The Soviet Union began its second Five-Year Plan with the goal of more than doubling the gross national product, from 43 billion rubles to 93 billion, by December 31, 1937.
Capital punishment was abolished in Denmark by amendment of the 1866 Criminal Code. After the passage of the Code, 70 convicted criminals received death sentences, but only four were actually executed.
Juan Bautista Sacasa was sworn in as President of Nicaragua, bringing an end to the US occupation there. General Mathews, the US commander of the Nicaraguan National Guard, turned over his authority to Nicaraguan General Anastasio Somoza García, and President Sacasa began immediate negotiations to end the war with the Sandinista rebels.
Archaeologists and fortune hunters Jerry van Graan and Ernst van Graan began excavations of the ancestral graveyard of the Kings of Mapungubwe in South Africa, undisturbed since the 13th Century, after being tipped off by a local resident.
After a seven-year occupation of Nicaragua, the last 910 US Marines and sailors withdrew, departing from the port of Corinto. US forces sustained 47 killed in combat, and 66 wounded during the campaign. Two days earlier, 8 Marines had been killed in an ambush.
General Douglas MacArthur, the United States Army Chief of Staff, issued an order requiring the US Army Air Corps (forerunner of the US Air Force) "to conduct the land-based air operations in defense of the United States and its overseas possessions".
After a ban against African-American enlistments that had begun on August 4, 1919, the United States Navy allowed Negroes to join, though only in the steward's department, in food service and as servants for officers. At the time, 0.5% of the enlisted men were black. The reversal was not prompted by racial enlightenment, but by concerns that the number of available Filipino domestic help would be dwindling.
The French Line luxury ocean liner L'Atlantique caught fire while traveling, without passengers, to Le Havre for routine maintenance. Nineteen of the crew of 225 died, and the ship was destroyed. Had the fire broken out when the ship was carrying a full load of passengers, hundreds would have died.
Dr. V. Gregory Burtan (aka Valentine G. Burtan, aka William Gregory Burtan), a respected New York cardiologist and member of the Communist Party of the United States of America, was arrested as operator of a counterfeiting operation that had lasted more than five years. Starting in 1927, in an operation approved by Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, tens of millions of dollars worth of realistic-looking but bogus US currency had been printed and put into circulation in the United States, Europe, and China. Burtan was sentenced to 15 years in prison but would be paroled after ten years.
The 531 members of the electoral college, who had been selected by United States voters in the presidential election on November 8, 1932, met in their respective state capitals to formally cast their ballots for Franklin Roosevelt or Herbert Hoover. The results, in favor of Roosevelt 472-59, would be made official on February 8.
The Soviet Union began requiring every citizen over the age of 16 to carry an internal passport. A propiska, the official stamp on the passport issued by the NKVD, governed where a person could reside, and restricted who could live or work in designated "closed cities" (Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Odessa, Minsk, Kharkov, Vladivostok and Rostov-on-Don). By the end of the year, 27 million passports were issued. Another 420,000 persons who failed a background check were expelled from their homes. Distribution of the new passports began on January 20.
Construction of the United States Golden Gate Bridge began, beginning with the anchorage for the tower at Marin, on the north side of the San Francisco Bay. The project was funded by a $35 million bond issue and by the Federal Works Progress Administration. Chief Engineer Joseph Strauss introduced several safety measures for the construction workers, including head, eye and skin protection, and a safety net below the bridge, which would save 19 men from death. The bridge would be opened to the public on May 27, 1937.
The United States newspaper South Bend News-Times, local paper for the University of Notre Dame, published a copyrighted story that the March 31, 1931 airplane crash, that killed Notre Dame Coach Knute Rockne, had been caused by a time-bomb placed in the plane. According to the story, the intent was to kill the Reverend John Reynolds, to keep him from testifying in the Jake Lingle murder trial. Father Reynolds had given up his seat on the airplane in favor of Rockne, but had already testified at the trial of Leo Brothers four days earlier.
Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin addressed the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party on the results of his first Five-Year Plan, reporting that Soviet industrial output had tripled (219% increase), while during the same period, "output in the USA dropped to 56%, in Britain to 80%, in Germany to 55% and in Poland to 54%", as proof that the Soviet system was superior to capitalism.
