Japanese proverbs

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Kotowaza[edit]

A Japanese proverb (, ことわざ kotowaza?) may take the form of:

  • a short saying (言い習わし iinarawashi),
  • an idiomatic phrase (慣用句 kan'yōku), or
  • a four-character idiom (四字熟語 yojijukugo).

Although "proverb" and "saying" are practically synonymous, the same cannot be said about "idiomatic phrase" and "four-character idiom". Not all kan'yōku and yojijukugo are proverbial. For instance, the kan'yōku 狐の嫁入り kitsune no yomeiri (Literally: a fox's wedding. Meaning: a sun-shower) and the yojijukugo 小春日和 koharubiyori (Literally: small spring weather. Meaning: Indian summer – warm spring-like weather in early winter) are not proverbs. To be considered a proverb, a word or phrase must express a common truth or wisdom; it cannot be a mere noun.

Usage[edit]

The Japanese commonly use proverbs, often citing just the first part of common phrases for brevity. For example, one might say I no naka no kawazu (井の中の蛙 a frog in a well?) to refer to the proverb I no naka no kawazu, taikai o shirazu (井の中の蛙、大海を知らず a frog in a well cannot conceive of the ocean?). Whereas proverbs in English are typically multi-worded phrases ("kill two birds with one stone"), Japanese yojijyukugo (四字熟語?) borrows from Chinese and compactly conveys the concept in one word Isseki nichou (一石二鳥 one stone two birds?).

The heavy employment of proverbs enables Japanese language to be concise. Evidence might be found in Japanese animation and manga, but also appears in news and cultural programs, and in much fiction.

Origin[edit]

Because traditional Japanese culture was tied to agriculture, many Japanese proverbs are derived from agricultural customs and practices. Some are from the Go game (e.g., fuseki o utsu 布石を打つ), the tea ceremony (e.g. ichi go ichi e 一期一会), and Buddhism. Many four-character idioms are from Chinese philosophy written in Classical Chinese, in particular "The Analects" by Confucius. (a frog in a well (井の中の蛙?) is Classical Chinese, from Zhuangzi.)

Lists of Japanese proverbs can be found at Wiktionary:Category:Japanese proverbs and Wikiquote:Japanese proverbs.

Examples of Japanese proverbs[edit]

Sayings[edit]

  • 案ずるより産むが易し。
    • Anzuru yori umu ga yasushi.
    • Literally: Giving birth to a baby is easier than worrying about it.
    • Meaning: Fear is greater than the danger. / An attempt is sometimes easier than expected.
  • 出る杭は打たれる。
    • Deru kui wa utareru.
    • Literally: The stake that sticks up gets hammered down.
    • Meaning: If you stand out, you will be subject to criticism.
  • 知らぬが仏。
    • Shiranu ga hotoke.
    • Literally: Not knowing is Buddha.
    • Meaning: Ignorance is bliss. / What you don't know can't hurt you.
  • 見ぬが花。
    • Minu ga hana.
    • Literally: Not seeing is a flower.
    • Meaning: Reality can't compete with imagination.

Idiomatic phrases[edit]

  • 猫に小判
    • Neko ni koban
    • Literally: Gold coins to cat.
    • Meaning: Casting pearls before swine / Giving something of value to a recipient that does not value it.
  • 七転び八起き
    • Nanakorobi yaoki
    • Literally: Fall seven times and stand up eight
    • Meaning: When life knocks you down, stand back up / Keep trying.
  • 猿も木から落ちる
    • Saru mo ki kara ochiru
    • Literally: Even monkeys fall from trees
    • Meaning: Anyone can make a mistake.
  • 花より団子
    • Hana yori dango
    • Literally: Dumplings rather than flowers
    • Meaning: To prefer substance over style, as in to prefer to be given functional, useful items (such as dumplings) instead of merely decorative items (such as flowers).

Four-character idioms[edit]

  • 十人十色
    • jūnin toiro
    • Literally: ten persons, ten colors
    • Meaning: To each his own. / Different strokes for different folks.
  • 悪因悪果
    • akuin akka
    • Literally: evil cause, evil effect / bad causes bring bad results
    • Meaning: Sow evil and reap evil. / You reap what you sow.
    • Note: this is a Buddhist sentiment that emphasizes the idea of karmic retribution.
  • 弱肉強食

See also[edit]

External links[edit]