184][184] During the tour, Jackson performed thirty-five number one hits and dedicated a song to each city.[184] Mattel released a limited-edition Barbie of Jackson titled "Divinely Janet", auctioned for over $15,000, with proceeds donated to Project Angel Food.[185] Jackson released the self-help book True You: A Journey to Finding and Loving Yourself in February 2011, co-written with David Ritz. It chronicled her struggle with weight and confidence, also publishing letters from fans. It topped The New York Times '​ Best Seller list the following month.[186] Additionally, she signed a film production contract with Lions Gate Entertainment to "select, develop and produce a feature film for the independent studio."[187]

Jackson became the first female pop singer to perform at the I. M. Pei glass pyramid at the Louvre Museum, raising contributions for the restoration of iconic artwork.[188] Louvre President-Director Henri Loyrette stated "Janet Jackson is one of the world’s greatest artistic treasures ... Accordingly, we are profoundly honored, and believe it most fitting, that her performance in the Louvre Museum will be yet another masterpiece captured under our glorious glass pyramid."[189] Jackson was selected to endorse fashion line Blackglama for a second year, being the first celebrity in the line's history chosen to do so.[190] She partnered with the label to release a fifteen-piece collection of luxury products.[191]

In 2012, Jackson endorsed Nutrisystem, sponsoring their weight-loss program after struggling with weight fluctuations in the past.[192] With the program, she donated ten million dollars in meals to the hungry.[192] She attended the amFAR Cinema Against AIDS ball in Cannes in a white Pucci gown, revealing her toned figure.[193][194] Jackson was honored by amfAR for her contributions to AIDS research when chairing the Cinema Against AIDS gala during the Cannes Film Festival.[195] She also participated in a public service announcement for UNICEF to help starving children.[196] In February 2013, Jackson announced she was married to her third husband, Qatari billionaire Wissam Al Mana, during a private ceremony the previous year.[197] She later confirmed she is recording a new album and "creating the concept and initial thoughts on the music."[198] She has collaborated with producers including Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins, Jean Baptiste, and Bangladesh for the upcoming project.[199][200]

Artistry[edit]

Music and voice[edit]

Jackson has a mezzo-soprano vocal range.[201] Over the course of her career, she has received frequent criticism for the limits of her vocal capabilities, especially in comparison to contemporary artists such as Whitney Houston and Mariah Carey.[202] In comparing her vocal technique to Houston and Aretha Franklin, vocal coach Roger Love states that "[w]hen Janet sings, she allows a tremendous amount of air to come through. She's obviously aiming for a sexy, sultry effect, and on one level that works nicely. But actually, it's fairly limited." He adds that while her voice is suitable for studio recording, it doesn't translate well to stage because despite having "great songs, incredible dancing, and her star like presence, the live show is still magnificent. But the voice is not the star."[203] Biographer David Ritz commented, "on Janet's albums—and in her videos and live performances, which revealed a crisp, athletic dance technique [...] singing wasn't the point," saying emphasis was placed on "her slamming beats, infectious hooks, and impeccable production values."[44] Eric Henderson of Slant magazine claimed critics opposing her small voice "somehow missed the explosive 'gimme a beat' vocal pyrotechnics she unleashes all over 'Nasty' ... Or that they completely dismissed how perfect her tremulous hesitance fits into the abstinence anthem 'Let's Wait Awhile'."[204] Classical composer Louis Andriessen has praised Jackson for her "rubato, sense of rhythm, sensitivity, and the childlike quality of her strangely erotic voice."[205] Several critics also consider her voice to often be enveloped within her music's production. Music critic J. D. Considine noted "on albums, Jackson's sound isn't defined by her voice so much as by the way her voice is framed by the lush, propulsive production of Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis."[206] Wendy Robinson of PopMatters said "the power of Janet Jackson’s voice does not lie in her pipes. She doesn’t blow, she whispers ... Jackson’s confectionary vocals are masterfully complemented by gentle harmonies and balanced out by pulsing rhythms, so she’s never unpleasant to listen to."[207] Matthew Perpetus of Fluxblog suggested Jackson's vocal techniques as a study for indie rock music, considering it to possess "a somewhat subliminal effect on the listener, guiding and emphasizing dynamic shifts without distracting attention from its primal hooks." Perpetus added: "Her voice effortlessly transitions from a rhythmic toughness to soulful emoting to a flirty softness without overselling any aspect of her performance ... a continuum of emotions and attitudes that add up to the impression that we're listening to the expression of a fully-formed human being with contradictions and complexities."[208]