Died:Bert Hinkler, 40, Australian aviator, after taking off from Heathrow Airport in an attempt to fly around the world. Hinkler's body and the wreckage of his airplane would be found on April 27 in the Apennine Mountains in Italy.
US Representative Samuel A. Kendall of Pennsylvania committed suicide in his office at the US Capitol.
British inventor Alan Blumlein began his first binaural experiments.
Anarchists mounted an uprising in the Catalonia region of Spain, with attacks against police and military installations in Barcelona, Valencia, and Lerida, where 21 people were killed, and in Sevilla, Zaragoza, Malaga and Gijon. The Spanish government declared martial law on 9 January.
British author Eric Blair published his novel, Down and Out in Paris and London, using for the first time his better-known pen name George Orwell. Blair's three other choices had been P.S. Burton, Kenneth Miles and H. Lewis Allways.
US President-Elect Roosevelt hosted Henry L. Stimson, President Hoover's Secretary of State, at Hyde Park, and found that the two agreed on foreign policy. Stimson would become Roosevelt's Secretary of War in 1940.
Oscar Hartzell, a US con man who defrauded thousands of people with the surname "Drake" in a scheme to share in the estate of Sir Francis Drake, was arrested in London, where he had moved in 1924. He was extradited to the United States a month later, and died in a prison hospital on August 27, 1943.
The death sentence of Mrs. Beatrice Ferguson Snipes, nine months pregnant when she was sentenced to death in the electric chair earlier in the month, was commuted to life imprisonment by South Carolina Governor Ibra Blackwood, after appeals from all over the United States and Europe. No date had been set for her execution after she had been found guilty of murdering a policeman. Mrs. Snipes, who also had a 6-year-old son, gave birth to a daughter the following week while on leave from the penetentiary.
The first class of the Janitor Training School, created in Kansas City, Missouri, graduated with 61 African-American workers. The JTS lasted until 1938.
Japanese troops captured Jiumenkou, site of the "pass of nine gates" that blocked entry into the Jehol Province, after fighting and capturing Shanhaiguan, as Japan sought to expand its territory in China.
After anarchists had taken control of the town of Casas Viejas the day before, the Spanish Army retaliated with the massacre of 22 civilians. When the extent of the carnage became public knowledge during the summer, Prime Minister Manuel Azaña Díaz was forced from office. Spanish Army General Francisco Franco later used the incident in gaining support for his rebels during the Spanish Civil War.
The CPSU Central Committee passed a resolution for a massive purge of the Soviet Communist Party, with 800,000 expelled during the year, and 340,000 more in 1934.
The last will and testament of former President Coolidge, true to his reputation was revealed to contain only 24 words: "Not unmindful of my son, John, I give all my estate, both real and personal, to my wife, Grace Goodhue Coolidge, in fee simple."
Greek Prime Minister Panagis Tsaldaris and his cabinet resigned after word was received that the opposition parties had withdrawn their confidence. A vote of no-confidence followed the next day, and Eleutherios Venizelos formed a new cabinet on January 16.
In his campaign to disperse the kulaks, independent farmers who were resisting the Soviet campaign for collective farming, Joseph Stalin ordered the eviction of hundreds of kulak families from the countryside around Odessa and Chernigov. This was followed by orders to deport the kulaks from Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkov, Bashkiria, Lower Volga, and 30,000 from the Northern Caucasus. Eventually, more than one million resisters were resettled in Siberia.
The Buy American Act passed the US House of Representatives as an amendment to the 1934 Treasury and Post Office appropriations bill. It would pass the Senate on February 4 and be signed into law by President Herbert Hoover on his last full day in office.
Born:Susan Sontag, United States author (birth name Susan Rosenblatt), in New York City (d. 2004).
Died:Lee Cruce, US political figure, 70, the second Governor of Oklahoma (1911–1915).
Following the example of the US House of Representatives on January 13, the United States Senate voted 66-26 to override President Hoover's veto of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act, passing it into law by a margin of 5 votes. The new law provided for the Philippines to become a self-governing Commonwealth, with full independence in ten years.
Outgoing US President Hoover asked Congress to pass a national sales tax upon all items except food and "cheap clothing", in order to balance the budget and offset a projected deficit of $700 million.
