January 1933

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January 30, 1933: Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Hindenburg

The following events occurred in January 1933:

January 1, 1933 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The Soviet Union began its second Five-Year Plan with the goal of more than doubling the gross national product, from 43 billion rubles to 93 billion, by December 31, 1937.[1]
  • Capital punishment was abolished in Denmark by amendment of the 1866 Criminal Code. After the passage of the Code, 70 convicted criminals received death sentences, but only four were actually executed.[2]
  • Juan Bautista Sacasa was sworn in as President of Nicaragua, bringing an end to the US occupation there. General Mathews, the US commander of the Nicaraguan National Guard, turned over his authority to Nicaraguan General Anastasio Somoza García, and President Sacasa began immediate negotiations to end the war with the Sandinista rebels.[3]
  • Archaeologists and fortune hunters Jerry van Graan and Ernst van Graan began excavations of the ancestral graveyard of the Kings of Mapungubwe in South Africa, undisturbed since the 13th Century, after being tipped off by a local resident.[4]

January 2, 1933 (Monday)[edit]

January 3, 1933 (Tuesday)[edit]

January 4, 1933 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • After a ban against African-American enlistments that had begun on August 4, 1919, the United States Navy allowed Negroes to join, though only in the steward's department, in food service and as servants for officers. At the time, 0.5% of the enlisted men were black. The reversal was not prompted by racial enlightenment, but by concerns that the number of available Filipino domestic help would be dwindling.[14]
  • Political enemies, Nazi Party Chairman Adolf Hitler and former German Chancellor Franz von Papen, united only by their enmity with Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher, met in Köln at the home of banker Kurt von Schröder, with the goal of forcing Schleicher from office. As a result of the negotiations, Papen would support Hitler to be named as the new Chancellor of Germany by the end of the month.[15]
  • The French Line luxury ocean liner L'Atlantique caught fire while traveling, without passengers, to Le Havre for routine maintenance. Nineteen of the crew of 225 died, and the ship was destroyed. Had the fire broken out when the ship was carrying a full load of passengers, hundreds would have died.[16]
  • Dr. V. Gregory Burtan (aka Valentine G. Burtan, aka William Gregory Burtan), a respected New York cardiologist and member of the Communist Party of the United States of America, was arrested as operator of a counterfeiting operation that had lasted more than five years. Starting in 1927, in an operation approved by Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, tens of millions of dollars worth of realistic-looking but bogus US currency had been printed and put into circulation in the United States, Europe, and China. Burtan was sentenced to 15 years in prison but would be paroled after ten years.[17][18][19]
  • The 531 members of the electoral college, who had been selected by United States voters in the presidential election on November 8, 1932, met in their respective state capitals to formally cast their ballots for Franklin Roosevelt or Herbert Hoover. The results, in favor of Roosevelt 472-59, would be made official on February 8.[20]
  • Born: Phyllis Reynolds Naylor, United States children's author best known for Shiloh, in Anderson, Indiana; and René Guajardo, Mexican professional wrestler and lucha libre; in Villa Mainero, Tamaulipas state (d. 1992).
  • Died: Charles H. Jones, 77, American industrialist, best known as founder of the Commonwealth Shoe and Leather Company, and creator of the popular "Bostonian" shoe; in Weston, Massachusetts.

January 5, 1933 (Thursday)[edit]

January 6, 1933 (Friday)[edit]

  • Notorious United States gangster Clyde Barrow killed Malcolm Davis, a Deputy Sheriff for Tarrant County, Texas, in West Dallas, after which Bonnie and Clyde attracted the attention of the American press, which would follow their crimes until they were both killed on May 23, 1934.[26]
  • The United States newspaper South Bend News-Times, local paper for the University of Notre Dame, published a copyrighted story that the March 31, 1931 airplane crash, that killed Notre Dame Coach Knute Rockne, had been caused by a time-bomb placed in the plane. According to the story, the intent was to kill the Reverend John Reynolds, to keep him from testifying in the Jake Lingle murder trial. Father Reynolds had given up his seat on the airplane in favor of Rockne, but had already testified at the trial of Leo Brothers four days earlier.[27]
  • Born: Oleg G. Makarov, Soviet cosmonaut on five Soyuz missions between 1973 and 1980, in Udomlya, Russia (d. 2003); and Emil Steinberger, Swiss comedian, director, and writer, in Lucerne.
  • Died: Vladimir de Pachmann, 84, renowned Russian pianist.[28]

