Japanese typographic symbols

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This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji.

Repetition marks[edit]

JIS X 0208 JIS X 0213 Unicode Name(s) Usage
2139 1-1-25 3005

noma (ノマ?)
kuma (クマ?)
kurikaeshi (繰り返し?)
dō no jiten (同の字点?)

Kanji iteration mark. For example, 様様 could be written 様々. From 仝 (below).
2138 1-1-24 4EDD

dō no jiten (同の字点?)

Kanji repetition mark
2152 1-1-19 30FD

katakanagaeshi (かたかながえし?)
kurikaeshi (くりかえし?)

Katakana iteration mark
2153 1-1-20 30FE Katakana iteration mark with a dakuten (voiced consonant)
2154 1-1-21 309D

hiraganagaeshi (ひらがながえし?)
kurikaeshi (くりかえし?)

Hiragana iteration mark. For example, はは (haha) could be written はゝ.
2136 1-1-22 309E Hiragana iteration mark with a dakuten (voiced consonant)
2137 1-1-23 3003

nonoten (ノノ点?)

Ditto mark. The name originates from resemblance to two katakana no characters (ノノ).
3031 Kana vertical repetition mark
3032 Kana vertical repetition mark with a dakuten

1-2-19 (top),
1-2-21 (bottom)
3033 (top),
3035 (bottom)
kunojiten (くの字点?) Repetition mark used in vertical writing. It means repeat the previous two or more kana.

1-2-20 (top),
1-2-21 (bottom)
3034 (top),
3035 (bottom)
Kunojiten with a dakuten

Brackets and quotation marks[edit]

JIS X 0208 JIS X 0213 Unicode Name(s) Usage
「」 2156,
2157
1-1-54,
1-1-55
300C,
300D

kagi (?, "hook")
kagikakko (鉤括弧?, "hook brackets")

Usual Japanese quotation marks
『』 2158,
2159
1-1-56,
1-1-57
300E,
300F

kagi (?)
nijūkagikakko (二重鉤括弧?, "double hook brackets")

Japanese version of double quotes, often used when indicating a book title
() 2169,
216A
1-1-42,
1-1-43
FF08,
FF09

pāren (パーレン?, "parenthesis")
kakko (括弧?)
marugakko (丸括弧?, "round brackets")
shōkakko (小括弧?, "small brackets")

〔〕 216C,
216E
1-1-44,
1-1-45
3014,
3015

kikkō (亀甲?, "tortoise shell")

Used to insert comments into quoted text
[] 216D,
216E
1-1-46,
1-1-47
FF3B,
FF3D

kakko (括弧?)
kagikakko (かぎかっこ?)

{} 216F,
2170
1-1-48,
1-1-49
FF5B,
FF5D

burēsu (ブレース?, "brace")
namikakko (波括弧?, "wave brackets")
nakakakko (中括弧?, "middle brackets")

〈〉 2171,
2172
1-1-50,
1-1-51
3008,
3009

kakko (括弧?)
yamakakko (山括弧?, "hill brackets")
gyume (ギュメ?, "guillemets")
yamagata (山がた?, "hill-shaped [symbol]")

The name gyume comes from the guillemets
《》 2173,
2174
1-1-52,
1-1-53
300A,
300B

kakko (括弧?)
nijūyamakakko (二重山括弧?, "double hill brackets")
nijūgyume (二重ギュメ?, "double guillemets")
nijūyamagata (二重山がた?, "double hill-shaped [symbol]")

【】 2179,
217A
1-1-58,
1-1-59
3010,
3011

kakko (括弧?)
sumitsukikakko (すみつきかっこ?)

Used in headings, for example in dictionary definitions
〖〗 1-2-58,
1-2-59
3016,
3017
〘〙 1-2-56,
1-2-57
3018,
3019
〚〛 301A,
301B

Phonetic marks[edit]

JIS X 0208 JIS X 0213 Unicode Name(s) Usage
2443 1-4-35 3063

sokuon (促音?, "double consonant")

Doubles the sound of the next consonant. For example, "かた" /kata/ becomes "かった" /katta/.
1-5-35 30C4
213C 1-1-28 30FC

chōonpu (長音符?, "long sound symbol")
onbiki (音引き?)
bōbiki (棒引き?)
bōsen (棒線?, "bar line")

Indicates a lengthened vowel sound. Often used with katakana. The direction of writing depends on the direction of text.
212B 1-1-11 309B

dakuten (濁点?, "voiced point")
nigori (濁り?, "voiced")
tenten

Used with both hiragana and katakana to indicate a voiced sound. For example, ta (?) becomes da (?), shi (?) becomes ji (?).
212C 1-1-12 309C

handakuten (半濁点?, "half-voice point")
handaku (半濁?, "half-voiced")
maru (?, "circle")

Used with hiragana and katakana to indicate a change from a hahifuheho sound to a papipupepo sound.