Imre Nagy, the future Prime Minister of Hungary who would attempt to free his nation from Soviet domination, was first recruited by the Soviet NKVD as an informer, under the code name "Volodya".
Angelo Herndon, a 19-year-old African-American and Communist Party member, was convicted of an attempt to incite an insurrection, and sentenced by a state court in Atlanta to 18 years imprisonment. In 1937, the United States Supreme Court declared the Georgia law, which made membership in the Communist Party and solicitation for membership illegal, to be an unconstitutional infringement on the right to free speech, and reversed Herndon's conviction. Herndon's case attracted black membership in the CPUSA.
Murray Garsson, at that time a special investigator for the US Department of Labor, announced that he would seek the deportation of foreign film stars who had been staying in the United States illegally, beginning on January 23. Among the most prominent foreign stars at the time were Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich, Maurice Chevalier, and Maureen O'Sullivan. Fifteen actors who failed to produce their papers were asked to leave the United States until they could obtain entrance under the immigration quotas.
The first 100 of 312,500 1933 Double Eagle $20 gold pieces were delivered by the United States Mint to the US Treasurer. Because the coins were never put into circulation, and nearly all would be melted into gold bricks, they became the most rare and valuable of American coins. A single one sold at a 2002 auction for $7,590,020.
US Senator Cordell Hull of Tennessee was first offered the position of US Secretary of State by President-Elect Franklin Roosevelt. Hull considered the offer for several weeks and then accepted.
Lady Mary Bailey, British aviator who had disappeared while attempting a solo flight from England to South Africa, was located and rescued after four days in the Sahara Desert. She had been forced to land 15 miles southwest of Tahoua, Niger, French West Africa, and was dehydrated and exhausted, but uninjured.
After the failure of the American Trust Company Bank of Davenport, the newly inaugurated Governor of Iowa declared a bank holiday, temporarily closing all of the banks in that state to prevent further withdrawals. Nevada had declared the first bank holiday on October 31, 1932, and consumer confidence had stabilized after the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt as President. The Iowa action was followed by more bank failures across the United States, and more temporary closures, with Louisiana following suit on February 3 and Michigan on February 14. By March 3, half of the 48 states had declared bank holidays, and President Roosevelt made a nationwide closure on March 6, two days after taking office. A record total of 242 U.S. banks failed in January 1933.
Soviet premier V.M. Molotov and Party First Secretary Joseph Stalin issued a decree replacing the prior practice of requiring peasant farmers to deliver a percentage of their grain harvest to the state, replacing it with a flat rate. Under the former rule, "the more they produced, the more the government took".
Died: Lt. Irvin A. Woodring, last of the U.S. Army's "Three Musketeers of Aviation" for their performances at air shows, in an airplane crash. His comrades, Lt. J.J. Williams and Lt. W.L. Cornelius had both been killed in 1928.
The development of what would become the Tennessee Valley Authority was endorsed by US President-elect Roosevelt after he visited Muscle Shoals, Alabama and told an audience in Montgomery, "My friends, I am determined on two things as a result of what I have seen today. The first is to put Muscle Shoals to work. The second is to make Muscle Shoals a part of an even greater development that will take in all of that magnificent Tennessee River from the mountains of Virginia down to the Ohio and the Gulf..." The result was that electricity was brought to rural areas in seven of the southeastern United States, in Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina and Virginia.
In response to the exodus of starving peasants from the famine in the Ukrainian SSR, Stalin and Molotov issued orders directing the national police and local authorities to "stop, by all means necessary, the large-scale departure of peasants from Ukraine and the Northern Caucasus" in that "this massive exodus of the peasants has been organized by enemies of the Soviet regime". The sale of railway tickets was halted the next day, and barricades were erected to keep peasants from leaving their district of residence.
The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified after the legislature of Missouri became the 36th state to vote in favor of it. The vote in the Missouri House of Representatives came at 10:00 in the morning, when the speaker moved the opening session ahead four hours in order to vote on the amendment ahead of Massachusetts. Authored by US Senator George Norris of Nebraska, and submitted to the states in 1932 after overwhelming approval by the Senate (63-7) and the House (336-56), the amendment changed the Presidential inauguration from March 4 to January 20. It also changed the date of inauguration Congress members, from March 4 to January 3, and changed the opening day of Congress from "the first Monday in December" to January 3 as well. Prior to the change, members who had been defeated in November elections were able to continue meeting for 13 months.