January 7, 1933 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin addressed the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party on the results of his first Five-Year Plan, reporting that Soviet industrial output had tripled (219% increase), while during the same period, "output in the USA dropped to 56%, in Britain to 80%, in Germany to 55% and in Poland to 54%", as proof that the Soviet system was superior to capitalism.[29]
  • The United States radio show WWVA Jamboree, the second-oldest country music radio show (after Grand Ole Opry) made its initial broadcast from the WWVA radio station in Wheeling, West Virginia.[30]
  • A United States opera based on The Emperor Jones, Eugene O'Neill's 1920 play and composed by Louis Gruenberg, premiered at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City, with baritone Lawrence Tibbett in the title role of a black escaped convict turned ruler. Tibbett, who was white, appeared in blackface, but several other cast members were African-Americans.[31]
  • Born: Anthony A. Martino, US entrepreneur who founded AAMCO Transmissions and the MAACO painting and collision repair franchises; in Philadelphia (d. 2008).
  • Died: Bert Hinkler, 40, Australian aviator, after taking off from Heathrow Airport in an attempt to fly around the world. Hinkler's body and the wreckage of his airplane would be found on April 27 in the Apennine Mountains in Italy.[32]

January 8, 1933 (Sunday)[edit]

  • US Representative Samuel A. Kendall of Pennsylvania committed suicide in his office at the US Capitol.[33]
  • British inventor Alan Blumlein began his first binaural experiments.
  • Anarchists mounted an uprising in the Catalonia region of Spain, with attacks against police and military installations in Barcelona, Valencia, and Lerida, where 21 people were killed, and in Sevilla, Zaragoza, Malaga and Gijon. The Spanish government declared martial law on 9 January.[34]
  • Born: Charles Osgood, United States journalist and commentator (CBS Sunday Morning); in New York City.
  • Died: Benton McMillin, 87, former US Congressman (1879–99), Governor of Tennessee (1899–1903), US Ambassador to Peru (1913–19), and US Ambassador to Guatemala (1920–21).

January 9, 1933 (Monday)[edit]

  • British author Eric Blair published his novel, Down and Out in Paris and London, using for the first time his better-known pen name George Orwell. Blair's three other choices had been P.S. Burton, Kenneth Miles and H. Lewis Allways.[35]
  • US President-Elect Roosevelt hosted Henry L. Stimson, President Hoover's Secretary of State, at Hyde Park, and found that the two agreed on foreign policy. Stimson would become Roosevelt's Secretary of War in 1940.[36]
  • Oscar Hartzell, a US con man who defrauded thousands of people with the surname "Drake" in a scheme to share in the estate of Sir Francis Drake, was arrested in London, where he had moved in 1924. He was extradited to the United States a month later, and died in a prison hospital on August 27, 1943.[37]
  • Born: Wilbur Smith, bestselling novelist, in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia (now Kabwe, Zambia); Robert Garcia, controversial US Congressman (D-N.Y., 1978–1990), in the Bronx; and Akbar Etemad, Iranian nuclear physicist who pioneered that nation's nuclear program; in Hamadan.
  • Died: Kate Gleason, 67, US engineer, inventor and entrepreneur.

January 10, 1933 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The death sentence of Mrs. Beatrice Ferguson Snipes, nine months pregnant when she was sentenced to death in the electric chair earlier in the month, was commuted to life imprisonment by South Carolina Governor Ibra Blackwood, after appeals from all over the United States and Europe. No date had been set for her execution after she had been found guilty of murdering a policeman.[38] Mrs. Snipes, who also had a 6-year-old son, gave birth to a daughter the following week while on leave from the penetentiary.[39]
  • The first class of the Janitor Training School, created in Kansas City, Missouri, graduated with 61 African-American workers. The JTS lasted until 1938.[40]
  • Born: Gurdial Singh, Indian novelist who writes in the Punjabi language; in Faridkot; and Anton Rodgers, English character actor, in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire.
  • Died: Roberto Mantovani, 78, Italian geologist; and Sergey Platonov, 62, Russian historian, in exile.

