Automotive industry in Japan

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Toyota Prius, 2005 European Car of the Year, first and bestselling mass-produced hybrid car
First Suzuki Wagon R, 1993, bestselling national kei class car
Mazda HR-X, 1991, one of the first hydrogen (combined with Wankel rotary) car
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Mazda RX-7, 1978, most mass-produced car with Wankel rotary engine
First Datsun/Nissan Z-car, 1969, bestselling sports car series
Mazda Cosmo 110S, 1967, one of first two mass-produced cars with Wankel rotary engine
First Toyota Corolla, 1966, best selling model of cars of all time

The Japanese automotive industry is one of the most prominent and largest industries in the world. Japan has been in the top three of the countries with most cars manufactured since the 1960s, surpassing Germany. The automotive industry in Japan rapidly increased from the 1970s to the 1990s (when it was oriented both for domestic use and worldwide export) and in the 1980s and 1990s, overtook the U.S. as the production leader with up to 13 million cars per year manufactured and significant exports. After massive ramp-up by China in the 2000s and fluctuating U.S. output, Japan is now currently the third largest automotive producer in the world with an annual production of 9.9 million automobiles in 2012.[1] Japanese investments helped grow the auto industry in many countries throughout the last few decades.[citation needed]

Japanese zaibatsu (business conglomerates) began building their first automobiles in the middle to late 1910s. The companies went about this by either designing their own trucks (the market for passenger vehicles in Japan at the time was small), or partnering with a European brand to produce and sell their cars in Japan under license. Such examples of this are Isuzu partnering with Wolseley Motors (UK), and the Mitsubishi Model A, which was based upon the Fiat Tipo 3. The demand for domestic trucks was greatly increased by the Japanese military buildup before World War II, causing many Japanese manufacturers to break out of their shells and design their own vehicles. In 1970s Japan was the pioneer in robotics manufacturing of vehicles.

The country is home to a number of companies that produce cars, construction vehicles, motorcycles, ATVs, and engines. Japanese automotive manufacturers include Toyota, Honda, Daihatsu, Nissan, Suzuki, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Subaru, Isuzu, Kawasaki, Yamaha, and Mitsuoka.

Cars designed in Japan have won the European Car of the Year, International Car of the Year, and World Car of the Year awards many times.

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

In 1904, Torao Yamaha produced the first domestically manufactured bus, which was powered by a steam engine. In 1907, Komanosuke Uchiyama produced the Takuri, the first entirely Japanese-made gasoline engine car. The Kunisue Automobile Works built the Kunisue in 1910, and the following year manufactured the Tokyo in cooperation with Tokyo Motor Vehicles Ltd. In 1911, Kwaishinsha Motorcar Works was established and later began manufacturing a car called the DAT. In 1920, Jitsuyo Jidosha Seizo Co., founded by William R. Gorham, began building the Gorham and later the Lila. The company merged with Kwaishinsha in 1926 to form the DAT Automobile Manufacturing Co. (later to evolve into Nissan Motors). From 1924 to 1927, Hakuyosha Ironworks Ltd. built the Otomo. Toyota, a textile manufacturer, began building cars in 1936.[2] Most early vehicles, however, were trucks produced under military subsidy.

Cars built in Japan before World War II tended to be based on European or American models. The 1917 Mitsubishi Model A was based on the Fiat A3-3 design. (This model was considered to be the first mass-produced car in Japan, with 22 units produced.) In the 1930s, Nissan Motors' cars were based on the Austin 7 and Graham-Paige designs, while the Toyota AA model was based on the Chrysler Airflow. Ohta built cars in the 1930s based on Ford models, while Chiyoda built a car resembling a 1935 Pontiac, and Sumida built a car similar to a LaSalle.[3][4]

The Ford Motor Company of Japan was established in 1925 and a production plant was set up in Yokohama. General Motors established operations in Osaka in 1927. Chrysler also came to Japan and set up Kyoritsu Motors. Between 1925 and 1936, the United States Big Three automakers' Japanese subsidiaries produced a total of 208,967 vehicles, compared to the domestic producers total of 12,127 vehicles. In 1936, the Japanese government passed the Automobile Manufacturing Industry Law, which was intended to promote the domestic auto industry and reduce foreign competition;[5] ironically, this stopped the groundbreaking of an integrated Ford plant in Yokohama, modeled on Dagenham in England and intended to serve the Asian market, that would have established Japan as a major exporter[citation needed]. Instead by 1939, the foreign manufacturers had been forced out of Japan. Vehicle production was shifted in the late 1930s to truck production due to the Second Sino-Japanese War.[6][7][8]