Written solely by Jackson, "Black Cat" was recorded using a mixture of Rockman and Marshall amplifier to give it a heavy metal sound. The song's lyrics convey a stance against substance abuse.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Jackson's music has encompassed a broad range of genres with contemporary pop, including R&B, dance, rock, hip-hop, soul, house, and industrial music. The diversity within Jackson's discography has influenced subsequent stylistic albums in contemporary pop.[209][210] Qadree EI-Amin, Jackson's former personal manager, commented, "she's bigger than Barbra Streisand because Streisand can't appeal to the street crowd as Janet does. But Streisand's rich, elite crowd loves Janet Jackson."[211] Her records from the 1980s have been described as being influenced by Prince, as her producers are ex-members of The Time.[212] Sal Cinquemani wrote that in addition to defining Top 40 radio, she "gave Prince's Minneapolis sound a distinctly feminine—and, with songs like 'What Have You Done for Me Lately?,' 'Nasty,' 'Control,' and 'Let's Wait Awhile,' a distinctly feminist—spin."[213] On Control, Richard J. Ripani documented that she, Jam and Lewis had "crafted a new sound that fuses the rhythmic elements of funk and disco, along with heavy doses of synthesizers, percussion, sound effects, and a rap music sensibility."[24] Author Rickey Vincent stated that she has often been credited for redefining the standard of popular music with the industrial-strength beats of the album.[214] She is considered a trendsetter in pop balladry, with Richard Rischar stating "the black pop ballad of the mid-1980s had been dominated by the vocal and production style that was smooth and polished, led by singers Whitney Houston, Janet Jackson, and James Ingram."[215] Jackson continued her musical development by blending contemporary pop and urban music with elements of hip-hop in the nineties. This included a softer representation, articulated by lush, soulful ballads and up-tempo dance beats.[216] She has been described as "an artist who has reshaped the sound and image of rhythm and blues" within the first decade of her career.[217] Critic Karla Peterson remarked that "she is a sharp dancer, an appealing performer, and as 'That's the Way Love Goes' proves—an ace pop-song writer."[218] Selected material from the following decade has been viewed less favorably, as Sal Cinquemani comments "except for maybe R.E.M., no other former superstar act has been as prolific with such diminishing commercial and creative returns."[213]

Jackson has changed her lyrical focus over the years, becoming the subject of analysis in musicology, African American studies, and gender studies.[219][220] David Ritz compared Jackson's musical style to Marvin Gaye's, stating, "like Marvin, autobiography seemed the sole source of her music. Her art, also like Marvin's, floated over a reservoir of secret pain."[221] Much of her success has been attributed to "a series of powerful, metallic grooves; her chirpy, multi-tracked vocals; and a lyrical philosophy built on pride and self-knowledge."[222] Ritz also stated, "The mystery is the low flame that burns around the perimeters of Janet Jackson's soul. The flame feeds off the most highly combustible elements: survival and ambition, caution and creativity, supreme confidence and dark fear."[221] During the 1980s, her lyrics embodied self-actualization, feminist principles, and politically driven ideology.[220][223] Gillian G. Gaar, author of She's a Rebel: The History of Women in Rock & Roll (2002), described Control as "an autobiographical tale about her life with her parents, her first marriage, and breaking free."[12] Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture (2010) author Jessie Carney Smith wrote "with that album, she asserted her independence, individuality, and personal power. She challenged audiences to see her as a transformed person, from an ingénue to a grow-up, multi-talented celebrity."[224] Referring to Rhythm Nation 1814 as an embodiment of hope, Timothy E. Scheurer, author of Born in the USA: The Myth of America in Popular Music from Colonial Times to the Present (2007) wrote "It may remind some of Sly Stone prior to There's a Riot Going On and other African-American artists of the 1970s in its tacit assumption that the world imagined by Dr. King is still possible, that the American Dream is a dream for all people."[225]