January 11, 1933 (Wednesday)[edit]

January 12, 1933 (Thursday)[edit]

  • After anarchists had taken control of the town of Casas Viejas the day before, the Spanish Army retaliated with the massacre of 22 civilians. When the extent of the carnage became public knowledge during the summer, Prime Minister Manuel Azaña Díaz was forced from office. Spanish Army General Francisco Franco later used the incident in gaining support for his rebels during the Spanish Civil War.[34][43]
  • The CPSU Central Committee passed a resolution for a massive purge of the Soviet Communist Party, with 800,000 expelled during the year, and 340,000 more in 1934.[44]
  • The last will and testament of former President Coolidge, true to his reputation was revealed to contain only 24 words: "Not unmindful of my son, John, I give all my estate, both real and personal, to my wife, Grace Goodhue Coolidge, in fee simple."[45]
  • Romanian Prime Minister Iuliu Maniu and his entire cabinet resigned after a disagreement with King Carol II.[46]
  • Greek Prime Minister Panagis Tsaldaris and his cabinet resigned after word was received that the opposition parties had withdrawn their confidence.[47] A vote of no-confidence followed the next day, and Eleutherios Venizelos formed a new cabinet on January 16.[48]

January 13, 1933 (Friday)[edit]

January 14, 1933 (Saturday)[edit]

January 15, 1933 (Sunday)[edit]

January 16, 1933 (Monday)[edit]

  • In his campaign to disperse the kulaks, independent farmers who were resisting the Soviet campaign for collective farming, Joseph Stalin ordered the eviction of hundreds of kulak families from the countryside around Odessa and Chernigov. This was followed by orders to deport the kulaks from Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkov, Bashkiria, Lower Volga, and 30,000 from the Northern Caucasus. Eventually, more than one million resisters were resettled in Siberia.[56]
  • The Buy American Act passed the US House of Representatives as an amendment to the 1934 Treasury and Post Office appropriations bill. It would pass the Senate on February 4 and be signed into law by President Herbert Hoover on his last full day in office.[57]
  • Born: Susan Sontag, United States author (birth name Susan Rosenblatt), in New York City (d. 2004).
  • Died: Lee Cruce, US political figure, 70, the second Governor of Oklahoma (1911–1915).

January 17, 1933 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Following the example of the US House of Representatives on January 13, the United States Senate voted 66-26 to override President Hoover's veto of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act, passing it into law by a margin of 5 votes. The new law provided for the Philippines to become a self-governing Commonwealth, with full independence in ten years.[50][58]
  • Outgoing US President Hoover asked Congress to pass a national sales tax upon all items except food and "cheap clothing", in order to balance the budget and offset a projected deficit of $700 million.[59]
  • Imre Nagy, the future Prime Minister of Hungary who would attempt to free his nation from Soviet domination, was first recruited by the Soviet NKVD as an informer, under the code name "Volodya".[60]
  • Miriam "Ma" Ferguson, who received her nickname from her initials as Miriam Amanda Ferguson, took office as the first woman governor of the US state of Texas. The next day, she fired all 44 of the Texas Rangers.[61]
  • Born: Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, Iranian national, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1966-1978; in Paris, France (d. 2003); and Dalida, Egyptian-born French singer (birth name Iolanda Cristina Gigliotti), in Cairo (d. 1987).
  • Died: Louis Comfort Tiffany, 84, US stained-glass artist and jewelry designer; and Ormond Stone, 86, US astronomer.[62]

January 18, 1933 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Angelo Herndon, a 19-year-old African-American and Communist Party member, was convicted of an attempt to incite an insurrection, and sentenced by a state court in Atlanta to 18 years imprisonment.[63] In 1937, the United States Supreme Court declared the Georgia law, which made membership in the Communist Party and solicitation for membership illegal, to be an unconstitutional infringement on the right to free speech, and reversed Herndon's conviction. Herndon's case attracted black membership in the CPUSA.[64]
  • Murray Garsson, at that time a special investigator for the US Department of Labor, announced that he would seek the deportation of foreign film stars who had been staying in the United States illegally, beginning on January 23. Among the most prominent foreign stars at the time were Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Maurice Chevalier, and Maureen O'Sullivan.[65] Fifteen actors who failed to produce their papers were asked to leave the United States until they could obtain entrance under the immigration quotas.[66]
  • Born: John Boorman, English film director (Deliverance, Excalibur and Hope and Glory); in Shepperton.

