|3rd United States Secretary of Homeland Security|
January 21, 2009 – September 6, 2013
Rand Beers (Acting)
|Preceded by||Michael Chertoff|
|Succeeded by||Rand Beers (Acting)|
|President of the University of California|
September 30, 2013
|Preceded by||Mark Yudof|
|21st Governor of Arizona|
January 6, 2003 – January 21, 2009
|Preceded by||Jane Dee Hull|
|Succeeded by||Jan Brewer|
|23rd Attorney General of Arizona|
January 4, 1999 – January 6, 2003
|Governor||Jane Dee Hull|
|Preceded by||Grant Woods|
|Succeeded by||Terry Goddard|
|Born||Janet Ann Napolitano
November 29, 1957
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Residence||San Francisco, California|
|Alma mater||Santa Clara University
University of Virginia
Janet Ann Napolitano (//; born November 29, 1957) is an American politician and lawyer who was the United States Secretary of Homeland Security from 2009 to 2013. Napolitano, a member of the Democratic Party, served in the administration of President Barack Obama. Previously, she was the 21st Governor of Arizona from 2003 to 2009.
Prior to her election as Governor, she served as Attorney General of Arizona from 1999 to 2002. She was the first woman and the 23rd person to serve in that office. Napolitano is the 1977 Truman Scholar from New Mexico.
Napolitano is the fourth person (including an acting Secretary) to serve as Secretary of Homeland Security, a post that was created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Forbes ranked her as the world's ninth most powerful woman in 2012. In 2008, she was cited by The New York Times to be among the women most likely to become the first female President of the United States. Napolitano resigned at the end of August 2013 to become the first woman to be President of the University of California system. Napolitano is cited among news sources to be a potential candidate for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Governor of Arizona
- 4 Secretary of Homeland Security
- 5 University of California
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Electoral history
- 8 See also
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Janet Napolitano was born on November 29, 1957, in New York City, the daughter of Jane Marie (née Winer) and Leonard Michael Napolitano, who was the dean of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. Her father was of Italian descent and her mother had German and Austrian ancestry. Napolitano is a Methodist. She is one of three children; she has an older brother and younger sister. She was raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Albuquerque, New Mexico, where she graduated from Sandia High School in Albuquerque in 1975 and was voted Most Likely to Succeed. She graduated from Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, California, where she won a Truman Scholarship, and was valedictorian. In 1978, she studied for a term at the London School of Economics as part of Santa Clara's exchange programme through IES Abroad. She then received her Juris Doctor (J.D.) from the University of Virginia School of Law. After law school she served as a law clerk for Judge Mary M. Schroeder of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, and then joined Schroeder's former firm, Lewis and Roca located in Phoenix.
Early political career
In 1991, while a partner at Lewis and Roca LLP, Napolitano served as an attorney for Anita Hill. Anita Hill testified in the U.S. Senate that then U.S. Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas had sexually harassed her ten years earlier when she was his subordinate at the federal EEOC.
In 1993, Napolitano was appointed by President Bill Clinton as United States Attorney for the District of Arizona. As U.S. Attorney, she was involved in the investigation of Michael Fortier of Kingman, Arizona, in connection with the Oklahoma City bombing. She ran for and won the position of Arizona Attorney General in 1998. During her tenure as attorney general, she focused on consumer protection issues and improving general law enforcement.
While still serving as attorney general, she spoke at the 2000 Democratic National Convention just three weeks after having a mastectomy. Napolitano recalls that the pain was so unbearable that she couldn't stand up. "Work and family helped me focus on other things while I battled the cancer," says Napolitano. "I am very grateful for all the support I had from family, friends and Arizonans."
In March 2009, Napolitano received the Council on Litigation Management's Professionalism Award, which recognizes and commemorates an individual who has demonstrated the unique ability to lead others by example in the highest standard of their profession.
