Japanese addressing system
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The Japanese addressing system is used to identify a specific location in Japan. The addresses are written using the opposite convention from Western addresses, starting with the biggest geographical entities down to the more specific ones.
Japanese addresses begin with the largest division of the country, the prefecture. These are generally called ken (県), but there are also three other special prefecture types: to (都) for Tokyo, dō (道) for Hokkaidō and fu (府) for the two urban prefectures of Osaka and Kyoto.
Following the prefecture is the municipality. For a large municipality this is the city (shi, 市). Tokyo has both ordinary cities and special wards (ku, 区), each of which has the status of a city. For smaller municipalities, the address includes the district (gun, 郡) followed by the town (chō or machi, 町) or village (mura or son, 村).
For addressing purposes, municipalities may be divided into machi (町) and/or aza (字). Confusingly, despite using the same character, the machi here is purely a unit of address, not administration; likewise, there are also ku address divisions that are not administrative special wards. There are two common schemes:
- Municipality is divided first into machi and then into city districts (丁目 chōme). Example: 台東区[浅草四丁目] (Taito-ku, [Asakusa, 4-chōme])
- Municipality is divided into ōaza (大字), which may be divided into aza (字), which may in turn be divided into koaza (小字). Example: 青森市[大字滝沢字住吉] (Aomori-shi, [ōaza Takizawa, aza Sumiyoshi])
However, exceptions abound, and the line between the schemes is often blurry as there are no clear delimiters for machi, aza, etc.
Below this level, two styles of addressing are possible.
- In the newer jūkyo hyōji (住居表示) style, enacted into law by the 1962 Act on Indication of Residential Address (住居表示に関する法律) and used by the majority of the country, the next level is the city block (街区 gaiku), always followed by the building number (番号 bangō). Building 10 in block 5 would be formally written as 5番10号 (5-ban 10-gō). For apartment buildings, the apartment number (部屋番号 heya bangō) may be appended to the building with a hyphen, so apartment 103 in the aforementioned building would be 5番10-103号.
- In the older chiban (地番) style, still used in some rural and older city areas, the next level is the land number (番地 banchi), optionally followed by a land number extension (formally 支号 shigō, more often 枝版 edaban). The land number designates a piece of land registered in the land registry, and a land number extension is assigned when a piece of land is divided into two or more pieces in the registry. This can be written as any of 3番地5 (3-banchi 5), 3番地の5 (3-banchi-no 5) or 3番5 (3-ban 5). Land not designated by the registry is known as mubanchi (無番地, lit. "no land numbers"), with any dwellings there being bangaichi (番外地, lit. "land outside numbers").
In both styles, since all address elements from chōme down are numeric, in casual use it is common to form them into a string separated by hyphens or the possessive suffix の (no), resulting in Asakusa 4-5-10 or Asakusa 4の5の10. This renders the two styles indistinguishable, but since each municipality adopts one style or the other, there is no risk of ambiguity. The apartment number may also be appended, resulting in 4-5-10-103.
Street names are seldom used in postal addresses (except in Kyoto and some Hokkaidō cities such as Sapporo), and most Japanese streets do not have names. Banchi blocks often have an irregular shape, as banchi numbers were assigned by order of registration in the older system, meaning that especially in older areas of the city they will not run in a linear order. It is for this reason that when giving directions to a location, most people will offer cross streets, visual landmarks and subway stations, such as "at Chūō-dori and Matsuya-dori across the street from Matsuya and Ginza station" for a store in Tokyo. In fact, many businesses have maps on their literature and business cards. In addition, signs attached to utility poles often specify the city district name and block number, and detailed block maps of the immediate area are sometimes posted near bus stops and train station exits.
In addition to the address itself, all locations in Japan have a postal code. After the reform of 1998, this begins with a three-digit number, a hyphen, and a four-digit number, for example 123-4567. A postal mark, 〒, may precede the code to indicate that the number following is a postal code.