January 19, 1933 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The first 100 of 312,500 1933 Double Eagle $20 gold pieces were delivered by the United States Mint to the US Treasurer. Because the coins were never put into circulation, and nearly all would be melted into gold bricks, they became the most rare and valuable of American coins. A single one sold at a 2002 auction for $7,590,020.[67]
  • US Senator Cordell Hull of Tennessee was first offered the position of US Secretary of State by President-Elect Franklin Roosevelt. Hull considered the offer for several weeks and then accepted.[68]
  • Sixty inches of snow fell on the Giant Forest in California, a United States record for greatest snowfall in one calendar day. The record for 24 hours was 75.8 inches at Silver Lake in Boulder County, Colorado during April 14–15, 1921.[69]
  • Lady Mary Bailey, British aviator who had disappeared while attempting a solo flight from England to South Africa, was located and rescued after four days in the Sahara Desert. She had been forced to land 15 miles southwest of Tahoua, Niger, French West Africa, and was dehydrated and exhausted, but uninjured.[70]

January 20, 1933 (Friday)[edit]

  • In the largest battle up to that time in the Chaco War, 4,000 troops from Bolivia stormed the trenches of 10,000 Paraguayan soldiers at Nanawa.[71]
  • After the failure of the American Trust Company Bank of Davenport, the newly inaugurated Governor of Iowa declared a bank holiday, temporarily closing all of the banks in that state to prevent further withdrawals. Nevada had declared the first bank holiday on October 31, 1932, and consumer confidence had stabilized after the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt as President. The Iowa action was followed by more bank failures across the United States, and more temporary closures, with Louisiana following suit on February 3 and Michigan on February 14. By March 3, half of the 48 states had declared bank holidays, and President Roosevelt made a nationwide closure on March 6, two days after taking office. A record total of 242 U.S. banks failed in January 1933.[72]
  • Soviet premier V.M. Molotov and Party First Secretary Joseph Stalin issued a decree replacing the prior practice of requiring peasant farmers to deliver a percentage of their grain harvest to the state, replacing it with a flat rate. Under the former rule, "the more they produced, the more the government took".[73]
  • Died: Lt. Irvin A. Woodring, last of the U.S. Army's "Three Musketeers of Aviation" for their performances at air shows, in an airplane crash. His comrades, Lt. J.J. Williams and Lt. W.L. Cornelius had both been killed in 1928.[74]

January 21, 1933 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The development of what would become the Tennessee Valley Authority was endorsed by US President-elect Roosevelt after he visited Muscle Shoals, Alabama and told an audience in Montgomery, "My friends, I am determined on two things as a result of what I have seen today. The first is to put Muscle Shoals to work. The second is to make Muscle Shoals a part of an even greater development that will take in all of that magnificent Tennessee River from the mountains of Virginia down to the Ohio and the Gulf..." The result was that electricity was brought to rural areas in seven of the southeastern United States, in Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina and Virginia.[75][76]

January 22, 1933 (Sunday)[edit]

  • In response to the exodus of starving peasants from the famine in the Ukrainian SSR, Stalin and Molotov issued orders directing the national police and local authorities to "stop, by all means necessary, the large-scale departure of peasants from Ukraine and the Northern Caucasus" in that "this massive exodus of the peasants has been organized by enemies of the Soviet regime". The sale of railway tickets was halted the next day, and barricades were erected to keep peasants from leaving their district of residence.[77]
  • At a meeting at the home of Joachim von Ribbentrop, Nazi leaders conferred with three of President Hindenburg's advisers, Franz von Papen, Otto Meissner and the President's son, Oskar von Hindenburg to persuade the President to appoint Adolf Hitler as Chancellor.[78]
  • Died: Elisabeth Marbury, 77, US literary agent for Oscar Wilde and George Bernard Shaw.