Governor of Arizona
She narrowly won the Arizona gubernatorial election of 2002 with 46 percent of the vote, succeeding Republican Jane Dee Hull and defeating her Republican opponent, former congressman Matt Salmon, who received 45 percent of the vote. She was Arizona's third female governor and the first woman in the United States to be elected governor to succeed another elected female governor. She was also the first Democrat popularly elected to the governorship since Bruce Babbitt left office in 1987.
She spoke at the 2004 Democratic Convention, after some initially considered her to be a possible running mate for presidential candidate Sen. John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election but Kerry selected Sen. John Edwards instead. In November 2005, Time magazine named her one of the five best governors in the U.S.
As Governor, Napolitano set records for total number of vetoes issued. In 2005, she set a single session record of 58 vetoes, breaking Jane Dee Hull's 2001 record of 28. This was followed in June 2006, less than four years into her term, when she issued her 115th veto and set the all-time record for vetoes by an Arizona governor. The previous record of 114 vetoes was set by Bruce Babbitt during his nine years in office. By the time she left office, the governor had issued 180 vetoes.
In November 2006, Napolitano won the gubernatorial election of 2006, defeating the Republican challenger, Len Munsil, by a nearly 2–1 ratio and becoming the first woman to be re-elected to that office. Arizona's constitution provides a two-consecutive-term term limit for its governors, meaning Napolitano would have been barred from seeking a third term in office in 2010.
In January 2006, she won the Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service. She was a member of the Democratic Governors Association Executive Committee. Furthermore, she has also served previously as Chair of the Western Governors Association, and the National Governors Association. She served as NGA Chair from 2006 to 2007, and was the first female governor and first governor of Arizona ever to serve in that position.
Secretary of Homeland Security
In February 2006, Napolitano was named by The White House Project as one of "8 in '08", a group of eight female politicians who could possibly run for president in 2008. On January 11, 2008, Napolitano endorsed then Illinois Senator Barack Obama as the Democratic nominee for president. On November 5, 2008, Napolitano was named to the advisory board of the Obama-Biden Transition Project. On December 1, 2008, Barack Obama introduced Napolitano as his nominee for United States Secretary of Homeland Security. On January 20, 2009, Napolitano was confirmed, becoming the first woman appointed Secretary in the relatively new department. Arizona Secretary of State Jan Brewer became the governor of Arizona, as the state does not have a lieutenant governor.
In March 2009, Napolitano told the German news site "Spiegel Online" that while she presumes there is always a threat from terrorism: "I referred to 'man-caused' disasters. That is perhaps only a nuance, but it demonstrates that we want to move away from the politics of fear toward a policy of being prepared for all risks that can occur." In April 2009 Napolitano, trying to defend her plans to thicken U.S.-Canadian border security, claimed incorrectly that September 11 attack perpetrators entered the United States from Canada. Her comments provoked an angry response from the Canadian ambassador, media, and public.
In response to criticism, she later said, "Nonetheless, to the extent that terrorists have come into our country or suspected or known terrorists have entered our country across a border, it's been across the Canadian border. There are real issues there." Though there has only been one case, that of Ahmed Ressam an Algerian citizen who was in Canada illegally.
Napolitano was a leading contender for appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court when vacancies occurred in 2009 and 2010 but was passed over by President Obama in favor of Judge Sonia Sotomayor and then-Solicitor General Elena Kagan, respectively.
Right-wing extremism memo controversy
Napolitano was the subject of controversy after the release of a Department of Homeland Security threat assessment report that was seen as derogatory towards armed forces veterans. The report focused on potential threats from the radical right. (A second, contemporaneous report on left-wing extremism did not raise any controversy.) "Rightwing [sic] Extremism: Current Economic and Political Climate Fueling Resurgence in Radicalization and Recruitment", was made public in April 2009. The report suggested several factors, including the election of the first black or mixed race President in the person of Barack Obama, perceived future gun control measures, illegal immigration, the economic downturn beginning in 2008, the abortion controversy, and disgruntled military veterans' possible vulnerability to recruitment efforts by extremist groups as potential risk factors regarding right-wing extremism recruitment.