On Janet, Jackson began focusing on sexual themes. Shayne Lee, author of Erotic Revolutionaries: Black Women, Sexuality, and Popular Culture (2010), wrote that her music over the following decade "brand[ed] her as one of the most sexually stimulating vocalists of the 1990s."[226] In You've Come A Long Way, Baby: Women, Politics, and Popular Culture (1996), Lilly J. Goren observed "Jackson's evolution from politically aware musician to sexy diva marked the direction that society and the music industry were encouraging the dance-rock divas to pursue."[223] The Washington Post declared Jackson's public image over the course of her career had shifted "from innocence to experience, inspiring such carnal albums as 1993's 'Janet' and 1997's 'The Velvet Rope', the latter of which explored the bonds—figuratively and literally—of love and lust."[227] The song "Free Xone" from The Velvet Rope, which portrays same-sex relationships in a positive light, is described by sociologist Shayne Lee as "a rare incident in which a popular black vocalist explores romantic or sensual energy outside the contours of heteronormativity, making it a significant song in black sexual politics."[226] During promotion for Janet, she stated "I love feeling deeply sexual—and don't mind letting the world know. For me, sex has become a celebration, a joyful part of the creative process."[23] Upon the release of Damita Jo, Jackon stated "Beginning with the earlier albums, exploring—and liberating—my sexuality has been an ongoing discovery and theme," adding "As an artist, that's not only my passion, it's my obligation."[228] Stephen Thomas Erlewine has found Jackson's consistent inclusion of sex in her music lacking ingenuity, especially in comparisons to other artists such as Prince, stating "while sex indisputably fuels much great pop music, it isn't an inherently fascinating topic for pop music—as with anything, it all depends on the artist."[229]

Videos and stage[edit]

Jackson drew inspiration for her music videos and performances from musicals she watched in her youth, and was heavily influenced by the choreography of Fred Astaire and Michael Kidd, among others.[230] Throughout her career, she has worked with and brought numerous professional choreographers to prominence, such as Tina Landon, Paula Abdul, and Michael Kidd.[231] Veronica Chambers declared, "Her impact on pop music is undeniable and far-reaching," adding, "A quick glance at the Billboard chart reveals any number of artists cast in the Janet Jackson mold." Chambers observed numerous videos which "features not only Ms. Jackson's dancers but choreography and sets remarkably like those she has used."[232] Janine Coveney of Billboard observed that "Jackson's musical declaration of independence [Control] launched a string of hits, an indelible production sound, and an enduring image cemented by groundbreaking video choreography and imagery that pop vocalists still emulate."[142] Ben Hogwood of MusicOMH applauded the "huge influence she has become on younger pretenders to her throne," most notably Britney Spears, Jennifer Lopez and Christina Aguilera.[233] Qadree EI-Amin remarked that many pop artists "pattern their performances after Janet's proven dance-diva persona."[211]

Jackson (center) performing in the music video for "Rhythm Nation" surrounded by male and female dancers in militant unisex attire.

Beretta E. Smith-Shomade, author of Shaded Lives: African-American Women and Television (2002), wrote that "Jackson's impact on the music video sphere came largely through music sales successes, which afforded her more visual liberties and control. This assuming of control directly impacted the look and content of her music videos, giving Jackson an agency not assumed by many other artists—male or female, Black or White."[234] Parallel Lines: Media Representations of Dance (1993) documents that her videos have often been reminiscent of live concerts or elaborate musical theater.[235] Multiculturalism has also been a cornerstone of her videography.[236] The militant iconography of "Rhythm Nation" signifies a need for both racial and gender equality, as she and her dancers perform in identical uniforms while Jackson "is performing asexually and almost anonymously in front of, but as one of the members of the group."[237] Videos such as "If"—which "[exudes a] 'Last Emperor' lust and mystery"—and "Runaway" draw cultural influences from the orient.[238][239] Others, such as "Got 'til It's Gone" and "Together Again", explore African roots and the serengeti.[240][241] Her music videos have also found rapport within the gay community; the dramatic imagery in "Rhythm Nation" led to reenactments of the video in gay clubs, while her video for "Love Will Never Do (Without You)" is said to explore the aesthetic of the male body from both the heterosexual female and gay male perspective.[242][243] She has received the MTV Video Vanguard Award for her contributions to the art form, and became the first recipient of the MTV Icon tribute, celebrating her impact on the music industry as a whole. In 2003, Slant Magazine named "Rhythm Nation" and "Got 'til It's Gone" among the 100 Greatest Music Videos of all time, ranked at number 87 and number 10, respectively.[244][245] In 2011, "Rhythm Nation" was voted the tenth best music video of the 1980s by Billboard.[246]