January 23, 1933 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified after the legislature of Missouri became the 36th state to vote in favor of it. The vote in the Missouri House of Representatives came at 10:00 in the morning, when the speaker moved the opening session ahead four hours in order to vote on the amendment ahead of Massachusetts.[79] Authored by US Senator George Norris of Nebraska, and submitted to the states in 1932 after overwhelming approval by the Senate (63-7) and the House (336-56), the amendment changed the Presidential inauguration from March 4 to January 20. It also changed the date of inauguration Congress members, from March 4 to January 3, and changed the opening day of Congress from "the first Monday in December" to January 3 as well. Prior to the change, members who had been defeated in November elections were able to continue meeting for 13 months.[80]
  • The boundary dispute between Guatemala and Honduras was settled after nearly 95 years, when the Special Boundary Tribunal issued an arbitration award. Prior attempts to settle the dispute had failed in 1845, 1895 and 1914, until the two nations agreed to submit the dispute on July 16, 1930.[81]
  • Born: Chita Rivera (name at birth Dolores Conchita Figueroa del Rivero), US stage actress and dancer, 2-time Tony Award winner, winner of Presidential Medal of Freedom, in Washington, DC.

January 24, 1933 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Central Committee of the CPSU began a purge of the Ukrainian Communist Party by Russia—the first secretaries in three of the seven oblasts were replaced by the Soviet party, with the main change being to replace Roman Terekhov as the Kharkov party boss by Pavel Postyshev. Throughout the year, 5,000 Ukrainian Party workers were replaced by outsiders.[82]
  • Irish general election, 1933: Fianna Fáil 77 seats, Cumann na nGaedheal 48, National Centre Party 11, Labour 8 of the 153 total seats (there were 9 independent seats) in the 8th session of the Dáil Éireann ("With a fuller parliamentary majority, de Valera was able to abolish the Oath of Allegiance (1933), the Senate (June 1936), university representation in the Dáil (1934-36), all references to the monarch in the Constitution (December 1936, in the aftermath of the abdication of Edward VIII), and the Governor General (1937). A new Constitution was then put to referendum.")[83]

January 25, 1933 (Wednesday)[edit]

January 26, 1933 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The League of Nations Council cabled an order to the Peruvian government to refrain from a planned invasion of Colombia in a dispute over the Leticia province, citing Peru's duty as a League member.[85]

January 27, 1933 (Friday)[edit]

  • After a walkout of 6,000 Briggs Manufacturing Company workers, who manufactured automobile bodies, US auto manufacturer Ford Motor Company closed its American factories indefinitely, putting 100,000 people out of work, as well as 50,000 in supplying factories.[86]

January 28, 1933 (Saturday)[edit]

January 29, 1933 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Edouard Daladier was asked by President LeBrun of France to become the new Prime Minister and to form a new government. Daladier, who had been the French Minister of War, accepted and formed a new cabinet of ministers.[91]
  • Died: Thomas Coward, 66, English ornithologist; and Sara Teasdale, 48, United States lyrical poet.

January 30, 1933 (Monday)[edit]

  • Adolf Hitler was sworn in by German President Paul von Hindenburg as Chancellor of Germany.[92]
  • The Lone Ranger made its debut on United States radio, originally as a program on station WXYZ in Detroit. Writer Fran Striker and station owner George Trendle created the adventure of the masked man who brought justice to the American West. The program, heard on a clear channel station, would be picked up nationwide by the Mutual Broadcasting System and was notable for its use of the William Tell Overture as its theme song, and its catch phrases "Hi-yo, Silver!" and "Who was that masked man?"[93]

January 31, 1933 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The day after Adolf Hitler and his coalition partners formed the new ministry, the Reichstag was dissolved and new elections were called for March 5.[94]
  • Died: John Galsworthy, 65, English novelist and playwright, famous for The Forsyte Saga; a month after receiving the 1932 Nobel Prize in Literature.