Napolitano made multiple apologies for any offense veterans groups had taken at the reference to veterans in the assessment, and promised to meet with those groups to discuss the issue. The Department of Homeland Security admitted a "breakdown in an internal process" by ignoring objections by the Office of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties to an unnamed portion of the document.
While the American Legion reportedly criticized the assessment, Glen M. Gardner Jr., the national commander of the 2.2 million-member Veterans of Foreign Wars, defended it generally, saying it "should have been worded differently" but served a vital purpose. "A government that does not assess internal and external security threats would be negligent of a critical public responsibility", he said in a statement.
"The system worked" controversy
Napolitano was criticized for stating in an interview with CNN's Candy Crowley that, "the system worked" with regard to an attempted terrorist attack on Northwest Airlines Flight 253 approaching Detroit on Christmas Day 2009. She later went on NBC's Today Show with host Matt Lauer and admitted that the security system had indeed failed.
The statement by Napolitano to Crowley that received criticism was as follows:
What we are focused on is making sure that the air environment remains safe, that people are confident when they travel. And one thing I'd like to point out is that the system worked. Everybody played an important role here. The passengers and crew of the flight took appropriate action. Within literally an hour to 90 minutes of the incident occurring, all 128 flights in the air had been notified to take some special measures in light of what had occurred on the Northwest Airlines flight. We instituted new measures on the ground and at screening areas, both here in the United States and in Europe, where this flight originated. So the whole process of making sure that we respond properly, correctly and effectively went very smoothly.
In her interview with Lauer, Napolitano said that her earlier statement was "taken out of context" and maintained "air travel is safe", but admitted, "our system did not work in this instance" and no one "is happy or satisfied with that". Lauer asked her whether the system failed up until the moment the bomber tried to blow up the plane, and Napolitano answered, "It did [fail]."
Secure Communities is a deportation program managed by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, a subdivision of Homeland Security. Napolitano came under scrutiny for contradicting herself publicly on whether the program is voluntary or mandatory for local jurisdictions to join. On September 7, 2010, Napolitano said in a letter to Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren that jurisdictions that wished to withdraw from the program could do so. Yet an October 2010 Washington Post article quoted an anonymous senior ICE official asserting: “Secure Communities is not based on state or local cooperation in federal law enforcement…State and local law enforcement agencies are going to continue to fingerprint people and those fingerprints are forwarded to FBI for criminal checks. ICE will take immigration action appropriately.”
At a press conference days later, Napolitano modified her position: “What my letter said was that we would work with them on the implementation in terms of timing and the like…But we do not view this as an opt-in, opt-out program.” She did not provide legal justification. Meanwhile, in Arlington, Virginia, the Board of Supervisors unanimously passed a resolution to opt out of SComm. A subordinate DHS employee David Venturella stated at a policy conference: "Have we created some of the confusion out there? Absolutely we have."
Printer bomb attempt
Janet Napolitano has issued a ban for toner & ink cartridges weighing more than one pound on passenger flights, in response to the October 2010 Yemen bomb plot. In response to the printer bomb attempt and the "underwear" bomb attempt of 2009, Napolitano has instituted "enhanced pat downs". These pat downs may include the touching of sensitive areas such as breasts and genitals.
On December 6, 2010, it was announced that Napolitano was again expanding her reach by creating a "partnership" with Walmart. This is a video message from Napolitano on TV screens in Wal-Mart stores playing a "public service announcement" to ask customers to report suspicious activity to a Wal-Mart manager. The rationale is that national security begins at home. Napolitano "compares the undertaking to the Cold War fight against communists."
On January 12, 2011, along with President Barack Obama, Napolitano was one of many speakers selected to express sympathies to the community of Tucson, the State of Arizona, and the Nation in a televised memorial for the 2011 Tucson shooting.
In July 2012, Napolitano was accused of allowing discrimination against male staffers within the Department of Homeland Security. The federal discrimination lawsuit, filed in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, was filled by James Hayes Jr. who is presently a special agent of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement in New York City. The suit alleges that Dora Schriro and Suzanne Barr mistreated male staffers and promotions were given to women who were friends of Napolitano, and when the abuse was reported to the Equal Employment Opportunity office, that Napolitano launched a series of misconduct investigations against the reporting party, Hayes. The Immigrations and Customs Enforcement's spokesperson stated that he would not comment on "unfounded claims".
