|S. I. Hayakawa · Mary Ito · Steve Kariya
Kytami · Nobu McCarthy · Justin Nozuka
Bev Oda · Steve Oda · Ruth Ozeki
Devin Setoguchi · Rick Shiomi · David Suzuki
|Regions with significant populations|
|British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec|
|Related ethnic groups|
Japanese Canadians are Canadians of Japanese ancestry, and are mostly concentrated on the west coast, especially in and around Vancouver. In 2006, there were 98,905 (42,435 of whom are of mixed heritage).
The term Nikkei (日系) was coined by sociologists and encompasses all of the world's Japanese immigrants across generations. Japanese-Canadians (and Japanese Americans) have special names for each of their generations in North America. These are formed by combining one of the Japanese numerals with the Japanese word for generation (sei 世):
- Issei (一世) - The first generation of immigrants, born in Japan before moving to Canada.
- Nisei (二世) - The second generation, born in Canada to Issei parents not born in Canada.
- Sansei (三世) - The third generation, born in Canada to Nisei parents born in Canada.
- Yonsei (四世) - The fourth generation, born in Canada to Sansei parents born in Canada.
- Gosei (五世) - The fifth generation, born in Canada to Yonsei parents born in Canada.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
The first Japanese settler in Canada was Manzo Nagano, who lived in Victoria, British Columbia (a mountain in the province was named after him in 1977). The first generation, or Issei, mostly came to Vancouver Island and Fraser Valley from fishing villages on the islands of Kyūshū and Honshū between 1877 and 1928. Since 1967, the second wave of immigrants were usually highly educated and resided in urban areas.
Until 1948, Japanese-Canadians—both Issei and Canadian-born Nisei — were denied the right to vote. Those born in the 1950s and 1960s in Canada are mostly Sansei, third generation. Sansei who mostly have little knowledge of the Japanese language. Over 75% of the Sansei have married non-Japanese. Nisei and Sansei generally do not identify themselves as fully Japanese, but as Canadians first, who happen to be of Japanese ancestry.
The younger generation of Japanese-Canadians born in the late 20th century are mostly Yonsei, fourth generation. Many Yonsei are of mixed racial descent. According to Statistics Canada's 2001 census of population information, Japanese-Canadians were the Canadian visible minority group most likely to marry or live common-law with a non-Japanese partner. Out of the 25,100 couples in Canada in 2001 which had one Japanese person, only 30% had two partners of Japanese descent and 70% included one non-Japanese partner. As of 2001, 65% of Canada's Japanese population was born in Canada.
After the Pearl Harbor attack by Japan (Second World War), in 1942, Japanese-Canadians were interned by the federal government as security threats by evoking the War Measures Act. There were 20,881 placed in detention camps and relocation centres. Three-quarters of them were Canadian [technically British subjects, as were all Canadians, since Canadian citizenship did not exist prior to 1947]. A parallel situation occurred in the United States. (See Japanese American internment.)
The property and homes of Japanese-Canadians living in province of British Columbia were seized and sold off without consent in 1943. In 1946, after the war, Japanese-Canadians were told by the federal government to either move to another province, i.e. "East of the Rockies," or to go "back" to Japan (most, having been born in Canada, had never been to Japan). They were finally given the right to vote in 1948. Mobility restrictions were lifted in 1949.
In the late 1970s and 1980s, documents on the Japanese-Canadian internment were released, and redress was sought. In 1986, it was shown that Japanese-Canadians lost $443 million during the internment. There were 63% of Canadians who supported redress and 45% who favoured individual compensation. On September 22, 1988, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney provided $21,000 for each individual directly affected, that is, by 1993, almost 18,000 survivors. Perhaps more importantly, however, was the Prime Minister's formal apology in the House of Commons and the certificate of acknowledgement of injustices of the past, which was sent to each Japanese-Canadian who was displaced.
Prominent Canadians of Japanese ancestry
- Masami Tsuruoka, martial artist, "Founder of Karate in Canada"
- Ken Adachi, author
- Mio Adilman, radio and television personality, actor
- Nobu Adilman, television personality, actor
- Dennis Akayama, actor
- David Akutagawa, martial artist
- Brooke Berry, model
- Alexander StiVEN, Dubstep Star
- Jeff Chiba Stearns, animated filmmaker
- Hiromi Goto, author
- Arthur S. Hara, business leader,Officer and Companion, Order of Canada.