Her music videos have contributed to a higher degree of sexual freedom among young women, as Jean M. Twenge, author of Generation Me: Why Today's Young Americans are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled—and More Miserable Than Ever Before (2007), wrote "In Alfred Kinsey's studies in the 1950s, only 3% of the young women had received oral sex from a man. By the mid-1990s, however, 75% of women aged 18-24 had experienced cunnilingus. Music videos by female artists have contributed to the trend," with Jackson "heavily implying male-on-female oral sex in music videos by pushing down on a man's head until he's in exactly the right position."[247] Similarly, Paula Kamen in Her Way: Young Women Remake the Sexual Revolution (2000) states that "[i]n the early to mid-1990s, oral sex even reached mainstream music as politically charged demand of truly liberated women," citing Jackson as a prime example of a female artist simulating cunnilingus in her videos.[248] However, accusations of cosmetic surgery, skin lightening, and increasingly hypersexual imagery have led to her being viewed as conforming to a white, male-dominated view of sexuality, rather than liberating herself or others.[234]

The Independent writer Nicholas Barber stated "Janet's concerts are the pop equivalent of a summer blockbuster movie, with all the explosions, special effects, ersatz sentimentality, gratuitous cleavage and emphasis on spectacle over coherence that the term implies."[249] Jet magazine reported "Janet's innovative stage performances during her world tours have won her a reputation as a world-class performer."[250] Chris Willman of Los Angeles Times stated the "enthralling" choreography of Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814 Tour "represents the pinnacle of what can be done in the popping 'n' locking style—a rapid-fire mixture of rigidly jerky and gracefully fluid movements."[251] When Jackson was asked "do you understand it when people talk about [The Velvet Rope Tour] in terms of Broadway?", she responded, "I'm crazy about Broadway ... That's what I grew up on."[78] Her "Number Ones: Up Close and Personal" tour deviated from the full-scale theatrics found in her previous concert arena settings in favor of smaller venues. Critics noted being scaled down did not affect the impact of her showmanship, and in some cases, enhanced it. Greg Kot of the Chicago Tribune wrote, "In past tours, Jackson's thin voice was often swallowed up by the sheer size of her production ... In the more scaled-down setting, Jackson brought a warmth and a passion that wasn't always evident in stadiums ... the best Janet Jackson performance I've covered in 20-plus years."[252]

Thor Christensen of The Dallas Morning News reported Jackson often lip syncs in concert; he wrote: "Janet Jackson—one of pop's most notorious onstage lip-syncers—conceded ... she uses 'some' taped vocals to augment her live vocals. But she refused to say what percentage of her concert 'voice' is taped and how much is live."[253] Michael MacCambridge of the Austin American-Statesman, who reviewed Jackson's Rhythm Nation World Tour, described lip-syncing as a "moot point", stating "Jackson was frequently singing along with her own pre-recorded vocals, to achieve a sound closer to radio versions of singles."[254] MacCambridge also observed "it seemed unlikely that anyone—even a prized member of the First Family of Soul Music—could dance like she did for 90 minutes and still provide the sort of powerful vocals that the '90s super concerts are expected to achieve."[254] Similarly, Chris Willman commented, "even a classically trained vocalist would be hard-pressed to maintain any sort of level of volume—or, more appropriately, 'Control'—while bounding up and down stairs and whipping limbs in unnatural directions at impeccable, breakneck speed."[251] Critics observed that in the smaller scale of her "Number Ones: Up Close and Personal" tour, she forewent lip-syncing.[255] Chris Richards of The Washington Post stated "even at its breathiest, that delicate voice hasn’t lost the laserlike precision."[256] He complemented her physically strenuous performance, stating "go on, Janet. Let ’em see you sweat. Because in a 21st-century popscape where concerts are driven by spectacle, we need to know that beneath all of the sci-fi costumes, strobe lights and Auto-Tune, we’re still witnessing a performance by the living, breathing, profusely sweating human being whose name is stamped on the tickets we just emptied our wallets for."[256]

Influences[edit]