The boundary dispute between Guatemala and Honduras was settled after nearly 95 years, when the Special Boundary Tribunal issued an arbitration award. Prior attempts to settle the dispute had failed in 1845, 1895 and 1914, until the two nations agreed to submit the dispute on July 16, 1930.
Born:Chita Rivera (name at birth Dolores Conchita Figueroa del Rivero), US stage actress and dancer, 2-time Tony Award winner, winner of Presidential Medal of Freedom, in Washington, DC.
The Central Committee of the CPSU began a purge of the Ukrainian Communist Party by Russia—the first secretaries in three of the seven oblasts were replaced by the Soviet party, with the main change being to replace Roman Terekhov as the Kharkov party boss by Pavel Postyshev. Throughout the year, 5,000 Ukrainian Party workers were replaced by outsiders.
Irish general election, 1933: Fianna Fáil 77 seats, Cumann na nGaedheal 48, National Centre Party 11, Labour 8 of the 153 total seats (there were 9 independent seats) in the 8th session of the Dáil Éireann ("With a fuller parliamentary majority, de Valera was able to abolish the Oath of Allegiance (1933), the Senate (June 1936), university representation in the Dáil (1934-36), all references to the monarch in the Constitution (December 1936, in the aftermath of the abdication of Edward VIII), and the Governor General (1937). A new Constitution was then put to referendum.")
The League of Nations Council cabled an order to the Peruvian government to refrain from a planned invasion of Colombia in a dispute over the Leticia province, citing Peru's duty as a League member.
After a walkout of 6,000 Briggs Manufacturing Company workers, who manufactured automobile bodies, US auto manufacturer Ford Motor Company closed its American factories indefinitely, putting 100,000 people out of work, as well as 50,000 in supplying factories.
Kurt von Schleicher resigned as Chancellor of Germany, after President Hindenburg refused to grant him dictatorial powers to manage the nation's economic crisis and after being unable to form a coalition government. Hindenburg attempted to persuade Franz von Papen to succeed Schleicher, but Papen declined, leaving Adolf Hitler as Hindenburg's choice.
In a vote of no confidence, the French Chamber of Deputies voted 390-193 against the government of Premier Joseph Paul-Boncour, who then resigned.
Edouard Daladier was asked by President LeBrun of France to become the new Prime Minister and to form a new government. Daladier, who had been the French Minister of War, accepted and formed a new cabinet of ministers.
The Lone Ranger made its debut on United States radio, originally as a program on station WXYZ in Detroit. Writer Fran Striker and station owner George Trendle created the adventure of the masked man who brought justice to the American West. The program, heard on a clear channel station, would be picked up nationwide by the Mutual Broadcasting System and was notable for its use of the William Tell Overture as its theme song, and its catch phrases "Hi-yo, Silver!" and "Who was that masked man?"