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  2. ^ Lars Bo Langsted, et al., Criminal Law in Denmark (Kluwer Law International, 2010), p. 24
  3. ^ Manzar Foroohar, The Catholic Church and Social Change in Nicaragua (SUNY Press, 1989), p. 23
  4. ^ David Fleminger, Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape (30° South Publishers, 2008), pp. 84-5
  5. ^ Benjamin R. Beede, The War of 1898, and US interventions, 1898-1934: an encyclopedia (Taylor & Francis, 1994), p. 379
  6. ^ "Lehman Takes Office Today as Governor", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 2, 1933, p. 2
  7. ^ "TROJANS EASILY DEFEAT PANTHERS BY 35 TO 0", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 1
  8. ^ "Actor Plunges to His Death", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 2, 1933, p. 1
  9. ^ Michael Brecher and Jonathan Wilkenfeld, A Study of Crisis (University of Michigan Press, 1997), p. 156; "Japanese Take Town in China", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 1
  10. ^ Dermot Keogh, Ireland and the Vatican: The Politics and Diplomacy of Church-State Relations, 1922-1960 (Cork University Press, 1995), p. 101; "Irish Political Conflict Begins", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 2
  11. ^ Robert Frank Futrell, Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force (Volume 1) (Air University Press, 1989), p. 66
  12. ^ Gary S. Dunbar, Geography: Discipline, Profession, and Subject since 1870: An International Survey (Springer, 2001), p. 100
  13. ^ "Cuno Falls Dead on Steps of Home", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 3
  14. ^ Robert J. Schneller, Jr., Breaking the Color Barrier: The U.S. Naval Academy's First Black Midshipmen and the Struggle for Racial Equality (NYU Press, 2005), p. 55
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  16. ^ Kit Bonner and Carolyn Bonner, Great Ship Disasters (Zenith Imprint, 2003) pp87-91: "MORE THAN 30 FEARED DEAD AS SHIP BURNS IN CHANNEL", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 5, 1933, p. 1
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  22. ^ "'Leisure Class' to Be Driven Out of Soviet Cities Soon", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 16, 1933, p. 3
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  27. ^ "Bomb Killed Rockne, Claim", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 7, 1933, p. 1
  28. ^ "Famed Pianist Buried With Simplest Rites", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 9, 1933, p. 2
  29. ^ Iván T. Berend, Decades of Crisis: Central and Eastern Europe before World War II (University of California Press, 2001), p. 278
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  33. ^ "Kendall Kills Self, Grieving Death of Wife", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 9, 1933, p. 1
  34. ^ a b Stanley G. Payne, Spain's First Democracy: The Second Republic, 1931-1936 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1993), pp. 129-32
  35. ^ Peter Stansky and William Miller Abrahams, The Unknown Orwell: Orwell, the Transformation (Stanford University Press, 1994), p. 307
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  38. ^ "Expectant Mother Saved From Execution in Chair", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 11, 1933, p. 1
  39. ^ "Daughter Is Born to Life Prisoner", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 17, 1933, p. 1
  40. ^ Charles E. Coulter, "Take Up the Black Man's Burden": Kansas City's African American communities, 1865-1939 (University of Missouri Press, 2006), pp. 75-6
  41. ^ "Japanese Troops Start March Into Jehol Area", Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, January 11, 1933, p. 1
  42. ^ "Kingsford-Smith Ends New Zealand Flight", Ottawa Citizen, January 11, 1933, p. 1
  43. ^ Jerome R. Mintz, The Anarchists of Casas Viejas (Indiana University Press, 2004), p. 1
  44. ^ Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford University Press US, 2007), p. 26
  45. ^ "Coolidge Will But 24 Words- Document, in Own Writing, in Customary Brief Type of Speech", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 13, 1933, p. 1
  46. ^ "Ministry in Dispute With Carol Resigns", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 13, 1933, p. 3
  47. ^ "Ministry in Greece Tenders Resignation", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 13, 1933, p. 3
  48. ^ "Venizelos Forms New Government", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 17, 1933, p. 2
  49. ^ "House Blocks Veto; Filipino Bill In Senate- Hoover Objections Are Quickly Set Aside In Lower Branch", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 14, 1933, p. 1
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  52. ^ Steven Lynch, Wisden on the Ashes: The Authoritative Story of Cricket's Greatest Rivalry (A&C Black, 2009) p224