Jackson describes Lena Horne as a profound inspiration, for entertainers of several generations as well as herself. Upon Horne's death, she stated "[Horne] brought much joy into everyone's lives—even the younger generations, younger than myself. She was such a great talent. She opened up such doors for artists like myself."[257] Similarly, she considers Dorothy Dandridge to be one of her idols.[258] Jackson has declared herself "a very big Joni Mitchell fan", explaining "As a kid I was drawn to Joni Mitchell records [...] Joni's songs spoke to me in an intimate, personal way."[259][260] She holds reference for Tina Turner, stating "Tina has become a heroic figure for many people, especially women, because of her tremendous strength. Personally, Tina doesn't seem to have a beginning or an end in my life. I felt her music was always there, and I feel like it always will be."[261] She has also named other socially conscious acts, such as Tracy Chapman, Sly and the Family Stone, U2, and Bob Dylan as sources of inspiration.[12][262] In her early career, Jackson credited her brothers Michael and Jermaine as musical influences.[221] According to Rolling Stone, other artists attributed as influences are The Ronettes, Dionne Warwick, Tammi Terrell, and Diana Ross.[263]

Legacy[edit]

The youngest sister of the "precious Jackson clan",[264] Janet Jackson has striven to distance her professional career from that of her older brother Michael and the rest of the Jackson family. Steve Dollar of Newsday wrote that "[s]he projects that home girl-next-door quality that belies her place as the youngest sibling in a family whose inner and outer lives have been as poked at, gossiped about, docudramatized and hard-copied as the Kennedys."[265] Phillip McCarthy of The Sydney Morning Herald noted that throughout her recording career, one of her common conditions for interviewers has been that there would be no mention of Michael.[266] Joshua Klein wrote, "[f]or the first half of her recording career, Janet Jackson sounded like an artist with something to prove. Emerging in 1982 just as big brother Michael was casting his longest shadow, Jackson filled her albums not so much with songs as with declarations, from 'The Pleasure Principle' to the radical-sounding 'Rhythm Nation' to the telling statement of purpose, 'Control'."[227] Steve Huey of Allmusic asserted that despite being born into a family of entertainers, Janet Jackson has managed to emerge a "superstar" in her own right, rivaling not only several female recording artists including Madonna and Whitney Houston, but also her brother, while "successfully [shifting] her image from a strong, independent young woman to a sexy, mature adult."[267] By forging her own unique identity through her artistry and her business ventures, she has been esteemed as the "Queen of Pop".[46][268] Klein argued that "stardom was not too hard to predict, but few could have foreseen that Janet—Miss Jackson, if you're nasty—would one day replace Michael as true heir to the Jackson family legacy.".[227] Janet Jackson has worked tirelessly to be deemed as the Queen of Pop.

Jackson performing during her Rock Witchu Tour in 2008.

She has also been recognized for playing a pivotal role in crossing racial boundaries in the recording industry, where black artists were once considered to be substandard.[269] In Right to Rock: The Black Rock Coalition and the Cultural Politics of Race (2004), author Maureen Mahon states: "In the 1980s, Whitney Houston, Michael Jackson, Janet Jackson, and Prince were among the African American artists who crossed over ... When black artists cross over into pop success they cease to be black in the industry sense of the word. They get promoted from racialized black music to universal pop music in an economically driven process of racial transcendence."[270] Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge (2000) documented that Jackson, along with other prominent African-American women, had achieved financial breakthroughs in mainstream popular music, receiving "superstar status" in the process.[42] She, alongside her contemporaries "offered viable creative, intellectual, and business paths for establishing and maintaining agency, lyrical potency, marketing and ownership."[271] Her business savvy has been compared to that of Madonna, gaining a level of autonomy which enables "creative latitude and access to financial resources and mass-market distribution."[272][273] A model of reinvention, author Jessie Carney Smith wrote that "Janet has continued to test the limits of her transformative power", receiving accolades in music, film and concert tours throughout the course of her career.[224]