- S.I. Hayakawa, Canadian-American linguist, academic and U.S. Senator
- Mary Ito, journalist
- Robert Ito, actor
- Hiro Kanagawa, actor
- Martin Kariya, hockey player
- Paul Kariya, NHL star player
- Steve Kariya, hockey player
- Sarah Kawahara, figure skater and choreographer
- Yukiko Kimura, former newscaster
- Andrew Kishino, voice actor
- Roy Kiyooka, artist, Member Order of Canada
- Ron Korb, Musician, Composer
- Joy Kogawa, novelist and poet
- Catherine Manoukian, violinist
- Jon Matsumoto, ice hockey player
- Nina Matsumoto, comics artist
- Nobu McCarthy, actress
- Glenn Michibata, tennis player
- Art Miki, National Association of Japanese Canadians leader
- Roy Miki, professor emeritus, Simon Fraser University and poet, Order of Canada
- Masajiro Miyazaki, osteopath/coroner and community activist; Companion of the Order of Canada.
- Kenzo Mori, editor of New Canadian
- Raymond Moriyama, architect
- Issey Nakajima-Farran, Canadian national soccer teamplayer
- Paris Nakajima-Farran, footballer
- Kazuo Nakamura, painter
- Bev Oda, first Japanese-Canadian MP and cabinet minister in Canadian history
- Midi Onodera, filmmaker
- Ruth Ozeki, novelist, filmmaker
- George Nozuka, musician
- Justin Nozuka, singer
- Kristy Odamura, softball player
- Santa J. Ono, biologist
- Maria Ozawa, pornographic actress (Japanese mother, Quebecois father)
- Jon Kimura Parker, Classical pianist and recording artist
- Kerri Sakamoto, novelist
- Raymond Sawada, hockey player
- Yoshio Senda, judoka, former Canadian Olympic Judo Team Coach, first in North America to attain Level 9 Black Belt, Order of Canada. Died September 9, 2009.
- Devin Setoguchi, NHL First Liner
- Tetsuro Shigematsu, radio host
- Aki Shimazaki, novelist
- Henry J. Shimizu, one of the first Japanese Canadians to practise medicine in Canada, teacher and researcher at University of Alberta, Order of Canada.
- Rick Shiomi, playwright
- Thomas Kunito Shoyama, economist
- Jamie Storr, ice hockey player
- Vicky Sunohara, Olympic gold medalist in women's hockey
- David Suzuki, biologist, environmentalist, host of CBC's The Nature of Things
- Severn Suzuki, environmentalist, activist. Daughter of David Suzuki.
- Mutsumi Takahashi, news anchor
- Takao Tanabe, artist
- Miyuki Tanobe, artist
- David Tsubouchi, former Ontario MPP and cabinet minister.
- Irene Ayako Uchida, scientist
- Juhn Atsushi Wada, neuroscientist, Professor, University of British Columbia, Officer of the Order of Canada
- Terry Watada, novelist, poet, playwright, historian
- Michelle Sagara West, author
- Naomi Yamamoto, politician
- Lisa Yamanaka, voice actress for Wanda Li in The Magic School Bus.
- Keith Yamauchi, Justice on the Alberta Court of Queen's Bench
- Christine Yoshikawa, classical pianist and recording artist
- Catalina Yue, mixed Japanese actress, singer, songwriter and recording artist
- Kimiko Zakreski, Olympics snowboarder
- Asian Canadian
- Japanese American
- Japanese Canadian internment
- Reference re Persons of Japanese Race
- Asahi (baseball team)
- Judo in Canada
- 2006 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations
- Order of Canada citation
- Commonwealth and Foreign Awards, Masajiro Miayazaki, records reference, National Archives of Canada.
- Cordileone, Elvira. "Kenzo Mori: An impact on two shores," The Star (Toronto). January 22, 2007.
- Miller Thompson: David Tsubouchi
- Multicultural Canada website images in the BC Multicultural Photograph Collection and digitized issues of The New Canadian (Japanese-Canadian newspaper) and Tairiku Jiho (The Continental Times)