  53. ^ "Pope Ordains Year of Peace", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 16, 1933, p. 1
  54. ^ Wolfgang Benz and Thomas Dunlap, A Concise History of the Third Reich (University of California Press, 2006), p. 17
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  57. ^ Dana Frank, Buy American: The Untold Story of Economic Nationalism (Beacon Press, 2000), p. 65
  58. ^ "Filipino Bill Enacted Over Hoover Veto", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1933, p. 1
  59. ^ "TAX ON SALES TO BALANCE BUDGE URGED BY HOOVER", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1933, p. 1
  60. ^ Charles Gati, Failed Illusions: Moscow, Washington, Budapest, and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt (Stanford University Press, 2006), p. 34
  61. ^ Mike Cox, Time of the Rangers: Texas Rangers: From 1900 to the Present (Macmillan, 2010), p. 154
  62. ^ "Auto Kills Noted Astronomer", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1933, p. 1
  63. ^ "Colored Communist Gets 18 Years", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 19, 1933, p.1
  64. ^ "Communism and African Americans", Encyclopedia of African American history, 1896 to the Present (Paul Finkelman, ed.) (Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 469
  65. ^ "U.S. Acts to Deport Movie Stars Here Illegally", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 19, 1933, p.2
  66. ^ "Foreign Stars' Exodus Begun", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 28, 1933, p. 1
  67. ^ David Tripp, Illegal Tender: Gold, Greed, and the Mystery of the Lost 1933 Double Eagle (Simon and Schuster, 2004), p. 124
  68. ^ Michael A. Butler, Cautious Visionary: Cordell Hull and Trade Reform, 1933-1937 (Kent State University Press, 1998), p. 1
  69. ^ Barbara Tufty, 1001 Questions Answered about Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Other Natural Air Disasters (Courier Dover Publications, 1987), p. 260
  70. ^ "Find Aviatrix Lost in Desert", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 20, 1933, p. 1
  71. ^ "Biggest Battle in Gran Chaco", Milwaukee Journal, January 22, 1933, p. 2
  72. ^ Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960 (Princeton University Press, 1971), pp. 325-7
  73. ^ "Soviets Will 'Tax' Peasants in Grain", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 21, 1933, p. 2
  74. ^ "Last of Airplane 'Musketeers' Dies", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 12, 1933, p. 1
  75. ^ "U.S. to Run Shoals Plant, Roosevelt Says", Milwaukee Journal, January 22, 1933, p. 1
  76. ^ Aelred J. Gray and David A. Johnson, The TVA Regional Planning and Development Program: The Transformation of an Institution and its Mission (Ashgate Publishing, 2005), p. 157
  77. ^ Stéphane Courtois, Livre noir du Communisme: crimes, terreur, répression, translator Mark Kramer (Harvard University Press, 1999), p. 164
  78. ^ Eugene Davidson, The Trial of the Germans: An Account of the Twenty-Two Defendants Before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (University of Missouri Press, 1997), pp. 196-8
  79. ^ "'Lame Ducks' Doom Sealed", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 24, 1933, p. 1
  80. ^ John R. Vile, Encyclopedia of Constitutional Amendments, Proposed Amendments, and Amending Issues, 1789-2002 (ABC-CLIO, 2003), p. 468
  81. ^ Victor Prescott and Gillian D. Triggs, International Frontiers and Boundaries: Law, Politics and Geography (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008), p. 118
  82. ^ Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 229
  83. ^ "Dáil Elections since 1918", University of Ulster ARK Northern Ireland
  84. ^ Rick Fawn and Jiří Hochman, Historical Dictionary of the Czech State (Scarecrow Press, 2010), p. 15
  85. ^ "Peru Ordered to Quit War", Milwaukee Sentinel, January 27, 1933, p. 4
  86. ^ "Ford Plants Closed Down", Youngstown Vindicator, January 27, 1933, p. 2
  87. ^ Now or Never text
  88. ^ "Hitler Preparing To Rule In Germany As Cabinet Resigns", Pittsburgh Press, January 29, 1933, p. 1
  89. ^ Marshall Dill, Germany: A Modern History (University of Michigan Press, 1970), p. 340
  90. ^ "French Cabinet Is Overthrown", Milwaukee Sentinel, January 28, 1933, p. 1
  91. ^ "Daladier Will Try to Recruit New Cabinet', Montreal Gazette, January 30, 1933, p. 1
  92. ^ "HITLER WINS POWER IN GERMANY", Pittsburgh Press, January 30, 1933, p. 1
  93. ^ Avi Dan Santo, Transmedia Bbrand Licensing prior to Conglomeration: George Trendle and the Lone Ranger and Green Hornet Brands, 1933-1966 (ProQuest, 2006), p. 103
  94. ^ Alexander J. De Grand, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: The 'Fascist' Style of Rule (Routledge, 2004), pp. 28-9