Janos, Chihuahua

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Janos is a town located in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua.[1] It serves as the municipal seat of government for the surrounding Janos Municipality of the same name. The 2010 Mexican national census reported a population of 12,738 inhabitants.

History[edit]

Janos was founded around 1580 by Franciscan missionaries.[2] It was subject to raids by Apache and Jumano Indians, and in 1680 the mission (Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Janos) was completely destroyed in such a raid. As a result, in 1686 the Spanish governor ordered Captain Juan Fernández de la Fuente to sent troops to Janos to establish a presidio. It was named Presidio de San Felipe y Santiago de Janos and in 1717 resettlement efforts resulted in the town being re-established with Janos and Jocomes Indians.[2] This settlement offer was also open to Apache, but few took advantage of it. Over the next several years, the Spanish made a number of punative raids against local Apache groups, both from the Janos Presidio and others in the area. When Hugo Oconor (Hugh O'Connor) assumed command of the military in Chihuahua in 1772, he instituted large scale campaigns against the Apache. In 1789 Chief Squielnoctero and his family surrendered at Janos[3] and with the peace agreement with Ojos Colorados[4] in 1790, the area became relatively peaceful, the Apache having been seriously weakened by war and disease.[2]

Climate[edit]

Janos has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk).[5] Winters are cool and sunny with a January average of 7.1 °C (44.8 °F) and temperatures regularly fall below freezing.[6] Occasionally, the city can see 2 or 3 snowfalls per year.[6] Summers are warm with June being the warmest month with an average of 22.3 °C (72.1 °F). Most of the precipitation falls during this time of the year, during the monsoon season. The highest recorded temperature was 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) on August 21, 1979 and the lowest recorded temperature was −13 °C (8.6 °F) on December 9, 1978.[7]

Climate data for Janos, Chihuahua
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.0
(78.8)
29.0
(84.2)
31.0
(87.8)
36.0
(96.8)
40.0
(104)
42.0
(107.6)
40.0
(104)
45.0
(113)
40.0
(104)
36.5
(97.7)
30.0
(86)
26.0
(78.8)
45.0
(113)
Average high °C (°F) 14.2
(57.6)
16.7
(62.1)
19.5
(67.1)
23.1
(73.6)
27.3
(81.1)
31.5
(88.7)
30.1
(86.2)
30.1
(86.2)
27.1
(80.8)
22.7
(72.9)
18.0
(64.4)
14.6
(58.3)
22.9
(73.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.1
(44.8)
8.8
(47.8)
11.1
(52)
14.3
(57.7)
18.2
(64.8)
22.3
(72.1)
22.3
(72.1)
22.1
(71.8)
19.4
(66.9)
14.7
(58.5)
10.1
(50.2)
7.4
(45.3)
14.8
(58.6)
Average low °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
0.9
(33.6)
2.8
(37)
5.4
(41.7)
9.0
(48.2)
13.2
(55.8)
14.5
(58.1)
14.1
(57.4)
11.6
(52.9)
6.6
(43.9)
2.1
(35.8)
0.2
(32.4)
6.7
(44.1)
Record low °C (°F) −10.0
(14)
−7.5
(18.5)
−7.0
(19.4)
−11.5
(11.3)
−7.0
(19.4)
2.0
(35.6)
2.0
(35.6)
2.0
(35.6)
1.0
(33.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
−12.0
(10.4)
−13.0
(8.6)
−13.0
(8.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 15.3
(0.602)
11.6
(0.457)
11.0
(0.433)
7.1
(0.28)
5.8
(0.228)
16.7
(0.657)
73.8
(2.906)
58.6
(2.307)
46.3
(1.823)
29.5
(1.161)
15.5
(0.61)
21.5
(0.846)
312.7
(12.311)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.0 2.0 2.0 1.2 1.0 1.8 9.1 7.2 5.2 3.3 2.1 3.4 41.3
Avg. snowy days 0.60 0.50 0.30 0.05 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.31 0.57 2.33
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico National[7]
Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (snowy days)[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Janos (Approved) at GEOnet Names Server, GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  2. ^ a b c "Presidio de San Felipe y Santiago de Janos Records, 1706-1858". Austin, Texas: University of Texas. 
  3. ^ Griffen, William B. Apaches at War and Peace: The Janos Presidio, 1750-1858. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8061-3084-2. , originally published in 1988 by the University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  4. ^ probably Mangas Colorado Stockel, H. Henrietta (2008). Salvation Through Slavery: Chiricahua Apaches and priests on the Spanish colonial frontier. Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-8263-4325-3. 
  5. ^ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c "Normales climatológicas para Janos, Chihuahua" (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Retrieved February 2013. 
  7. ^ a b "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 


Coordinates: 30°53′16″N 108°11′24″W / 30.88778°N 108.19000°W / 30.88778; -108.19000