Russia extended its boundaries to twelve miles off of its coasts.
By agreement with the labor union, the Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen, American railroad companies in the South implemented a quota against further hiring of African Americans, providing that "No larger percentage of Negro trainmen or yardmen will be employed on any division or in any yard than was employed on January 1, 1910".
U.S. President William H. Taft opened the New Year by inviting the general public private citizens to visit him in the White House. He shook hands with 5,575 people.
Twelve people in Sawtelle, California (now part of Los Angeles) were fatally poisoned by a contaminated can of pears, served as dessert following dinner at the home of Mrs. D.G. Valdez. Mrs. Valdez, her daughter, five grandchildren, two sons-in-law and three guests all died within days.
The first junior high school classes in the United States began, as a new program in Berkeley, California, was started for seventh, eighth and ninth grade students, at McKinley High School and Washington High School. The idea of the "introductory high school" was conceived by educator Frank Forest Bunker,
The first injunction in favor of the Wright Brothers, against their competitors, was issued by a federal court in Buffalo, barring Glenn Curtiss from flying airplanes for profit while the patent infringement case of Wright v. Herring-Curtis was in progress. An injunction was sought by the Wrights the next day against Louis Paulhan. Curtis filed an interlocutory appeal and posted a $10,000 bond to stay the injunction.
In a half billion dollar merger agreement, J.P. Morgan's Guaranty Trust Company announced the acquisition of Levi P. Morton's Morton Trust and Thomas Fortune Ryan's Fifth Avenue Trust. On the same day, President Taft conferred at the White House with presidents of the major American railroads, who were unsuccessful in attempting to persuade the President to call off antitrust litigation against the railways.
French aviator Léon Delagrange, who had set a flying speed record the previous Thursday, was killed during an airshow at Bordeaux. The wings on his Blériot monoplane broke as he was making a turn, and he plunged 65 feet to his death.
On the same day, aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont escaped fatal injury when his Demoiselle airplane lost a wing at an altitude of 100 feet. He was entangled in wire, and spared from being thrown on impact, but never piloted an airplane again.
French forces under the command of Captain Fiegenschuh were massacred in a battle by the forces of the Sultan Dudmurrah in the Darfur region of the Sudan.
The Pinchot-Ballinger controversy, which would ultimately split the Republican Party and lead to the election of Woodrow Wilson as President of the United States, began when President Taft ordered the firing of Forestry Director Gifford Pinchot. Pinchot's criticism of Interior Secretary Richard Ballinger, including a letter read on the floor of Congress, led to the dismissal. "By your conduct you have destroyed your usefulness as a helpful subordinate of the government", Taft wrote, "and it therefore now becomes my duty to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to remove you from your office as the Forester."
The steamer Czarina wrecked on the rocks off of the coast of Marshfield, Oregon. Despite the attempts of city residents and the U.S. life-saving station, only one of the 30 people on board survived.
The first radio broadcast of a live musical performance took place from New York's Metropolitan Opera, which inaugurated use of a new system set up by Lee DeForest. The one act opera "Cavalleria rusticana" was "borne by Hertzian waves over the turbulent waters of the sea to transcontinental and coastwise ships, and over the mountain peaks, amid undulating valleys of the country"  with the aid of a microphone connected to a 500 watt transmitter. Wireless receivers at buildings on Park Avenue, the Metropolitan Life Building, and Times Square picked up the broadcast, as did radio sets used by ship operators and amateur radio enthusiasts.
Spain's King Alfonso ordered the arrest of 80 high-ranking military officers suspected of plotting a coup, and removed the Captains General of Madrid, Valencia, Valladolid and Coronna. Police surrounded the Military Club in Madrid and took the officers inside into custody.
A boycott against the high price of meat began in Cleveland, Ohio, with 460 people pledging not to purchase meat until prices came down. Within ten days, the boycott spread to include 150,000 Clevelanders refusing to purchase meat and similar protests were spreading across the nation.
By a voice vote, the U.S. House of Representatives unanimously approved a bill calling for statehood for the territories of Arizona and New Mexico. House Resolution 18166, sponsored by Michigan Congressman Edward L. Hamilton, moved on to the United States Senate.
John R. Walsh, the 72 year old former President of the Chicago National Bank, began a five-year sentence at the federal prison in Leavenworth. The day before, the United States Supreme Court declined to review the appeal of his conviction for misuse of the funds of the Bank, which had failed in 1906. Walsh had been a self-made millionaire, working his way "from newsboy to the control of millions of dollars in banks, railroads, newspapers and coal-fields" 
A fire at Constantinople, the Turkish capital of the Ottoman Empire, destroyed the Palace of Charagan, residence of the Sultan, as well as the parliament buildings.
Heavyweight boxing champion Jack Johnson was arrested for assault in New York, but released later. He would defend his title later in the year in the "Fight of the Century" against former champion James J. Jeffries.