Suzanne Barr, who was one of Napolitano's first appointments after she became secretary in 2009, went on leave after Hayes filed his lawsuit and then resigned on September 1, 2012. She called the allegations in the lawsuit "unfounded."
Napolitano was sued by an Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent who claims he was pulled from his post interviewing suspicious travelers at JFK Airport after making a series of employment-discrimination complaints. In November 2012, Hayes' attorney in Maryland, Morris Fischer, said the "parties have come to an agreement in principal"[clarification needed] to settle the case for $175,000. In addition to the money, "a formal settlement agreement will be executed within the next several days" that will include other conditions, including Hayes keeping his job.
University of California
Napolitano announced she would leave her post as Secretary of Homeland Security at the end of August 2013 to become president of the University of California system. She was appointed the 20th president of the University of California by the UC Board of Regents on July 18, 2013 and began her tenure as president on September 30, 2013.
Lick Observatory Funding Controversy
Napolitano is currently at the center of controversy over funding for the Lick Observatory, which is owned and operated by the University of California. Recently, 35 members of California's democratic congressional delegation urged Napolitano to keep Lick Observatory open, stating that they were "concerned…that perhaps you don’t fully appreciate the importance of Lick, or the University of California’s ongoing support for the observatory, to our constituents and California."
Napolitano is an avid basketball fan and regularly plays tennis and softball. Whitewater rafting and hiking are among Napolitano's hobbies. She has hiked in Arizona's Superstition Mountains, New Mexico's Sandia Mountains, the Himalayas, and has climbed Mount Kilimanjaro.
Napolitano has never married or had children; as a result, there has been speculation about her sexual orientation. This included some campaign activity in 2002 when "vote gay" fliers were posted next to her campaign signs. Despite the claims, Napolitano stated on record that she's, "just a straight, single workaholic".
|Arizona Gubernatorial Election 2002|
|Democratic gain from Republican||Swing|
|Arizona Gubernatorial Election 2006|
|Democratic||Janet Napolitano (Incumbent)||959,830||62.6||+16.4|
- AHCCCS: Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (state Medicaid program)
- AIMS: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (state standardized test for high school students)
- Protect Arizona Now: Proposition 200
- Arizona-Mexico Commission
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- Janet Napolitano CBS News, July 23, 2004
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- "Homeland Security admits error with extremism report" Newsday.com
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- Shankar Vedantam. “No opt-out for immigration enforcement.” Washington Post. October 1, 2010.
- Renee Feltz. “ICE Attributes Record Deportation Levels to Secure Communities.” DeportationNation. October 6, 2010.
- Shankar Vedantam. “Reversals by Imm Officials Are Sewing Mistrust.” Washington Post. November 22, 2010.
- Comments of panelist David Venturella, Executive Director of the Immigration Customs Enforcement Secure Communities program on YouTube at the roundtable entitled: “Assessing the ‘Secure Communities’ Program and the Impact of the 287(g) Agreements.” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Washington D.C. November 18, 2010.
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- "President-Designate Napolitano". UCOP. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
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- Crawford, Amanda J. (September 24, 2006). "Marriage debate divides Arizona". azcentral.com. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Janet Napolitano.|
- Biography at the University of California
- Biography at the Department of Homeland Security
- Works by or about Janet Napolitano in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Janet Napolitano at the Internet Movie Database
- NPR's Wait Wait, Don't Tell Me guest on Not My Job segment
|Attorney General of Arizona
January 4, 1999–January 6, 2003
|Party political offices|
|Democratic nominee for Governor of Arizona
Jane Dee Hull
|Governor of Arizona
January 6, 2003–January 21, 2009
|Chairperson of National Governors Association
|United States Secretary of Homeland Security
January 21, 2009–September 6, 2013
|President of the University of California