Jangladesh

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Not to be confused with Bangladesh.
Historical Region of North India
Jangal Desh (जन्ग्लादेश)
Northern-most light pink coloured region is "Jangladesh" - present-day districts of Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, and Hanumangarh
Location northern Rajastan
State established: 4th - 15th century
Language Bagri
Dynasties Ahirs

Jangladesh (Rajasthani: जन्ग्लादेश) also known as Jangal Pradesh was a historical region in north, north-western and north-eastern Rajasthan state in northern India.[1] It included the present-day districts of Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, and Hanumangarh. It was bounded on the south by Marwar and Jaisalmer regions, on the east by Ajmer-Merwara region.[2] There is mention of this province in Bhisma Parva of Mahabharata.[3]

It was bounded on the south by Marwar and Jaisalmer regions, on the east by Ajmer-Merwara region.[2] The region for centuries was an Abhira kingdom.[4][5]

History[edit]

There is mention of this province in Bhisma Parva of Mahabharata.[3] At what period the Jat people established themselves in the Indian desert is not known. By the 4th century they had spread up to Punjab in India.[6]

The north-eastern and north-western Rajasthan, known by the name Jangladesh in ancient times,[7] was inhabited by Jat clans ruled by their own chiefs and largely governed by their own customary law.[8] Besides these cantons there were several clan of Jat people, simultaneously wrested from Rajput proprietors for instance Bhukar, Bhadu, Chahar.[9] It is said about Jat territories that Saat Patti Sattavan Majh (means seven long and fifty-seven small territories).[10] Following are the main clans and their heads with capital and number of villages in each territory.,[11][12]

Table of Jat Kingdoms in Jangladesh:

S.No. Name of Kingdom Name of King No. of villages Capital Names of districts
1. Sihag Chokha Singh 150 Suin Rawatsar, Baramsar, Purabsar Dandusar, Gandaisi
2. Beniwal Raisal Singh 150 Rasalana Bhukarka, Sanduri, Manoharpur, Kooi, Bae
3. Johiya Sher Singh 600 Bhurupal Jaitpur, Kumanu, Mahajan, Peepasar, Udasar
4. Punia Kanha Singh 300 Luddi Bhadra, Ajitpura, Sidhmukh, Rajgarh, Dadrewa, Sankhoo
5. Saharan Pula Singh 300 Bhadang Khejra, Phoglo, Buchawas, Sui, Badnu, Sirsila
6. Godara Pandu Singh 700 Shekhsar Shekhsar, Pundrasar, Gusainsar (Bada), Gharsisar, Garibdesar, Rungaysar, Kalu[disambiguation needed]
7. Kaswan Kanwarpal Singh 400 Sidhmukh

Most of Jat clans in Rajasthan had to accept Rathor's suzerainty in mughal times due to the rathores having made alliance with the mughals.,[2][13]

Other republics in Jangladesh

  • Bhadu - Bhadus were rulers in Jangladesh where they established an important city Bhadra. Samantraj was a popular ruler of Bhadus. Bhadus had a war with 'Bhagore' people and after capturing it they moved to Marwar area. Bhadus also occupied many villages in Ajmer-Merwara.[14]
  • Bhati - Jat Bhatis ruled Bhatner, presently Hanumangarh, and Bhatinda. Bhatner was historically important because it was situated on route of invaders from Central Asia to India.[15]
  • Bhukar - Bhukars were initially settled at Sambhar in Rajasthan. They were the rulers in this area and their ruling method was that of 'Bhomia-chor'. Gothra Bhukaran was their capital.
  • Jakhar - The king of the Jakhar clan, Jakhbhadra, settled in Jangladesh and made his capital at Reni (modern-day Taranagar).[16] At a later date, the Jakhars established a kingdom, the ruins of which are found at Madhauli, which was in the princely state of Jaipur.[16]
  • Sangwan - The Sangwan jats ruled at Sarsu in Jangladesh region of Rajasthan in 8th to 10th century.
  • Sahu - They have been the rulers of a small republic in Jangladesh. Their capital was at village Dhansia, situated at a distance of 65 km in northwest of Churu town.[17] There were 84 villages in their territory.,[11][18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bikaner". Archived from the original on 2007-08-19. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  2. ^ a b c Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 223
  3. ^ a b Bhisma Parva On line
  4. ^ Vīrasiṃha. The Jats: their role & contribution to the socio-economic life and polity of north & north-west India. Suraj Mal Memorial Education Society. Centre for Research and Publication (Originals). ISBN 978-81-88629-69-5. 
  5. ^ The Jats: their role & contribution to the socio-economic life and polity of north & north-west India, Volume 3-page-16
  6. ^ Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, 1934, p. 616-624
  7. ^ Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 221-223
  8. ^ Dashrath Sharma, Rajasthan through the ages, Jodhpur, 1966, Vol.I, p. 287-288
  9. ^ Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, Delhi, 2002, p. 269-285
  10. ^ G.S.L.Devra, op. cit., Cf. Dayaldas ri Khyat, Part II, p. 7-10
  11. ^ a b Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 222
  12. ^ Dr Brahma Ram Chaudhary: The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 250
  13. ^ G.S.L. Devra, op. cit., 7-8, Cf. Dayaldas ri Khyat, part 2, p. 4-5
  14. ^ Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Delhi, 1934, p. 597
  15. ^ Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Delhi, 1934, p. 601
  16. ^ a b Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 594-95.
  17. ^ Dr.Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar (1998). आधुनिक जाट इतिहास [Ādhunik Jat Itihasa] (The modern history of Jats) (in Hindi). Agra: Jaypal Agencies. p. 282. 
  18. ^ GSL Devra, op. cit., Cf. Dayaldas ri Khyat, Part II, pp. 7-10