Punctuation marks[edit]

JIS X 0208 JIS X 0213 Unicode Name(s) Usage
2123 1-1-3 3002

kuten (句点?, "sentence point", "period")
maru (?, "circle", "small ball")

Marks the end of a sentence. Japanese equivalent of full stop or period.
2122 1-1-4 3001

tōten (読点?, "reading point")

Japanese equivalent of a comma
2126 1-1-6 30FB

nakaguro (中黒?, "middle black")
potsu (ぽつ?)
nakaten (中点?, "middle point")

Used to separate foreign words and items in lists. For example, if "ビルゲイツ" ‘BillGates’ is written instead of "ビル・ゲイツ" ‘Bill Gates’, a Japanese person unfamiliar with the names might have difficulty understanding which part represents the given name and which one represents the surname. This symbol is known as an interpunct in English.

30A0,
FF1D

daburu haifun (ダブルハイフン?, "double hyphen")

Sometimes replaces an English en dash or hyphen when writing foreign words in katakana. It is also rarely used to separate given and family names, though the middle dot (nakaguro) is much more common in these cases. See also double hyphen.

Other special marks[edit]

JIS X 0208 JIS X 0213 Unicode Name(s) Usage
213A 1-1-26 3006

shime (しめ?)

This character is used to write 締め shime in 締め切り/締切 shimekiri ("deadline") (as 〆切) and similar. It is also used, less commonly, for other shime namely 閉め, 絞め and 占め. Variant as well, to indicate that a letter is closed, as abbreviation of 閉め. The character originated as a cursive form of ト, the top component of 占 (as in 占める shimeru), and was then applied to other kanji of the same pronunciation. See ryakuji for similar abbreviations.
2141 1-1-33 301C

nyoro (にょろ?)
naishi (ないし?)
nami (?, "wave")
kara (から?)

Used in "to from" constructions in Japanese, such as 月〜金曜日 "from Monday to Friday". In horizontal writing and on computers, the fullwidth tilde (FF5E) is often used instead.
2144 1-1-36 2026

tensen (点線?, "dot line")
santen rīda (三点リーダ?, "three-dot leader")

A line of dots corresponding to one half of a Japanese ellipsis; also used as an ellipsis informally
2145 1-1-37 2025

tensen (点線?, "dot line")
niten rīda (二点リーダ?, "two-dot leader")

Rarely used
2576 1-5-86 30F6 A simplified version of the kanji (the generic counter). Most commonly used in indicating a period of months, for example, 一ヶ月 "one month", or in place names. See small ke.

1-3-32,
1-3-31
2022,
25E6

bōten (傍点?, "side dot")
wakiten (脇点?, "side dot")

Adding these dots to the sides of characters (right side in vertical writing, above in horizontal writing) emphasizes the character in question. It is the Japanese equivalent of the use of italics for emphasis in English.
21A6 1-2-8 203B

kome (?, "rice")
komejirushi (米印?, "rice symbol")

This symbol is used in notes (, chū) as a reference mark, similar to an asterisk
2196 1-1-86 FF0A

hoshijirushi (星印?, "star symbol")
asuterisuku (アステリスク?, "asterisk")

This symbol is used in notes (, chū)
1-3-28 303D

ioriten (庵点?)

This mark is used to show the start of a singer's part in a song
222E 1-2-14 3013

geta kigō (ゲタ記号?, "geta symbol")

Used as a proofreader's mark indicating unavailability of a glyph, such as when a character cannot be displayed on a computer. The name comes from geta, a type of Japanese shoe.



2276 1-2-86,
1-2-91,
1-2-92,
1-2-93
266A,
266B,
266C,
2669

onpu (音符?, "musical note")

Often used as an emoticon in informal text to indicate a singsong tone of voice or a playful attitude

Organization-specific symbols[edit]

JIS X 0208 JIS X 0213 Unicode Name(s) Usage
2229 1-2-9 3012

yūbin (郵便?)

Used to indicate post offices on maps, and printed before postcodes. See also Japanese addressing system and Japan Post.
3036 Variant postal mark in a circle
1-6-70 3020 Variant postal mark with a face
3004

jisumāku (jisumāku (ジスマーク?, "JIS mark")
nihon kougyou kikaku (日本工業規格?, "Japanese Industrial Standards", "JIS")

This mark on a product shows that it complies with the Japanese Industrial Standards
再⃝ 518D 20DD This encircled sai character is used by various organizations on music and print publications to represent saihan seido (or saihanbai kakaku iji seido), Japan's resale price maintenance system.[1] It normally accompanies a date and the phrase "まで", meaning "until", in order to indicate the first date the item can be returned for credit or sold at a discounted price.
24CD This mark, along with a date, is used by the Recording Industry Association of Japan (RIAJ) on music publications to indicate the first date the item can be made available for rental.[1] Sometimes it is printed as just an uncircled "X", optionally followed by a swung dash ("~").
24C1 This mark is used by the RIAJ on music publications to indicate that the content is of Japanese origin.[1] It normally accompanies the release date,[1] which may include a letter "N" "I" "H" "O" "R" "E" or "C" to represent a year from 1984 through 1990, such as "H·2·21" to represent 21 February 1986.[citation needed]
24CE This mark is used by the RIAJ on music publications to indicate that the content is of foreign origin.[1] It normally accompanies the release date,[1] which may include a letter "N" "I" "H" "O" "R" "E" or "C" to represent a year from 1984 through 1990,[citation needed] and may include a second date in parentheses, representing the first release date of the content globally.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g RIS 204 - オーディオCDの表示事項及び表示方法 (in Japanese), Recording Industry Association of Japan, 2002 

See also[edit]