For the first decade after World War II, auto production was limited, and until 1966 most production consisted of trucks (including three-wheeled vehicles). Thereafter passenger cars dominated the market. Japanese car designs also continued to imitate or be derived from European and American designs.[9] Exports were very limited in the 1950s, adding up to only 3.1% of the total passenger car production of the decade.[10]

1960s to today[edit]

During the 1960s, Japanese automakers launched a bevy of new kei cars in their domestic market; scooters and motorcycles remained dominant, with sales of 1.47 million in 1960 versus a mere 36,000 kei cars.[11] These tiny automobiles usually featured very small engines (under 360cc, but were sometimes fitted with engines of up to 600cc for export) to keep taxes much lower than larger cars. The average person in Japan was now able to afford an automobile, which boosted sales dramatically and jumpstarted the auto industry toward becoming what it is today. The first of this new era, actually launched in 1958, was the Subaru 360. It was known as the "Lady Beetle", comparing its significance to the Volkswagen Beetle in Germany. Other significant models were the Suzuki Fronte, Mitsubishi Minica, Mazda Carol, and the Honda N360.

The keis were very minimalist motoring, however, much too small for most family car usage. The most popular economy car segment in the sixties was the 700-800 cc class, embodied by the Toyota Publica, Mitsubishi Colt 800, and the original Mazda Familia. By the end of the sixties, however, these (often two-stroke) cars were being replaced by full one-litre cars with four-stroke engines, a move which was spearheaded by Nissan's 1966 Sunny.[12] All other manufacturers quickly followed suit, except for Toyota who equipped their Corolla with a 1.1 litre engine - the extra 100 cc were heavily touted in period advertising. These small family cars took a bigger and bigger share of an already expanding market.

Export expansion[edit]

Exports of passenger cars increased nearly twohundred-fold in the sixties compared to the previous decade, and were now up to 17.0 percent of the total production.[10] This though, was still only the beginning. Rapidly increasing domestic demand and the expansion of Japanese car companies into foreign markets in the 1970s further accelerated growth. Passenger car exports rose from 100,000 in 1965 to 1,827,000 in 1975. Automobile production in Japan continued to increase rapidly after the 1970s, as Mitsubishi (as Dodge vehicles) and Honda began selling their vehicles in the US. Even more brands came to America and abroad during the 1970s, and by the 1980s, the Japanese manufacturers were gaining a major foothold in the US and world markets.

Japanese cars became popular with British buyers in the early 1970s, with Nissan's Datsun badged cars (the Nissan brand was not used on British registered models until 1983) proving especially popular and earning a reputation in Britain for their reliability and low running costs, although rust was a major problem. In the 1960s Japanese manufacturers began to compete head-on in the domestic market, model for model. This was exemplified by the "CB-war" between the Toyota Corona and Nissan's Bluebird. While this initially led to benefits for consumers, before soon R&D expenditures swelled. Towards the late 1980s and early 1990s Japanese automobile manufacturers had entered a stage of "Hyper-design" and "Hyper-equipment"; an arms race leading to less competitive products albeit produced in a highly efficient manner.[13]

World leader[edit]

With Japanese manufacturers producing very affordable, reliable, and popular cars throughout the 1990s, Japan became the largest car producing nation in the world in 2000. However, its market share has decreased slightly in recent years, particularly due to old and new competition from South Korea, China and India. Nevertheless, Japan's car industry continues to flourish, its market share has risen again, and in the first quarter of 2008 Toyota surpassed American General Motors to become the world's largest car manufacturer.[14] Today, Japan is the third largest automobile market and, until China recently overtook them, was the largest car producer in the world. Still, automobile export remains one of the country's most profitable exports and is a cornerstone of recovery plan for the latest economic crisis.