^George Vernadsky, A History of Russia (Volume 5, Part 1) (Yale University Press, 1961), p. 374
^Lars Bo Langsted, et al., Criminal Law in Denmark (Kluwer Law International, 2010), p. 24
^Manzar Foroohar, The Catholic Church and Social Change in Nicaragua (SUNY Press, 1989), p. 23
^David Fleminger, Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape (30° South Publishers, 2008), pp. 84-5
^Benjamin R. Beede, The War of 1898, and US interventions, 1898-1934: an encyclopedia (Taylor & Francis, 1994), p. 379
^"Lehman Takes Office Today as Governor", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 2, 1933, p. 2
^"TROJANS EASILY DEFEAT PANTHERS BY 35 TO 0", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 1
^"Actor Plunges to His Death", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 2, 1933, p. 1
^Michael Brecher and Jonathan Wilkenfeld, A Study of Crisis (University of Michigan Press, 1997), p. 156; "Japanese Take Town in China", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 1
^Dermot Keogh, Ireland and the Vatican: The Politics and Diplomacy of Church-State Relations, 1922-1960 (Cork University Press, 1995), p. 101; "Irish Political Conflict Begins", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 2
^Robert Frank Futrell, Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force (Volume 1) (Air University Press, 1989), p. 66
^Gary S. Dunbar, Geography: Discipline, Profession, and Subject since 1870: An International Survey (Springer, 2001), p. 100
^"Cuno Falls Dead on Steps of Home", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 3, 1933, p. 3
^Robert J. Schneller, Jr., Breaking the Color Barrier: The U.S. Naval Academy's First Black Midshipmen and the Struggle for Racial Equality (NYU Press, 2005), p. 55
^Anthony Read, The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle (W. W. Norton & Company, 2004), pp. 262-3
^Kit Bonner and Carolyn Bonner, Great Ship Disasters (Zenith Imprint, 2003) pp87-91: "MORE THAN 30 FEARED DEAD AS SHIP BURNS IN CHANNEL", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 5, 1933, p. 1
^Roman Brackman, The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life (Taylor & Francis, 2003), p. 190; John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (Yale University Press, 2000), pp. 166-7; "Physician Seized as Counterfeiter", New York Times, January 5, 1933
^"Electors Will Vote for Roosevelt Today; Congress Is Slated for Joint Session Feb. 8 to Certify Presidential Choice", New York Times, January 4, 1933
^"The Russian Card: The Propiska", by Nicholas Werth, in National Identification Systems: Essays in Opposition (McFarland, 2004), p. 117
^"'Leisure Class' to Be Driven Out of Soviet Cities Soon", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 16, 1933, p. 3
^Mick Sinclair, San Francisco: A Cultural and Literary History (Interlink Books, 2004), pp. 131-2; Rand Richards, Historic San Francisco: A Concise History and Guide (Heritage House Publishers, 2007), p. 202
^Ruth Tenzer Feldman, Calvin Coolidge (Twenty-First Century Books, 2006), p. 96; Paul B. Wice,Presidents in Retirement: Alone and Out of Office (Lexington Books, 2009), p. 159; "COOLIDGE DIES FROM HEART ATTACK; BODY IS FOUND IN HOME BY HIS WIFE", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 6, 1933, p. 1
^Dmitri Volkogonov, Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary (Simon and Schuster, 1996), p. 351
^William B. Breuer,J. Edgar Hoover and His G-men (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995), p. 61
^"Bomb Killed Rockne, Claim", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 7, 1933, p. 1
^"Famed Pianist Buried With Simplest Rites", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 9, 1933, p. 2
^Iván T. Berend, Decades of Crisis: Central and Eastern Europe before World War II (University of California Press, 2001), p. 278
^Bill C. Malone, Country Music, U.S.A. (University of Texas Press, 2002), p. 98
^Cary D. Wintz and Paul Finkelman, eds., Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance (Volume 1) (Taylor & Francis, 2004), p.452
^Ed Wright, Lost Explorers: Adventurers Who Disappeared Off the Face of the Earth (Pier 9, 2008), p. 298
^ abStanley G. Payne, Spain's First Democracy: The Second Republic, 1931-1936 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1993), pp. 129-32
^Peter Stansky and William Miller Abrahams, The Unknown Orwell: Orwell, the Transformation (Stanford University Press, 1994), p. 307
^Jean Edward Smith, FDR (Random House Digital, Inc., 2007), p. 291; Conrad Black, Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Champion of Freedom (PublicAffairs, 2005), p. 256
^"Oscar Hartzell and the Estate of Sir Francis Drake", by Steven Pressman, in Handbook of Frauds, Scams, and Swindles: Failures of Ethics in Leadership (CRC Press, 2008), pp. 60-1
^"Expectant Mother Saved From Execution in Chair", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 11, 1933, p. 1