Musicologist Richard J. Ripani identified Jackson as a leader in the development of contemporary R&B, as her music created a unique blend of genre and sound effects which ushered in the use of rap vocals into mainstream R&B.[24] He also argues her signature song "Nasty" influenced the new jack swing genre developed by Teddy Riley.[24] Leon McDermott of the Sunday Herald wrote: "Her million-selling albums in the 1980s helped invent contemporary R&B through Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis's muscular, lean production; the sinuous grooves threaded through 1986's Control and 1989's Rhythm Nation 1814 are the foundation upon which today's hot shot producers and singers rely."[274] Den Berry, Virgin Records CEO and Chairman stated: "Janet is the very embodiment of a global superstar. Her artistic brilliance and personal appeal transcend geographic, cultural and generational boundaries."[275] In July 1999, she placed at number 77 on VH1's "100 Greatest Women of Rock and Roll".[276] She also placed at number 134 on their list of the "200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons of All Time",[277] number seven on the "100 Greatest Women In Music",[278] and at number two on the "50 Greatest Women of the Video Era", behind Madonna.[279] In March 2008, Business Wire reported "Janet Jackson is one of the top ten selling artists in the history of contemporary music; ranked by Billboard magazine as the ninth most successful act in rock and roll history, and the second most successful female artist in pop music history."[280] She is the only female artist in the history of the Hot 100 to have 18 consecutive top ten hit singles, from "Miss You Much" (1989) to "I Get Lonely" (1998).[281] The magazine ranked her at number seven on their Hot 100 50th Anniversary "Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists", making her the third most successful female artist in the history of the chart, following Madonna and Mariah Carey.[282] In November 2010, Billboard released its "Top 50 R&B / Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years" list and ranked her at number five.[283] She ranks as the top artist on the chart with 15 number ones in the past twenty-five years, garnering 27 top ten hits between 1985 and 2001, and 33 consecutive top 40 hits from 1985 through 2004.[283] The most awarded artist in the history of the Billboard Music Awards with 33 wins, she is one an elite group of musical acts, such as Madonna, Aerosmith, Garth Brooks and Eric Clapton, whom Billboard credits for "redefining the landscape of popular music."[281][284]

Jackson's music and choreography have inspired numerous performers. Virgin Records executive Lee Trink expressed: "Janet is an icon and historic figure in our culture. She's one of those gifted artists that people look up to, that people emulate, that people want to believe in ... there's not that many superstars that stand the test of time."[142] Sarah Rodman of the Boston Herald remarked: "For every hand-fluttering, overwrought, melisma addict out there aping Mariah's dog calls, there's an equal number trying to match Jackson's bubbling grooves and fancy footwork, including Britney, Aaliyah and Destiny's Child."[285] Music critic Gene Stout commented she "has so broadly influenced a younger generation of performers, from Jennifer Lopez ... to Britney Spears, who has copied so many of Jackson's dance moves."[286] 'N Sync and Usher have credited her for teaching them how to develop stage show into theatrical performance.[287][288] Beyoncé Knowles,[289] Toni Braxton,[290] Aaliyah,[291] Britney Spears,[292] Christina Aguilera,[293] Crystal Kay,[294] Kelly Rowland,[295] and Rihanna,[296] have all named her as one of their biggest inspirations, while others such as Rozonda "Chilli" Thomas of TLC,[297] Cassie,[298] Nicki Minaj,[299] Keri Hilson,[300] and DJ/singer Havana Brown,[301] have all expressed desire to emulate her. Elysa Gardner of USA Today wrote: "Jackson claims not to be bothered by the brigade of barely post-adolescent baby divas who have been inspired by—and, in some cases, have flagrantly aped—the sharp, animated choreography and girlish but decidedly post-feminist feistiness that have long been hallmarks of her performance style."[302] Those who are considered to have followed in her footsteps have been referred to as "Janet-come-lately's."[303][304] Other artists who have drawn comparison to her include Mýa,[305] Brandy,[306] Tatyana Ali,[307] Christina Milian,[308] Lady Gaga,[309] Namie Amuro,[310] and BoA.[311] Sociologist Shayne Lee commented that "[a]s Janet enters the twilight of her reign as erotic Queen of Pop, Beyoncé Knowles emerges as her likely successor."[226] Joan Morgan of Essence magazine remarked: "Jackson's Control, Rhythm Nation 1814 and janet. established the singer-dancer imprimatur standard in pop culture we now take for granted. So when you're thinking of asking Miss Jackson, 'What have you done for me lately?' remember that Britney, Ciara and Beyoncé live in the house that Janet built."[312]

Discography[edit]

Filmography[edit]

Tours[edit]

Books[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Janet Jackson's Celebrity style evolution". Ashley Joy parker. 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2014-04-18. 
  2. ^ "Janet Jackson - The Richest". TheRichest.com. 2011-03-29. Retrieved 2014-04-18. 
  3. ^ Top Selling Artists, Recording Industry Association of America, retrieved 2008-09-03 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]