Janthina

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Janthina
Janthina janthina.jpg
A drawing of a live Janthina janthina with its bubble raft intact
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda

clade Hypsogastropoda
informal group Ptenoglossa

Superfamily: Epitonioidea
Family: Janthinidae
Genus: Janthina
Röding, 1798
Species

See text

Synonyms[1]
  • Amethistina [sic] (misspelling for Ametistina Schinz, 1825)
  • Ametistina Schinz, 1825 (suppressed by ICZN Opinion 989)
  • Ianthina Röding, 1798
  • Iodes Mörch, 1860
  • Iodina Mörch, 1860

Janthina is a genus of small to medium-sized pelagic or planktonic sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Janthinidae, commonly known as the "purple snails" or the "violet shells".[1]

Distribution[edit]

Species in this genus occur worldwide in tropical, subtropical and warm seas.

Description[edit]

These snails are pelagic and live at the surface of the ocean. Adult snails may not be capable of swimming, and die when they are detached from their rafts; Janthina janthina larvae, however, actively swim in the water column.[2]

The adult snails prey upon (and live near to) one of several species of pelagic animals loosely known as jellyfish. More specifically they eat the medusae of free-swimming Cnidaria, in particular the genus known as "by-the-wind sailors", Velella.

The snails are able to float securely because they create a raft of clear chitin around air bubbles formed near the ocean surface. They anchor to this raft using their foot.[2] The snails do not have an operculum.

These snails are frequently washed ashore during storms.[3]

The common names for this genus derive from the light purple or violet color of the shells and the violet-colored bodies. The other genus in the family, Recluzia, has olive-tan colored shells.

Species[edit]

This genus has accumulated a very large number of species names over the centuries. Most of the names that have been given are in fact synonyms of just a few species which have world-wide distributions in tropical waters. Experts disagree about some details of the synonymy.

Species within the genus Janthina include:[4]

Species brought into synonymy
  • Janthina affinis Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina africana Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina alba Anton, 1838: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina balteata Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina bicolor Menke, 1828: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina bicolor O. G. Costa, 1830: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina bifida Nuttall, 1850: synonym of Janthina exigua Lamarck, 1816
  • Janthina britannica Forbes & Hanley, 1853: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina capreolata Montrouzier, 1860: synonym of Janthina exigua Lamarck, 1816
  • Janthina carpenteri Mörch, 1860: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina casta Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina coeruleata Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina communis Lamarck, 1822: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina contorta Carpenter, 1857: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina costae Mörch, 1860: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina decollata Carpenter, 1857: synonym of Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822
  • Janthina depressa Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina elongata [sic]: synonym of Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822
  • Janthina fibula Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina fragilis Lamarck, 1801: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina globosa Blainville, 1822: synonym of Janthina umbilicata d'Orbigny, 1840
  • Janthina grandis Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina incisa Philippi, 1848: synonym of Janthina exigua Lamarck, 1816
  • Janthina involuta Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina iricolor Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822
  • Janthina jehennei (Petit de la Saussaye, 1853): synonym of Recluzia jehennei Petit de la Saussaye, 1853
  • Janthina laeta Monterosato, 1884: synonym of Janthina pallida W. Thompson, 1840
  • Janthina megastoma A. Adams, 1861: synonym of Janthina umbilicata d'Orbigny, 1840
  • Janthina nana Gray, 1842: synonym of Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822
  • Janthina nitens Menke, 1828: synonym of Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822
  • Janthina nitida A. Adams, 1861: synonym of Janthina exigua Lamarck, 1816
  • Janthina orbignyi Mörch, 1860: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina patula Philippi, 1844: synonym of Janthina pallida W. Thompson, 1840
  • Janthina payraudeaui Locard, 1900: synonym of Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822
  • Janthina penicephela Peron, 1824: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina planispirata A. Adams & Reeve, 1848: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina prolongata Blainville, 1822: synonym of Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822
  • Janthina rosea Anton, 1838: synonym of Janthina pallida W. Thompson, 1840
  • Janthina roseala Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina roseola Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina rotundata Dillwyn, 1840: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina smithiae Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina splendens Monterosato, 1884: synonym of Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822
  • Janthina striata Montrouzier, 1860: synonym of Janthina exigua Lamarck, 1816
  • Janthina striolata A. Adams & Reeve, 1848: synonym of Janthina pallida W. Thompson, 1840
  • Janthina striulata Carpenter, 1857: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina trochoidea Reeve, 1858: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina vinsoni Deshayes, 1863: synonym of Janthina exigua Lamarck, 1816
  • Janthina violacea Röding, 1798: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Janthina vulgaris Gray, 1847: synonym of Janthina janthina (Linnaeus, 1758)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gofas, S. (2011). Janthina Röding, 1798. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138092 on 2011-11-01
  2. ^ a b Lalli, Carol M.; Ronald W. Gilmer (1989). Pelagic Snails: The Biology of Holoplanktonic Gastropod Mollusks. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1490-7. 
  3. ^ Morrison, Sue; Storrie, Ann (1999). Wonders of Western Waters: The Marine Life of South-Western Australia. CALM. p. 68. ISBN 0-7309-6894-4. 
  4. ^ Gofas, S. (2009). Janthina Röding, 1798. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2009) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138092 on 2010-05-16