Timeline of the Japanese car industry[edit]


Manufacturers production volumes[edit]

The following are vehicle production volumes for Japanese vehicle manufacturers, according to the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA).[16]

Passenger cars Trucks Buses
Manufacturer 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Toyota 3,849,353 3,631,146 2,543,715 2,993,714 2,473,546 3,170,289
Nissan 982,870 1,095,661 780,495 1,008,160 1,004,666 1,035,726
Honda 1,288,577 1,230,621 812,298 941,558 687,948 996,832
Suzuki 1,061,767 1,059,456 758,057 915,391 811,689 896,781
Mazda 952,290 1,038,725 693,598 893,323 798,060 830,294
Daihatsu 648,289 641,322 551,275 534,586 479,956 633,887
Subaru 403,428 460,515 357,276 437,443 366,518 551,812
Mitsubishi 758,038 770,667 365,447 586,187 536,142 448,598
Other 25 30 0 0 0 0
Total 9,944,637 9,928,143 6,862,161 8,310,362 7,158,525 8,554,219
Manufacturer 2007 2008 2009
Toyota 291,008 271,544 178,954
Suzuki 156,530 158,779 150,245
Daihatsu 138,312 151,935 132,980
Isuzu 236,619 250,692 118,033
Nissan 188,788 189,005 109,601
Mitsubishi 88,045 83,276 61,083
Hino 101,909 101,037 62,197
Subaru 72,422 64,401 51,123
Mitsubishi Fuso 131,055 115,573 49,485
Honda 43,268 33,760 28,626
Mazda 43,221 39,965 23,577
UD Trucks 44,398 45,983 18,652
Other 2,445 2,449 545
Total 1,538,020 1,508,399 985,101
Manufacturer 2007 2008 2009
Toyota 85,776 109,698 69,605
Mitsubishi Fuso 10,225 10,611 4,982
Nissan 7,422 8,416 4,479
Hino 4,984 5,179 4,473
Isuzu 3,668 3,221 2,077
UD Trucks 1,595 1,977 1,179
Total 113,670 139,102 86,795

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Toyota raises profits forecast as recovery continues, BBC News, 7 February 2012 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-16923619
  2. ^ Japan's Auto Industry - The Pioneers (1901-1935) Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) http://njkk.com/about/industry1.htm
  3. ^ The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles by David Burgess Wise; Wellfleet Press; Secaucus, New Jersey 1992 ISBN 1-55521-808-3
  4. ^ Automobiles of the World by Joseph H. Wherry; Chilton Book Company; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1968
  5. ^ http://njkk.com/about/industry2.htm
  6. ^ Japan's Auto Industry - Towards Industrialization (1935-1945) Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) http://njkk.com/about/industry2.htm
  7. ^ Cars of the Thirties and Forties by Michael Sedgwick; Crescent Books; ISBN 978-0-517-32051-8
  8. ^ "Remade in Japan" Los Angeles Times June 6, 1996 http://articles.latimes.com/1996-06-02/business/fi-11017_1_japanese-auto
  9. ^ Torrey, Volta, ed. (November 1952). "New Japanese Cars Follow U.S., English Styling". Popular Science 161 (5): 136–137. 
  10. ^ a b Moser, Robert (1971), "Personenwagen-Weltproduktion" [Global passenger car production], in Logoz, Arthur, Auto-Universum 1971 (in German) (Zürich, Switzerland: Verlag Internationale Automobil-Parade AG) XIV: 65 
  11. ^ "Establishing a Mass Production System". About JAMA: Japan's Auto Industry. Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. Archived from the original on 2012-03-28. 
  12. ^ Ikeda, Eizo; Sonobe, Hiroshi (June 1974). "Road Test: Datsun 100A". Motor Magazine International. 
  13. ^ Lee, Chunli (April 2001). "Chinas Automobilindustrie in der Globalisierung" [China's automobile industry in globalisation]. Berichte des Arbeitsbereichs Chinaforschung (in German) (Bremen, Germany: Universität Bremen) (15). 
  14. ^ Bunkley, Nick (2008-04-24). "G.M. Says Toyota Has Lead in Global Sales Race". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  15. ^ Benjamin, Daniel K. (September 1999). "Voluntary Export Restraints on Automobiles". PERC Reports: Volume 17, No. 3. Property & Environment Research Center. Retrieved 2008-11-18. "In May 1981, with the American auto industry mired in recession, Japanese car makers agreed to limit exports of passenger cars to the United States. This "voluntary export restraint" (VER) program, initially supported by the Reagan administration, allowed only 1.68 million Japanese cars into the U.S. each year. The cap was raised to 1.85 million cars in 1984, and to 2.30 million in 1985, before the program was terminated in 1994" 
  16. ^ "JAMA Active matrix database system". Jamaserv.jama.or.jp. Retrieved 2013-04-02. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]