In Japanese, the address is written in order from largest unit to smallest, with the addressee's name last of all. For example, the address of the Tokyo Central Post Office is
Tōkyō-to Chūō-ku Yaesu 1-Chōme 5-ban 3-gō
Tōkyō Chūō Yūbin-kyoku
Tōkyō-to Chūō-ku Yaesu 1-5-3
Tōkyō Chūō Yūbin-kyoku
- Tokyo Central Post Office
5-3, Yaesu 1-Chome
Chuo-ku, Tokyo 100-8994
In this address, Tokyo is the prefecture; Chuo-ku is one of the special wards; Yaesu 1-Chome is the name of the city district; and 5-3 is the city block and building number. In practice it is common for the chōme to be prefixed, as in Japanese, resulting in the somewhat shorter
- Tokyo Central Post Office
1-5-3 Yaesu, Chuo-ku
Note while almost all elements of the address are reverse in roman, connected strings of numbers are treated as units and not reversed. Firstly, the "city block and building number" is a unit, and its digits are not reversed – in this example it is "5-3" in both Japanese and roman, though the Japanese (literally Yaesu 1-Chōme 5-3) is partly reversed to "5-3, Yaesu 1-Chōme" in roman if chōme is separate. Similarly, if the chōme is included, these also form a unit, so in this example the string is 1-5-3 in both Japanese and roman.
As mentioned above, there are certain areas of Japan that use somewhat unique address systems. Sometimes the differing system has been incorporated into the official system, as in Sapporo, while in Kyoto the system is completely different from, but used alongside the official system. Kyoto and Sapporo have addresses based on their streets being laid out in a grid plan, unlike most Japanese cities.
Although the official national addressing system is in use in Kyoto – in Chiban style, with ward (区 ku?), district (丁目 chōme?), and land number (番地 banchi?), the chō divisions are very small, numerous, and there is often more than one chō with the same name within a single ward, making the system extremely confusing. As a result, most residents of Kyoto use an unofficial system based instead on street names, a form of vernacular geography. This system is, however, recognized by the post office and by government agencies.
For added precision, the street-based address can be given, followed by the chō and land number. Sometimes multiple houses share a given land number, in which case the name (either just family name, or full name of resident) must also be specified; this name is generally displayed in front of the house on a hyōsatsu (表札?, name plate), often decoratively presented, as house numbers are in other countries.
The system works by naming the intersection of two streets and then indicating if the address is north (上ル agaru?, "above"), south (下ル sagaru?, "below"), east (東入ル higashi-iru?, "enter east"), or west (西入ル nishi-iru?, "enter west") of the intersection. More precisely, the two streets of the intersection are not treated symmetrically: one names the street that the address is on, then gives a nearby cross street, and then specifies the address relative to the cross street. What this means is that a building can have more than one address depending on which cross street intersection is chosen.
- Higashi-Shiokōji 721-1, Shimogyō-ku, Kyōto-shi, Kyōto-fu 600-8216
However, the informal address to Kyoto Tower, is:
- Karasuma-Shichijō-sagaru, Shimogyō-ku, Kyōto-shi, Kyōto-fu
This address means "south of the intersection of Karasuma and Shichijō streets" – more precisely, "on Karasuma, below (south of) Shichijō" (Karasuma runs north-south, while Shichijō is an east-west cross street). The street address may alternatively be given as 烏丸通七条下ル (with street (通 dōri?) inserted), indicating clearly that the address is on Karasuma street.