^"Daughter Is Born to Life Prisoner", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 17, 1933, p. 1
^Charles E. Coulter, "Take Up the Black Man's Burden": Kansas City's African American communities, 1865-1939 (University of Missouri Press, 2006), pp. 75-6
^"Japanese Troops Start March Into Jehol Area", Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, January 11, 1933, p. 1
^"Kingsford-Smith Ends New Zealand Flight", Ottawa Citizen, January 11, 1933, p. 1
^Jerome R. Mintz, The Anarchists of Casas Viejas (Indiana University Press, 2004), p. 1
^Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment (Oxford University Press US, 2007), p. 26
^"Coolidge Will But 24 Words- Document, in Own Writing, in Customary Brief Type of Speech", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 13, 1933, p. 1
^"Ministry in Dispute With Carol Resigns", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 13, 1933, p. 3
^"Ministry in Greece Tenders Resignation", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 13, 1933, p. 3
^"Venizelos Forms New Government", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 17, 1933, p. 2
^"House Blocks Veto; Filipino Bill In Senate- Hoover Objections Are Quickly Set Aside In Lower Branch", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 14, 1933, p. 1
^ abPaul H. Kratoska, South East Asia, Colonial History: Imperial Decline: Nationalism and the Japanese Challenge (1920s-1940s) (Taylor & Francis, 2001), p. 129
^"Australian Batters Start Weakly In Test Match", Ottawa Citizen - January 14, 1933, p1; Manning Clark, A History of Australia (Melbourne University Press, 1993), p546; "Woodfull Rebukes English Manager"; "England's Recovery- Innings Total 341", Sydney Morning Herald, January 15, 1933, p9
^Steven Lynch, Wisden on the Ashes: The Authoritative Story of Cricket's Greatest Rivalry (A&C Black, 2009) p224
^"Pope Ordains Year of Peace", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 16, 1933, p. 1
^Wolfgang Benz and Thomas Dunlap, A Concise History of the Third Reich (University of California Press, 2006), p. 17
^Lisa J. Schwebel, Apparitions, Healings, and Weeping Madonnas: Christianity and the Paranormal (Paulist Press, 2004)
^Dmitri Volkogonov, Lenin: A New Biography (Simon and Schuster, 1998)
^Dana Frank, Buy American: The Untold Story of Economic Nationalism (Beacon Press, 2000), p. 65
^"Filipino Bill Enacted Over Hoover Veto", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1933, p. 1
^"TAX ON SALES TO BALANCE BUDGE URGED BY HOOVER", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1933, p. 1
^Charles Gati, Failed Illusions: Moscow, Washington, Budapest, and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt (Stanford University Press, 2006), p. 34
^Mike Cox, Time of the Rangers: Texas Rangers: From 1900 to the Present (Macmillan, 2010), p. 154
^"Auto Kills Noted Astronomer", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 18, 1933, p. 1
^"Colored Communist Gets 18 Years", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 19, 1933, p.1
^"Communism and African Americans", Encyclopedia of African American history, 1896 to the Present (Paul Finkelman, ed.) (Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 469
^"U.S. Acts to Deport Movie Stars Here Illegally", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 19, 1933, p.2
^"Foreign Stars' Exodus Begun", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 28, 1933, p. 1
^David Tripp, Illegal Tender: Gold, Greed, and the Mystery of the Lost 1933 Double Eagle (Simon and Schuster, 2004), p. 124
^Michael A. Butler, Cautious Visionary: Cordell Hull and Trade Reform, 1933-1937 (Kent State University Press, 1998), p. 1
^Barbara Tufty, 1001 Questions Answered about Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Other Natural Air Disasters (Courier Dover Publications, 1987), p. 260
^"Find Aviatrix Lost in Desert", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 20, 1933, p. 1
^"Biggest Battle in Gran Chaco", Milwaukee Journal, January 22, 1933, p. 2
^Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960 (Princeton University Press, 1971), pp. 325-7
^"Soviets Will 'Tax' Peasants in Grain", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 21, 1933, p. 2
^"Last of Airplane 'Musketeers' Dies", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 12, 1933, p. 1
^"U.S. to Run Shoals Plant, Roosevelt Says", Milwaukee Journal, January 22, 1933, p. 1
^Aelred J. Gray and David A. Johnson, The TVA Regional Planning and Development Program: The Transformation of an Institution and its Mission (Ashgate Publishing, 2005), p. 157
^Stéphane Courtois, Livre noir du Communisme: crimes, terreur, répression, translator Mark Kramer (Harvard University Press, 1999), p. 164
^Eugene Davidson, The Trial of the Germans: An Account of the Twenty-Two Defendants Before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (University of Missouri Press, 1997), pp. 196-8