Born:Joy Adamson, author of Born Free, as Friederike Gessner in Troppau, Austria-Hungary (now Opava, Czech Republic; d. 1980)
1910 Great Flood of Paris: Two days after heavy rains poured upon France, the Seine River overflowed its banks at 10:50 a.m. Over the next several days, the rains continued and the waters rose 24 feet, overran power stations and blacked out the city, forced hundreds of thousands to flee their homes, and contaminated the water supply with disease. The waters did not begin receding until January 28, and would cause 400 million francs of damage. Flooding also took place of the Doubs river in the Departments of Doubs, Jura and Saône et Loire.
At 9:30 in the evening, the Vigarano Meteorite split as it fell to Earth in Italy at the locality of the same name, near Emilia. Weighing 11.5 kg (or 25 lb.), the stone that was recovered was the first of the CV chondrites named for Vigarano. CV chondrites are described as the oldest rocks in the solar system The other piece of the meteorite, weighing 4.5 kg, was found a month later. The famous Allende meteorite of 1969 is a CV3.
1910 Great Flood of Paris: Two days after heavy rains had caused the River Seine to overflow its banks, flooding of the river valleys of France broke the previous records, and the waters kept rising.
At the annual meetings of baseball's major leagues, held in Pittsburgh, the National League's schedule committee tentatively approved a resolution to add another 14 games to each team's sechedule, for 168 regular season games. The American League declined to follow suit, so the NL retained a 154 game schedule for 1910, and the next 50 seasons. In 1961, the American League went to the current 162 games, followed by the NL the next year.
The Mann Act, sponsored by Congressman James Mann of Illinois, passed the U.S. House of Representatives by a voice vote. The bill made a federal crime of transporting a person in interstate travel (initially by "purchase of a ticket") for purposes of prostitution, punishable by a $5,000 fine, a five-year jail term, or both. The bill moved on to the U.S. Senate.
As parliamentary elections in the United Kingdom continued, the coalition led by Prime MinisterH.H. Asquith retained power. In spite of Asquith's Liberal Party, along with the Labor and Irish Nationalist parties, combined for at least 345 of the 670 seats in the House of Commons. Asquith himself was confronted by angry suffragettes until the police came to his rescue.
Carry Nation made her last attempt at wrecking a saloon, as she invaded a dance hall in Butte, Montana, but was warded off by proprietor May Malloy. Nation, who destroyed saloons and taverns at the beginning of the century, would die the following year.
Shortly after the original gift, from Japan, of 2,000 Japanese cherry blossom trees arrived in Washington, D.C., the Sakuras turned out to be unsuitable for replanting. Much to the dismay of First Lady Helen Taft, her husband had to give a presidential order to destroy the trees. Two years later, in the spring of 1912, the cherry blossoms would become a permanent fixture in Washington.
Born:John Banner, Austrian-born TV actor famous as "Sergeant Schultz" on Hogan's Heroes, as Johann Banner in Vienna (d. 1973)
"Uncle Wiggily", created by Howard R. Garis, made its debut in the Newark News. Stories featuring Uncle Wiggily Longears, a "rheumatic rabbit", became popular in a series of children's books, toys and other merchandise over the next 37 years.
^"Pinchot Fired By Taft; 'Usefulness Destroyed'", Atlanta Constitution, January 8, 1910, p. 1; James Chace, 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft & Debs – The Election That Changed the Country (Simon and Schuster, 2004), p. 14.
^"UP 3,600 FEET IN AIRPLANE", New York Times, January 8, 1910, p. 1.
^Monica M. Grady, Catalogue of Meteorites (5th ed.), (Cambridge University Press, 2000), p513
^"Metropolitan Life Has Jubilee Dinner", New York Times, January 23, 1910, p12
^(From page 1 of the Syracuse Herald-Journal) "All France Menaced By Great Floods; Paris Trembles at Approach of Torrent", (January 24, 1910); "National Disaster is Fear of France as Rains Continue" (January 25); "Over 100,000 Persons Are Homeless; France Cannot Stem Rising Deluge" (January 26); "Paris is in Terror As Fever Epidemic Swells Death Roll" (January 27); "Destruction of Paris By Yellow Tide Continues; Roaring Waters Under City Spread Fer of Horror" (January 28); "Paris Cries In Agony, 'Will End Never Come?'; Officials Are Hopeful When Clouds Vanish" (January 29)
^"168 or 154 Games?", Atlanta Constitution, January 24, 1910, p9; "National League To Play 168 Games", Atlanta Constitution, January 25, 1910, p5
^David Q. Voigt, American Baseball: From the Commissioners to Continental Expansion (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1983), p38
^Thomas Gouge, Exodus from Capitalism: The End of Inflation and Debt (iUniverse, Inc., 2003), p307