However, the system is flexible and allows for various alternatives, such as:
- Karasuma-Shiokōji-agaru, Shimogyō-ku, Kyōto-shi, Kyōto-fu
- "(On) Karasuma (street), above (north of) Shiokōji (street)"
For less well known buildings, the official address is often given after the informal one, as in the address for the Shinatora Ramen restaurant:
- Ōsakachō 384, Karasuma-dōri-Gojō-sagaru, Shimogyō-ku, Kyōto-shi, Kyōto-fu
- "Ōsakachō 384, (on) Karasuma street, below (south of) Gojō"
As the initial part of the address is familiar, it is often abbreviated – for example, Kyōto-fu, Kyōto-shi (京都府京都市?, "Kyoto Prefecture, Kyoto City") can be abbreviated to Kyōto-shi (京都市?, "Kyoto City"). More informally, particularly on return addresses for in-town mail, the city and ward can be abbreviated to the initial character, with a dot or comma to indicate abbreviation – there are only 11 wards of Kyoto, so this is easily understood. For example, 京都市 Kyōto-shi is abbreviated to 京、 Kyō– and 下京区 Shimogyō-ku is abbreviated to 下、Shimo–. Combining these (and dropping okurigana), one may abbreviate the address of Kyoto tower from:
- Karasuma-Shichijō-sagaru, Shimogyō-ku, Kyōto-shi, Kyōto-fu, 600-8216
- Karasuma-Shichijō-sagaru, Shimo–, Kyō–, 600-8216
Sapporo’s system, though official, differs in structure from regular Japanese addresses. The city is divided into quadrants at its center by two intersecting roads. Blocks are then named based on their distance from this point. The east-west distance is indicated by chōme (which is a slightly different usage of chōme when compared to other cities), while the north-south distance is indicated by jō, which has been incorporated into the chō name.
Kita-5-jō Nishi-2-chōme 5-banchi, Chūō-ku, Sapporo-shi
This address indicates that it is the fifth building on a block located 5 blocks north (kita) and 2 blocks west (nishi) of the centre.
Although the streets of Sapporo form a fairly clean grid, outside of the city centre it gets less and less practical to use the original grid starting point. In these cases an arbitrary dividing starting point is chosen from which to measure the counting of chōme and jō.
Many areas of Ōita Prefecture including the cities of Ōita and Usuki commonly use an unofficial parallel system known as "administrative wards" (行政区 gyōseiku?) or "neighbourhood council names" (自治会名 jichikaimei?). While outwardly similar, these addresses end in kumi (組) or ku (区):
- Haneya 4-1-A-kumi, Ōita-shi, Ōita-ken
- Suzaki 4-chōme 1-kumi, Usuki-shi, Ōita-ken
As the names indicate, these derive from traditional neighbourhood councils. While they continue to be used locally (e.g. school and electoral districts) and may be accepted for mail delivery, they are not considered official addresses, and individual buildings in each kumi will also have a standard ōaza-banchi address. For example, Usuki City Hall, while within Suzaki 4-chome 1-kumi, has the formal address of Usuki 72-1, which may be prepended with ōaza (大字) for clarity:
- Ōaza Usuki 72-1, Usuki-shi, Ōita-ken 875-8501
Katakana blocks (bu)
Some cities in Ishikawa Prefecture, including Kanazawa and Nanao, sometimes use katakana in the iroha ordering (イ・ロ・ハ・ニ...) instead of numbers for blocks. These are called bu (部). For example, the address of the Kagaya Hotel in Nanao is:
- Wakuramachi yo 80, Nanao-shi, Ishikawa-ken 926-0192
Jikkan instead of numbered chōme
Some cities, including parts of Nagaoka, Niigata, use jikkan (甲・乙・丙...) prefixed to the block number to indicate traditional divisions. These function similarly to chōme and are treated as such in addresses. For example, Yoita police station in Nagaoka has the address:
- Yoita-otsu 5881-3, Yoita-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-ken 940-2402
For historical reasons, names quite frequently conflict. In Hokkaidō many place names are identical to names found in the rest of Japan; this is largely the result of past immigration into Hokkaidō of people from mainland Japan. Historians note that there is also a significant similarity between place names in Kansai region and those in northern Kyūshū. See Japanese place names for more.
Two "chōme-name plates (町名板)" are with Romaji for people unable to read the Japanese. Left plate is Ginza 4 chōme road cross at 5 chōme 7-2, next to "Ginza 4 chōme koban", where the opposite side of main street from Wakō. Right plate is Shimbashi 2 chōme, block name is "underground city of (Shimbashi station) east exit (東口地下街)" without banchi number.